214 relations: Advanced glycation end-product, Africa, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Alkaloid, Altria, American Civil War, Anabasine, Andhra Pradesh, Apatite, Arawakan languages, Arsenic, Atherosclerosis, Australia, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bee sting, Beedi, Benzopyrene, Bhutan, Bihar, Bioremediation, Biotechnology, Bong, British American Tobacco, Brown & Williamson, Brown County, Ohio, Bulgaria, Burley (tobacco), Cabbage looper, Cadmium, Callus (cell biology), Cancer, Caramelization, Carbon monoxide, Carcinogen, Caribbean, Carotenoid, Cash crop, Cavendish tobacco, Cell biology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Ceremonial pipe, Chewing tobacco, Christopher Columbus, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Cigar, Cigarette, Cold frame, Connecticut, Connecticut shade tobacco, Creamy snuff, ..., Creator deity, Criollo tobacco, Crossbreed, Cuba, Cultivar, Curing of tobacco, Cyanide, Cyprus, Developed country, Developing country, Diospyros melanoxylon, Dipping tobacco, Disaster, Dokha, Drug tolerance, Edo period, Eugenol, Evolution, Fair and Equitable Tobacco Reform Act, Family (biology), Fermentation in food processing, Fire ant, Flea beetle, Food and Agriculture Organization, Food and Drug Administration, Formaldehyde, Gardening, Genetically modified crops, Genetics, Germacrene, Germination, Glycation, Glycerol, Government of India, Greece, Green Tobacco Sickness, Guntur, Gutka, Hail, Harmala alkaloid, Harmine, Harvest, Heart, Heat-not-burn tobacco product, Herb, Herbivore, Honey, Hookah, Hornet, Hydrogen cyanide, India, Insect, Insecticide, Invasive species, Iran, Isotopes of polonium, James Albert Bonsack, Japan Tobacco, Kentucky, Kiln, Kinetin, Kiseru, Kretek, Laryngeal cancer, Latakia (tobacco), Leaf, Ligero, Liver, Lung, Lung cancer, Maryland, Masculinity, Massachusetts, Mexico, Mi'kmaq, Midwakh, Model organism, Mu‘assel, Myocardial infarction, Mysore, National Organic Program, Neurotoxin, Nickel, Nicotiana, Nicotiana rustica, Nicotiana tabacum, Nicotine, Nitrogen, Noam Chomsky, North America, Oceania, Ohio, Old World, Organic farming, Ottoman Empire, Pancreatic cancer, PBS, Pennsylvania, Perique, Pesticide, Pharmacodynamics, Phenols, Philip II of Spain, Phosphorus, Pipe smoking, Piperidine, Plan International, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Potassium, Promiscuity, Punjab, India, Puritans, Recreational drug use, Redox, Republic of Macedonia, Richard Grenville, Roanoke Island, Roll-your-own cigarette, Rose oil, Scorpion, Seed, Settler, Slate (magazine), Smokeless tobacco, Smuggling, Snuff (tobacco), Snus, Solanaceae, South America, Spittoon, State Tobacco Monopoly Administration, Statistica, Stimulant, Stroke, Substance dependence, Sugar, Syria, Taíno language, Tamil Nadu, Tea, Tennessee, Thank You for Smoking, The Insider (film), Thomas Harriot, Tobacco BY-2 cells, Tobacco control, Tobacco industry, Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement, Tobacco pipe, Tobacco smoking, Tobacco water, Tobacco-specific nitrosamines, Toledo, Spain, Tonne, Tropane alkaloid, Truffle, Turkey, Turkish tobacco, Virginia, War of 1812, Wasp, West Bengal, World Health Organization, Y1 (tobacco). Expand index (164 more) » « Shrink index
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are proteins or lipids that become glycated as a result of exposure to sugars.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Agrobacterium tumefaciens (updated scientific name Rhizobium radiobacter, synonym Agrobacterium radiobacter) is the causal agent of crown gall disease (the formation of tumours) in over 140 species of eudicots.
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
Altria Group, Inc. (renamed from Philip Morris Companies Inc. on January 27, 2003) is an American corporation and one of the world's largest producers and marketers of tobacco, cigarettes and related products.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
Anabasine is a pyridine and piperidine alkaloid found in the Tree Tobacco (Nicotiana glauca) plant, a close relative of the common tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum).
Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India.
Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals, usually referring to hydroxylapatite, fluorapatite and chlorapatite, with high concentrations of OH−, F− and Cl− ions, respectively, in the crystal.
Arawakan (Arahuacan, Maipuran Arawakan, "mainstream" Arawakan, Arawakan proper), also known as Maipurean (also Maipuran, Maipureano, Maipúre), is a language family that developed among ancient indigenous peoples in South America.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Bartolomé de las Casas (1484 – 18 July 1566) was a 16th-century Spanish historian, social reformer and Dominican friar.
A bee sting is a sting from a bee (honey bee, bumblebee, sweat bee, etc.). The stings of most of these species can be quite painful, and are therefore keenly avoided by many people.
A beedi (from बीड़ी; also spelled bidi or biri) is a thin cigarette or mini-cigar filled with tobacco flake and commonly wrapped in a Diospyros melanoxylon or Piliostigma racemosum leaf tied with a string or adhesive at one end.
A benzopyrene is an organic compound with the formula C20H12.
Bhutan, officially the Kingdom of Bhutan (Druk Gyal Khap), is a landlocked country in South Asia.
Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.
Bioremediation is a process used to treat contaminated media, including water, soil and subsurface material, by altering environmental conditions to stimulate growth of microorganisms and degrade the target pollutants.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
A bong (also water pipe, billy, bing, or moof) is a filtration device generally used for smoking cannabis, tobacco, or other herbal substances.
British American Tobacco plc (BAT) is a British multinational tobacco company headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Brown & Williamson was an American tobacco company and subsidiary of the giant British American Tobacco, that produced several popular cigarette brands.
Brown County is a county in the U.S. state of Ohio.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Burley tobacco is a light air-cured tobacco used primarily for cigarette production.
The cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni) is a moth in the family Noctuidae, a family commonly referred to as owlet moths.
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.
Plant callus (plural calluses or calli) is a growing mass of unorganized plant parenchyma cells.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Caramelization is the browning of sugar, a process used extensively in cooking for the resulting sweet nutty flavor and brown color.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
Carotenoids, also called tetraterpenoids, are organic pigments that are produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria and fungi.
A cash crop or profit crop is an agricultural crop which is grown for sale to return a profit.
Cavendish Tobacco refers to tobacco that has been heat treated with fire or steam and then subjected to heavy pressure in order to produce a sweet taste with a moist texture.
Cell biology (also called cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, the basic unit of life.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
A ceremonial pipe is a particular type of smoking pipe, used by a number of Native American cultures in their sacred ceremonies.
Chewing tobacco is a type of smokeless tobacco product consumed by placing a portion of the tobacco between the cheek and gum or upper lip teeth and chewing.
Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow.
A cigar is a rolled bundle of dried and fermented tobacco leaves made to be smoked.
A cigarette is a narrow cylinder containing tobacco that is rolled into thin paper for smoking.
In agriculture and gardening, a cold frame is a transparent-roofed enclosure, built low to the ground, used to protect plants from adverse weather, primarily excessive cold or wet.
Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Connecticut shade tobacco is a tobacco grown under shade in the Connecticut River valley of the U.S. states of Connecticut, Massachusetts, and southernmost Vermont, and is used primarily for binder and wrapper for premium cigars.
Creamy snuff is a paste consisting of tobacco, clove oil, glycerin, spearmint, menthol, and camphor, and sold in a toothpaste tube.
A creator deity or creator god (often called the Creator) is a deity or god responsible for the creation of the Earth, world, and universe in human mythology.
Criollo is a type of tobacco, primarily used in the making of cigars.
A crossbreed is an organism with purebred parents of two different breeds, varieties, or populations.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
The term cultivarCultivar has two denominations as explained in Formal definition.
It is necessary to cure tobacco after harvesting and before it can be consumed.
A cyanide is a chemical compound that contains the group C≡N.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Diospyros melanoxylon, the Coromandel ebony or East Indian ebony, is a species of flowering tree in the family Ebenaceae native to India and Sri Lanka; it has a hard, dry bark.
Dipping tobacco is a type of finely ground or shredded, moistened smokeless tobacco product.
A disaster is a serious disruption, occurring over a relatively short time, of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental loss and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources.
Dokha (Arabic: دوخة, "Vertigo") is an Arabian tobacco blend, consisting of dried and finely shredded tobacco mixed with leaves, bark and herbs.
Drug tolerance is a pharmacological concept describing subjects' reduced reaction to a drug following its repeated use.
The or is the period between 1603 and 1868 in the history of Japan, when Japanese society was under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate and the country's 300 regional daimyō.
Eugenol is a phenylpropene, an allyl chain-substituted guaiacol.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
The Fair and Equitable Tobacco Reform Act is a component of the American Jobs Creation Act, passed in the United States in October 2004.
In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.
Fermentation in food processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions.
Fire ant is the common name for several species of ants in the genus Solenopsis.
The flea beetle is a small, jumping beetle of the leaf beetle family (Chrysomelidae), that makes up the tribe Alticini which is a part of the subfamily Galerucinae.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Gardening is the practice of growing and cultivating plants as part of horticulture.
Genetically modified crops (GMCs, GM crops, or biotech crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering methods.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Germacrenes are a class of volatile organic hydrocarbons, specifically, sesquiterpenes.
Germination is the process by which an organism grows from a seed or similar structure.
Glycation (sometimes called non-enzymatic glycosylation) is the result of the covalent bonding of a sugar molecule, such as glucose or fructose, to a protein or lipid molecule, without the controlling action of an enzyme.
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
The Government of India (IAST), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic.
Green Tobacco Sickness (GTS) is a type of nicotine poisoning caused by the transdermal absorption of nicotine from the surface of wet tobacco plants.
Guntur; is a city within the Andhra Pradesh Capital Region.
Gutka or guṭkha is a preparation of crushed areca nut, tobacco, catechu, paraffin wax, slaked lime and sweet or savory flavorings.
Hail is a form of solid precipitation.
Several alkaloids that function as monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are found in the seeds of Peganum harmala (also known as Harmal or Syrian Rue), as well as tobacco leaves including harmine, harmaline, and harmalol, which are members of a group of substances with a similar chemical structure collectively known as harmala alkaloids.
Harmine, also known as telepathine, is a fluorescent harmala alkaloid belonging to the beta-carboline family of compounds.
Harvesting is the process of gathering a ripe crop from the fields.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
A heat-not-burn tobacco product (HNB) heats tobacco to a lower temperature than when a conventional cigarette is burned.
In general use, herbs are plants with savory or aromatic properties that are used for flavoring and garnishing food, in medicine, or as fragrances.
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.
Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance produced by bees and some related insects.
A hookah (from Hindustani: हुक़्क़ा (Devanagari), (Nastaleeq), IPA:; also see other names), also known as the ḡalyān (Persian: قلیان), is a single- or multi-stemmed instrument for vaporizing and smoking flavored tobacco (often Mu‘assel), or sometimes cannabis or opium, whose vapor or smoke is passed through a water basin—often glass-based—before inhalation.
Hornets (insects in the genera Vespa and Provespa) are the largest of the eusocial wasps, and are similar in appearance to their close relatives yellowjackets.
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), sometimes called prussic acid, is a chemical compound with the chemical formula HCN.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
Insecticides are substances used to kill insects.
An invasive species is a species that is not native to a specific location (an introduced species), and that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Polonium (84Po) has 33 isotopes, all of which are radioactive, with between 186 and 227 nucleons.
James Albert Bonsack (October 9, 1859,. URL last accessed 2006-10-11., with diagrams. URL last accessed 2006-10-11. – June 1, 1924) was an American inventor who invented the first cigarette rolling machine in 1880.
, abbreviated JT, is a cigarette manufacturing company.
Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States.
A kiln (or, originally pronounced "kill", with the "n" silent) is a thermally insulated chamber, a type of oven, that produces temperatures sufficient to complete some process, such as hardening, drying, or chemical changes.
Kinetin (/'kaɪnɪtɪn/) is a type of cytokinin, a class of plant hormone that promotes cell division.
is a Japanese smoking pipe traditionally used for smoking kizami, a finely shredded tobacco product resembling hair.
Kretek are cigarettes made with a blend of tobacco, cloves and other flavors.
Laryngeal cancer, also known as cancer of the larynx or laryngeal carcinoma, are mostly squamous cell carcinomas, reflecting their origin from the skin of the larynx.
Latakia tobacco (تبغ اللاذقية) is a specially prepared tobacco originally produced in Syria and named after the port city of Latakia.
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.
Ligero (pronounced "lee-HAIR-oh") is a type of tobacco leaf found near the top of each tobacco plant.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east.
Masculinity (manhood or manliness) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles associated with boys and men.
Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
The Mi'kmaq or Mi'gmaq (also Micmac, L'nu, Mi'kmaw or Mi'gmaw) are a First Nations people indigenous to Canada's Atlantic Provinces and the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec as well as the northeastern region of Maine.
A midwakh, also spelled medwakh, is a small smoking pipe of Arabian origin, in which dokha, a sifted Iranian tobacco product mixed with aromatic leaf and bark herbs, is smoked.
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
Mu‘assel (معسل, meaning "honeyed") is a syrupy tobacco mix containing molasses and vegetable glycerol which is smoked in a hookah.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
Mysore, officially Mysuru, is the third most populous city in the state of Karnataka, India.
The National Organic Program (NOP) is the federal regulatory framework in the United States of America governing organic food.
Neurotoxins are toxins that are poisonous or destructive to nerve tissue (causing neurotoxicity).
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nicotiana is a genus of herbaceous plants and shrubs of the family Solanaceae, that is indigenous to the Americas, Australia, south west Africa and the South Pacific.
Nicotiana rustica, Aztec tobacco or wild tobacco, called ucuch in southern Mexico (specifically Campeche and Yucatán) due to its Mayan roots, mapacho in South America, and thuoc lao (thuốc lào) in Vietnam, is a rainforest plant in the Solanaceae family.
Nicotiana tabacum, or cultivated tobacco, is an annually-grown herbaceous plant.
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
Oceania is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia.
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States.
The term "Old World" is used in the West to refer to Africa, Asia and Europe (Afro-Eurasia or the World Island), regarded collectively as the part of the world known to its population before contact with the Americas and Oceania (the "New World").
Organic farming is an alternative agricultural system which originated early in the 20th century in reaction to rapidly changing farming practices.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Pancreatic cancer arises when cells in the pancreas, a glandular organ behind the stomach, begin to multiply out of control and form a mass.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.
Perique is a type of tobacco from Saint James Parish, Louisiana, known for its strong, powerful, and fruity aroma.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs).
In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (—OH) bonded directly to an aromatic hydrocarbon group.
Philip II (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–58).
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Pipe smoking is the practice of tasting (or, less commonly, inhaling) the smoke produced by burning a substance, most commonly tobacco, in a pipe.
Piperidine is an organic compound with the molecular formula (CH2)5NH.
Plan International is an independent development and humanitarian organisation which works in 71 countries across the world, in Africa, the Americas, and Asia to advance children’s rights and equality for girls.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) are hydrocarbons—organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized).
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Promiscuity is the practice of having casual sex frequently with different partners or being indiscriminate in the choice of sexual partners.
Punjab is a state in northern India.
The Puritans were English Reformed Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to "purify" the Church of England from its "Catholic" practices, maintaining that the Church of England was only partially reformed.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Sir Richard Grenville (15 June 1542 – 10 September 1591) (alias Greynvile, Greeneville, Greenfield, etc.) lord of the manors of Stowe, Kilkhampton in Cornwall and of Bideford in Devon, was an English sailor who, as captain of the Revenge, died at the Battle of Flores (1591), fighting against overwhelming odds, and refusing to surrender his ship to the far more numerous Spanish.
Roanoke Island is an island in Dare County on the Outer Banks of North Carolina, United States.
Roll-your-own cigarettes (also called RYO, MYO, rollies, roll-ups, burns, bingie, hand-rolled cigarettes, or simply rolls) refer to cigarettes made from loose tobacco and rolling paper.
Rose oil (rose otto, attar of rose, attar of roses or rose essence) is the essential oil extracted from the petals of various types of rose.
Scorpions are predatory arachnids of the order Scorpiones.
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.
A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established a permanent residence there, often to colonize the area.
Slate is an online magazine that covers current affairs, politics, and culture in the United States from a liberal perspective.
Smokeless tobacco is tobacco or a tobacco product that is used by means other than smoking.
Smuggling is the illegal transportation of objects, substances, information or people, such as out of a house or buildings, into a prison, or across an international border, in violation of applicable laws or other regulations.
Snuff is a smokeless tobacco made from ground or pulverised tobacco leaves.
Snus is a moist powder tobacco product originating from a variant of dry snuff in early 18th-century Sweden.
The Solanaceae, or nightshades, are an economically important family of flowering plants.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
A spittoon (or spitoon) is a receptacle made for spitting into, especially by users of chewing and dipping tobacco.
State Tobacco Monopoly Administration (abbreviated as STMA) is a Chinese government agency responsible for enforcing the tobacco monopoly in China and has oversight over the China National Tobacco Corporation, which is the government owned corporation that has a virtual monopoly in serving the country's customer base of 350 million smokers, who consume 1.7 trillion cigarettes every year in China.
Statistica is an advanced analytics software package originally developed by StatSoft which was acquired by Dell in March 2014.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Substance dependence also known as drug dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Taíno is an extinct and poorly-attested Arawakan language that was spoken by the Taíno people of the Caribbean.
Tamil Nadu (• tamiḻ nāḍu ? literally 'The Land of Tamils' or 'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India.
Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub (bush) native to Asia.
Tennessee (translit) is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States.
Thank You for Smoking is a 2005 American satirical comedy film written and directed by Jason Reitman and starring Aaron Eckhart, based on the 1994 satirical novel of the same name by Christopher Buckley.
The Insider is a 1999 American drama film directed by Michael Mann, from a script adapted by Eric Roth and Mann from Marie Brenner's Vanity Fair article "The Man Who Knew Too Much".
Thomas Harriot (Oxford, c. 1560 – London, 2 July 1621), also spelled Harriott, Hariot or Heriot, was an English astronomer, mathematician, ethnographer and translator who made advances within the scientific field.
Tobacco BY-2 cells is a cell line of plant cells, which was established from a callus induced on a seedling of Nicotiana tabacum cv.
Tobacco control is a field of international public health science, policy and practice dedicated to addressing tobacco use and thereby reducing the morbidity and mortality it causes.
The tobacco industry comprises those persons and companies engaged in the growth, preparation for sale, shipment, advertisement, and distribution of tobacco and tobacco-related products.
The Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) was entered in November 1998, originally between the four largest United States tobacco companies (Philip Morris Inc., R. J. Reynolds, Brown & Williamson and Lorillard – the "original participating manufacturers", referred to as the "Majors") and the attorneys general of 46 states.
A tobacco pipe, often called simply a pipe, is a device specifically made to smoke tobacco.
Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).
Tobacco water, tobacco juice, tobacco dust juice or tobacco lime is a traditional organic insecticide used in domestic gardening.
Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) comprise one of the most important groups of carcinogens in tobacco products, particularly cigarettes and fermented dipping snuff.
Toledo is a city and municipality located in central Spain; it is the capital of the province of Toledo and the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
Tropane alkaloids are a class of bicyclic alkaloids and secondary metabolites that contain a tropane ring in their chemical structure.
A truffle is the fruiting body of a subterranean Ascomycete fungus, predominantly one of the many species of the genus Tuber.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Turkish tobacco, or Oriental tobacco, is a highly aromatic, small-leafed variety of tobacco which is sun-cured.
Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, and their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815.
A wasp is any insect of the order Hymenoptera and suborder Apocrita that is neither a bee nor an ant.
West Bengal (Paśchimbāṅga) is an Indian state, located in Eastern India on the Bay of Bengal.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Y1 is a strain of tobacco that was cross-bred by Brown & Williamson to obtain an unusually high nicotine content.
Economic impact of tobacco smoking, Leaf tobacco, Smoking blend, Smoking blends, Tobacco (agriculture), Tobacco Extracts, Tobacco cultivation, Tobacco gum, Tobacco leaf, Tobacco leaves, Tobbaco, Usages of tobacco.