119 relations: Acute accent, Affricate consonant, Agent (grammar), Agglutinative language, Alaska, Alaska Purchase, Alexander Archipelago, Allophone, Alveolar consonant, An Klondike, Annette Island, Approximant consonant, Aspirated consonant, Assimilation (phonology), Athabaskan languages, Atlin Lake, Bennett Lake, Bilabial consonant, British Columbia, Canada, Central consonant, Chilkat Peninsula, Chilkoot Trail, Coast Tsimshian dialect, Copper River (Alaska), Cyrillic script, Edward Sapir, Ejective consonant, Eyak language, First Peoples' Cultural Council, Franz Boas, Frederica de Laguna, Frederick Sound, Fricative consonant, Fusional language, George T. Emmons, Glottal consonant, Grave accent, Gulf of Alaska, Haida language, Haida people, Ian Maddieson, Incorporation (linguistics), Indigenous languages of the Americas, Indo-European languages, Interrogative word, John R. Swanton, Juneau, Alaska, Kake, Alaska, Ketchikan, Alaska, ..., Labial consonant, Labialization, Language isolate, Language revitalization, Lateral consonant, Latin alphabet, Latin script, Lituya Bay, Loanword, Michael E. Krauss, Murmured voice, Na-Dene languages, Nasal consonant, Nass River, Nora Marks Dauenhauer, Noun phrase, Object (grammar), Obviative, Palatal consonant, Petersburg, Alaska, Phonaesthetics, Phonology, Phrase, Pliny Earle Goddard, Polysynthetic language, Portland Canal, Prince of Wales Island (Alaska), Pronoun, Register (phonology), Republic of Ireland, Richard Dauenhauer, Roundedness, Russian Empire, Russian Orthodox Church, Saxman, Alaska, Skeena River, Sonoma County, California, Southeast Alaska, Stikine River, Stop consonant, Subject–object–verb, Sumner Strait, Synthetic language, Taku River, Tenseness, Teslin Lake, Tlingit, Tlingit alphabet, Tlingit noun, Tone (linguistics), Tsimshian, Underlying representation, United States, University of Alaska Southeast, Uvular consonant, Velar consonant, Verb phrase, Victor Golla, Voice (phonetics), Voiced velar fricative, Voicelessness, Vowel, Vowel length, Washington (state), Western Canada, Word order, Wrangell, Alaska, XeTeX, Yukon. Expand index (69 more) » « Shrink index
The acute accent (´) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
In linguistics, a grammatical agent is the thematic relation of the cause or initiator to an event.
An agglutinative language is a type of synthetic language with morphology that primarily uses agglutination.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
The Alaska Purchase (r) was the United States' acquisition of Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, by a treaty ratified by the United States Senate, and signed by President Andrew Johnson.
The Alexander Archipelago is a long archipelago, or group of islands, of North America off the southeastern coast of Alaska.
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
An Klondike (Irish for "The Klondike") is an Irish Western television series first broadcast on TG4 in 2015.
Annette Island or Taak'w Aan (Tlingit) is an island in the Gravina Islands of the Alexander Archipelago of the Pacific Ocean on the southeastern coast of the U.S. state of Alaska.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
In phonology, assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound.
Athabaskan or Athabascan (also Dene, Athapascan, Athapaskan) is a large family of indigenous languages of North America, located in western North America in three groups of contiguous languages: Northern, Pacific Coast and Southern (or Apachean).
Atlin Lake is a lake in northwestern British Columbia and is that province's largest natural lake, covering 300 sq mi (780 km2).
Bennett Lake is a lake in the Province of British Columbia and Yukon Territory in northwestern Canada.
In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.
British Columbia (BC; Colombie-Britannique) is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
A central consonant, also known as a median consonant, is a consonant sound that is produced when air flows across the center of the mouth over the tongue.
The Chilkat Peninsula is a peninsula in Lynn Canal, Southeast Alaska that divides the Chilkoot and Chilkat Inlets and divides the Chilkat and Chilkoot watersheds.
The Chilkoot Trail is a 33-mile (53 km) trail through the Coast Mountains that leads from Dyea, Alaska, in the United States, to Bennett, British Columbia, in Canada.
Tsimshian, known by its speakers as Sm'álgyax, is a dialect of the Tsimshian language spoken in northwestern British Columbia and southeastern Alaska.
The Copper River or Ahtna River, Ahtna Athabascan ‘Atna’tuu, "river of the Ahtnas", Tlingit Eeḵhéeni, "river of copper", is a 290-mile (470 km) river in south-central Alaska in the United States.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
Edward Sapir (January 26, 1884 – February 4, 1939) was a German anthropologist-linguist, who is widely considered to be one of the most important figures in the early development of the discipline of linguistics.
In phonetics, ejective consonants are usually voiceless consonants that are pronounced with a glottalic egressive airstream.
Eyak is an extinct Na-Dené language historically spoken by the Eyak people, indigenous to south-central Alaska, near the mouth of the Copper River.
The First Peoples’ Cultural Council (FPCC) is a First Nations governed Crown Corporation of the province of British Columbia, Canada.
Franz Uri Boas (July 9, 1858December 21, 1942) was a German-American anthropologist and a pioneer of modern anthropology who has been called the "Father of American Anthropology".
Frederica ("Freddy") Annis Lopez de Leo de Laguna (October 3, 1906 – October 6, 2004) was an American ethnologist, anthropologist, and archaeologist influential for her work on Paleoindian and Alaska Native art and archaeology in the American northwest and Alaska.
Frederick Sound (also called Prince Frederick Sound or Prince Frederick's Sound) is a passage of water in the Alexander Archipelago in southeastern Alaska that separates Kupreanof Island to the south from Admiralty Island in the north.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
Fusional languages or inflected languages are a type of synthetic languages, distinguished from agglutinative languages by their tendency to use a single inflectional morpheme to denote multiple grammatical, syntactic, or semantic features.
George Thornton Emmons (June 6, 1852 – June 11, 1945) was an ethnographic photographer and a U.S. Navy Lieutenant.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
The grave accent (`) is a diacritical mark in many written languages, including Breton, Catalan, Corsican, Dutch, Emilian-Romagnol, French, West Frisian, Greek (until 1982; see polytonic orthography), Haitian Creole, Italian, Mohawk, Occitan, Portuguese, Ligurian, Scottish Gaelic, Vietnamese, Welsh, Romansh, and Yoruba.
The Gulf of Alaska (Golfe d'Alaska) is an arm of the Pacific Ocean defined by the curve of the southern coast of Alaska, stretching from the Alaska Peninsula and Kodiak Island in the west to the Alexander Archipelago in the east, where Glacier Bay and the Inside Passage are found.
Haida (X̱aat Kíl, X̱aadas Kíl, X̱aayda Kil, Xaad kil) is the language of the Haida people, spoken in the Haida Gwaii archipelago of the coast of Canada and on Prince of Wales Island in Alaska.
Haida (X̱aayda, X̱aadas, X̱aad, X̱aat) are a nation and ethnic group native to, or otherwise associated with, Haida Gwaii (A Canadian archipelago) and the Haida language.
Ian Maddieson is a linguist who was at University of California, Berkeley, and is now an adjunct professor emeritus at the University of New Mexico.
Incorporation is a phenomenon by which a grammatical category, such as a verb, forms a compound with its direct object (object incorporation) or adverbial modifier, while retaining its original syntactic function.
Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
An interrogative word or question word is a function word used to ask a question, such as what, when, where, who, whom, why, and how.
John Reed Swanton (February 19, 1873 – May 2, 1958) was an American anthropologist, folklorist, and linguist who worked with Native American peoples throughout the United States.
The City and Borough of Juneau (Tlingit: Dzánti K'ihéeni), commonly known as Juneau, is the capital city of Alaska.
Kake (like ''cake'') is a first-class city in Prince of Wales-Hyder Census Area, Alaska, United States.
Ketchikan (Kichx̱áan) is a city in the Ketchikan Gateway Borough, Alaska, United States, the southeasternmost city in Alaska.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages.
A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other languages, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common with any other language.
Language revitalization, also referred to as language revival or reversing language shift, is an attempt to halt or reverse the decline of a language or to revive an extinct one.
A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
Lituya Bay (Tlingit: Ltu.aa,. Spelled L'tua in translation of Tebenkov's log. meaning 'lake within the point') is a fjord located on the coast of the Southeast part of the U.S. state of Alaska.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
Michael E. Krauss (born August 15, 1934) is an American linguist, professor emeritus, founder and long-time head of the Alaska Native Language Center.
Murmur (also called breathy voice, whispery voice, soughing and susurration) is a phonation in which the vocal folds vibrate, as they do in normal (modal) voicing, but are adjusted to let more air escape which produces a sighing-like sound.
Na-Dene (also Nadene, Na-Dené, Athabaskan–Eyak–Tlingit, Tlina–Dene) is a family of Native American languages that includes at least the Athabaskan languages, Eyak, and Tlingit languages.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
The Nass River is a river in northern British Columbia, Canada.
Nora Marks Dauenhauer (May 8, 1927 – September 25, 2017) was a Tlingit poet, short-story writer, and Tlingit language scholar from Alaska.
A noun phrase or nominal phrase (abbreviated NP) is a phrase which has a noun (or indefinite pronoun) as its head, or which performs the same grammatical function as such a phrase.
Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject.
Obviative (abbreviated) third person is a grammatical-person marking that distinguishes a non-salient (obviative) third-person referent from a more salient (proximate) third-person referent in a given discourse context.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
Petersburg (Tlingit: Gantiyaakw Séedi "Steamboat Channel") is a census-designated place (CDP) in Petersburg Borough, Alaska, United States.
Phonaesthetics (from the φωνή phōnē, "voice-sound"; and αἰσθητική aisthētikē, "aesthetics") is a branch of phonetics concerned with "the possible connection between sound sequences and meaning", according to Raymond Hickey.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
In everyday speech, a phrase may be any group of words, often carrying a special idiomatic meaning; in this sense it is roughly synonymous with expression.
Pliny Earle Goddard (November 24, 1869 – July 12, 1928) was an American linguist and ethnologist noted for his extensive documentation of the languages and cultures of the Athabaskan peoples of western North America.
In linguistic typology, polysynthetic languages are highly synthetic languages, i.e. languages in which words are composed of many morphemes (word parts that have independent meaning but may or may not be able to stand alone).
The Portland Canal is an arm of Portland Inlet, one of the principal inlets of the British Columbia Coast.
Prince of Wales Island is one of the islands of the Alexander Archipelago in the Alaska Panhandle.
In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (abbreviated) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.
In phonology, a register, or pitch register, is a prosodic feature of syllables in certain languages in which tone, vowel phonation, glottalization or similar features depend upon one another.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
Richard Dauenhauer (April 10, 1942 – August 19, 2014) was an American poet, linguist, and translator who married into, and subsequently became an expert on, the Tlingit nation of southeastern Alaska.
In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.
Saxman is a city on Revillagigedo Island in Ketchikan Gateway Borough in southeastern Alaska, United States.
The Skeena River is the second-longest river entirely within British Columbia, Canada (after the Fraser River).
Sonoma County is a county in the U.S. state of California.
Southeast Alaska, sometimes referred to as the Alaska Panhandle, is the southeastern portion of the U.S. state of Alaska, bordered to the east by the northern half of the Canadian province of British Columbia.
The Stikine River (Tlingit: Shtax'héen) is a river, historically also the Stickeen River, approximately 610 km (379 mi) long, in northwestern British Columbia in Canada and in southeast Alaska in the United States.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence always or usually appear in that order.
Sumner Strait is a strait in the Alexander Archipelago in the southeastern region of the U.S. state of Alaska.
In linguistic typology, a synthetic language is a language with a high morpheme-per-word ratio, as opposed to a low morpheme-per-word ratio in what is described as an analytic language.
The Taku River is a river running from British Columbia, Canada, to the northwestern coast of North America, at Juneau, Alaska.
In phonology, tenseness or tensing is, most broadly, the pronunciation of a sound with greater muscular effort or constriction than is typical.
Teslin Lake is a large lake spanning the border between British Columbia and Yukon, Canada.
The Tlingit (or; also spelled Tlinkit) are Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast of North America.
The Tlingit language has been recorded in a number of orthographies over the two hundred years since European contact.
Like nouns in many Native American languages, the Tlingit noun is easily conceptualized but difficult to formally define.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
The Tsimshian (Coast Tsimshian: Ts’msyan) are an indigenous people of the Pacific Northwest Coast.
In some models of phonology as well as morphophonology in the field of linguistics, the underlying representation (UR) or underlying form (UF) of a word or morpheme is the abstract form that a word or morpheme is postulated to have before any phonological rules have applied to it.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Alaska Southeast is a public, four year university that is part of the University of Alaska System.
Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
In linguistics, a verb phrase (VP) is a syntactic unit composed of at least one verb and its dependentsobjects, complements and other modifiersbut not always including the subject.
Victor Golla (born 1939) is a linguist and a leading expert on the indigenous languages of California and Oregon, especially the Pacific Coast Athabaskan subgroup of the Athabaskan language family and the languages of the region that belong to the Penutian phylum.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in various spoken languages.
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
Washington, officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.
Western Canada, also referred to as the Western provinces and more commonly known as the West, is a region of Canada that includes the four provinces of Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba and Saskatchewan.
In linguistics, word order typology is the study of the order of the syntactic constituents of a language, and how different languages can employ different orders.
The City and Borough of Wrangell (Tlingit: Ḵaachx̱aana.áakʼw) is a borough in the U.S. state of Alaska.
XeTeX (or; see also Pronouncing and writing "TeX") is a TeX typesetting engine using Unicode and supporting modern font technologies such as OpenType, Graphite and Apple Advanced Typography (AAT).
Yukon (also commonly called the Yukon) is the smallest and westernmost of Canada's three federal territories (the other two are the Northwest Territories and Nunavut).