60 relations: Adolf Mayer, Amino acid, Autocatalysis, Bacteria, Brussels, Capsicum, Capsid, Celsius, Chamberland filter, Cucumber, Dmitri Ivanovsky, DNA, Electron density, Electron microscope, Elsevier, Ernst Ruska, Expo 58, Fiber diffraction, Greenhouse, Heinz Fraenkel-Conrat, Helicase, Helmut Ruska, Infection, James Watson, Leaf, Martinus Beijerinck, Methylation, Molecule, Mosaic, Mottle, Movement protein, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, North Carolina, Open reading frame, Overwintering, Phloem, Plasmodesma, Refractive index, Ribosome, RNA, RNA polymerase, RNA virus, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, Robley C. Williams, Rosalind Franklin, Solanaceae, Stop codon, Structural biology, The Double Helix, Tobacco, ..., Tobamovirus, Tomato, Transfer RNA, Unified atomic mass unit, University of California, Berkeley, Virgaviridae, Virology, Virus, Wendell Meredith Stanley, X-ray crystallography. Expand index (10 more) » « Shrink index
Adolf Eduard Mayer (9 August 1843 – 25 December 1942) was a German agricultural chemist whose work on tobacco mosaic disease played an important role in the discovery of tobacco mosaic virus and viruses in general.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
A single chemical reaction is said to be autocatalytic if one of the reaction products is also a catalyst for the same or a coupled reaction.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
Capsicum (also known as peppers) is a genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family Solanaceae.
A capsid is the protein shell of a virus.
The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).
A Chamberland filter, also known as a Pasteur–Chamberland filter, is a porcelain water filter invented by Charles Chamberland in 1884.
Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is a widely cultivated plant in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae.
Dmitri Iosifovich Ivanovsky (alternative spelling Dmitrii or Dmitry Iwanowski; Дми́трий Ио́сифович Ивано́вский; 28 October 1864 – 20 June 1920) was a Russian botanist, the discoverer of viruses (1892) and one of the founders of virology.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Electron density is the measure of the probability of an electron being present at a specific location.
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
Ernst August Friedrich Ruska (25 December 1906 – 27 May 1988) was a German physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1986 for his work in electron optics, including the design of the first electron microscope.
Expo 58, also known as the Brussels World’s Fair (Brusselse Wereldtentoonstelling, Exposition Universelle et Internationale de Bruxelles), was held from 17 April to 19 October 1958.
Fiber diffraction is a subarea of scattering, an area in which molecular structure is determined from scattering data (usually of X-rays, electrons or neutrons).
A greenhouse (also called a glasshouse) is a structure with walls and roof made mainly of transparent material, such as glass, in which plants requiring regulated climatic conditions are grown.
Heinz Ludwig Fraenkel-Conrat (July 29, 1910 – April 10, 1999) was a biochemist, famous for his viral research.
Helicases are a class of enzymes vital to all living organisms.
Helmut Ruska (June 7, 1908, Heidelberg - August 30, 1973) was a German physician and biologist from Heidelberg.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, geneticist and zoologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA in 1953 with Francis Crick and Rosalind Franklin.
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.
In the chemical sciences, methylation denotes the addition of a methyl group on a substrate, or the substitution of an atom (or group) by a methyl group.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
A mosaic is a piece of art or image made from the assemblage of small pieces of colored glass, stone, or other materials.
Mottle is a pattern of irregular marks, spots, streaks, blotches or patches of different shades or colours.
Successful infection of a plant by a plant virus depends on its ability to move from the cell initially infected to neighbouring cells in order to spread infection.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.
North Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
In molecular genetics, an open reading frame (ORF) is the part of a reading frame that has the ability to be translated.
Overwintering is the process by which some organisms pass through or wait out the winter season, or pass through that period of the year when "winter" conditions (cold or sub-zero temperatures, ice, snow, limited food supplies) make normal activity or even survival difficult or near impossible.
In vascular plants, phloem is the living tissue that transports the soluble organic compounds made during photosynthesis and known as photosynthates, in particular the sugar sucrose, to parts of the plant where needed.
Plasmodesmata (singular: plasmodesma) are microscopic channels which traverse the cell walls of plant cells and some algal cells, enabling transport and communication between them.
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.
The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
RNA polymerase (ribonucleic acid polymerase), both abbreviated RNAP or RNApol, official name DNA-directed RNA polymerase, is a member of a family of enzymes that are essential to life: they are found in all organisms (-species) and many viruses.
An RNA virus is a virus that has RNA (ribonucleic acid) as its genetic material.
RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP), (RDR), or RNA replicase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the replication of RNA from an RNA template.
Robley Cook Williams (October 13, 1908 – January 3, 1995) was an early biophysicist and virologist.
Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 192016 April 1958) was an English chemist and X-ray crystallographer who made contributions to the understanding of the molecular structures of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), RNA (ribonucleic acid), viruses, coal, and graphite.
The Solanaceae, or nightshades, are an economically important family of flowering plants.
In the genetic code, a stop codon (or termination codon) is a nucleotide triplet within messenger RNA that signals a termination of translation into proteins.
Structural biology is a branch of molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysics concerned with the molecular structure of biological macromolecules (especially proteins, made up of amino acids, and RNA or DNA, made up of nucleic acids), how they acquire the structures they have, and how alterations in their structures affect their function.
The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA is an autobiographical account of the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA written by James D. Watson and published in 1968.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
Tobamovirus is a genus in the virus family Virgaviridae.
The tomato (see pronunciation) is the edible, often red, fruit/berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant.
A transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA and formerly referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins.
The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).
The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.
Virgaviridae is a family of positive sense, single-stranded RNA viruses.
Virology is the study of viruses – submicroscopic, parasitic particles of genetic material contained in a protein coat – and virus-like agents.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Wendell Meredith Stanley (16 August 1904 – 15 June 1971) was an American biochemist, virologist and Nobel laureate.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.