300 relations: Aachen, Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī, Abd al-Malik ibn Katan al-Fihri, Abd al-Rahman I, Abd ar-Rahman II, Abd ar-Rahman III, Abel Resino, Achila II, Agen, Al-Andalus, Al-Hakam I, Al-Mamun of Toledo, Al-Mu'tamid ibn Abbad, Al-Mundhir of Córdoba, Albarreal de Tajo, Alcalá de Henares, Alcalde, Alcázar of Toledo, Alfonso III of Asturias, Alfonso IV of León, Alfonso VI of León and Castile, Alfonso VIII of Castile, Alfonso X of Castile, Alhambra Decree, Ali ibn al-Athir, Alloy, Almonacid de Toledo, Amrus ibn Yusuf, Aranjuez, Argés, Arianism, Artificio de Juanelo, Athanagild, Autonomous communities of Spain, Banu Qasi, Bargas, Baroque, Battle of Aqbat al-Bakr, Battle of Monte Laturce, Beatrice of Silva, Beatus of Liébana, Bladesmith, Bourges Cathedral, Braulio of Zaragoza, Brunhilda of Austrasia, Bulgaria, Burguillos de Toledo, Calatrava la Vieja, Caliphate of Córdoba, Canon law, ..., Capital city, Carcamusa, Carpetani, Carpetania, Castilian Kingdom of Toledo, Castilla–La Mancha, Castle of San Servando, Catholic Church, CD Toledo, Celtiberians, Celts, Cerro del Bu, Charles III of Spain, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Chindasuinth, Chronicle of 754, Chronicle of Alfonso III, Circus (building), Cixila, Coat of arms of Spain, Cobisa, Comarca, Commentary on Job, Conceptionists, Conventus iuridicus, Council of Trent, Councils of Toledo, Country, Court (royal), Crown of Castile, Cuba, Damascus, Damascus steel, Decretum Gratiani, Don Quixote, Dracontius, Edged and bladed weapons, Egica, Eighth Council of Toledo, El Greco, El Greco Museum, Toledo, El Transparente, Eleanor of Toledo, Eleventh Council of Toledo, Elipando, Emirate of Córdoba, Erwig, Etymologiae, Eugenius II of Toledo, Excommunication, Federico Bahamontes, Ferdinand I of León, Fifteenth Council of Toledo, Fifth Council of Toledo, Flavian dynasty, Fourteenth Council of Toledo, Fourth Council of Toledo, France, Francesco Sabatini, Franciscans, Gallaecia, Garcilaso de la Vega (poet), Geographical indications and traditional specialities in the European Union, Germany, Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain, Gothic architecture, Goya Foods, Guadalajara, Castilla–La Mancha, Guadamur, Guanajuato City, Hannibal, Havana, Hexameron, Hisham I of Córdoba, Hispania Baetica, Historia de regibus Gothorum, Vandalorum et Suevorum, Historical fiction, History of Toledo, Spain, Iglesia de San Andrés, Toledo, Iglesia de Santiago del Arrabal, Toledo, Iglesia de Santo Tomé, Toledo, Ildefonsus, Instituto Nacional de Estadística (Spain), Isaac Abarbanel, Isaac Israeli ben Joseph, Isabelline (architectural style), Isidore of Seville, Israel, Japan, Judaeo-Spanish, Judah Halevi, Julian of Toledo, Kingdom of Asturias, La Liga, Leocadia, Libu, List of people from Toledo, Spain, List of Umayyad governors of al-Andalus, Liuvigild, Livy, Lower March, Luis García (footballer, born 1978), Lusitania, Madrid, Manchego cuisine, Marcus Fulvius Nobilior (consul 189 BC), Mary, mother of Jesus, Marzipan, 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Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Toledo, Roman Empire, Roman legion, Safed, San Sebastián, Toledo, Sancho II of Castile and León, Saqaliba, Second Spanish Republic, Segunda División, Segunda División B, Segundo de Chomón, Semi-arid climate, Sephardi Jews, Seventeenth Council of Toledo, Seventh Council of Toledo, Siege of the Alcázar, Sierra de Guadarrama, Sisebert, Sisebut, Sister city, Sixteenth Council of Toledo, Sixth Council of Toledo, Spain, Spanish Adoptionism, Spanish Civil War, Spanish language, Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, Suebi, Sulayman ibn al-Hakam, Suniefred, Surname, Synagogue of El Transito, Synagogue of Santa María la Blanca, Synod, Syria, Tagus, Taifa, Taifa of Granada, Taifa of Toledo, Taifa of Valencia, Taius, Talamanca de Jarama, Talavera de la Reina, Tariq ibn Ziyad, Tenth Council of Toledo, Thalaba ibn Salama al-Amili, The Blade (Toledo, Ohio), The Burial of the Count of Orgaz, Thermae, Theudis, Third Council of Toledo, Thirteenth Council of Toledo, Toledano, 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Aachen or Bad Aachen, French and traditional English: Aix-la-Chapelle, is a spa and border city.
, also known as Al-Zarkali or Ibn Zarqala (1029–1087), was an Arab Muslim instrument maker, astrologer, and one of the leading astronomers of his time.
Abd al-Malik ibn Katan al-Fihri was an Arab governor of Al-Andalus during two periods from 732 to 734 and from 740 to 742.
Abd al-Rahman I, more fully Abd al-Rahman ibn Mu'awiya ibn Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (731–788), was the founder of a Muslim dynasty that ruled the greater part of Iberia for nearly three centuries (including the succeeding Caliphate of Córdoba).
Abd ar-Rahman II (عبد الرحمن الثاني) (792–852) was the fourth Umayyad Emir of Córdoba in the Al-Andalus Iberia from 822 until his death.
Abd ar-Rahman III (′Abd ar-Rahmān ibn Muhammad ibn ′Abd Allāh ibn Muhammad ibn ′abd ar-Rahman ibn al-Hakam ar-Rabdi ibn Hisham ibn ′abd ar-Rahman ad-Dakhil; عبد الرحمن الثالث; 11 January 889/9115 October 961) was the Emir and Caliph of Córdoba (912–961) of the Umayyad dynasty in al-Andalus.
Abel Resino Gómez (born 2 February 1960), sometimes known just as Abel, is a Spanish retired footballer who played as a goalkeeper, and is a coach.
Achila II (also spelled Agila, Aquila, or Akhila; died circa 714) was the Visigothic king of Hispania from 710 or 711 until his death.
The commune of Agen is the prefecture of the Lot-et-Garonne department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France.
Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
Al-Hakam Ibn Hisham Ibn Abd-ar-Rahman I (الحكم بن هشام) was Umayyad Emir of Cordoba from 796 until 822 in the Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia).
Yahya ibn Ismail al-Mamun (died 1075) was a member of Berber Hawwara Dhunnunid dynasty who was king of the Taifa of Toledo between 1043 and 1075.
Muhammad ibn Abbad al-Mu'tamid (المعتمد بن عباد; reigned c. 1069–1091, lived 1040–1095) was the third and last ruler of the taifa of Seville in Al-Andalus.
Al-Mundhir (المنذر) (c. 842 – 888) was Emir of Córdoba from 886 to 888.
Albarreal de Tajo is a municipality located in the province of Toledo, Castile-La Mancha, Spain.
Alcalá de Henares, meaning Castle on the Henares (river), in Arabic قلعة النار, is a Spanish city located northeast of the country's capital, Madrid.
Alcalde, or Alcalde ordinario, is the traditional Spanish municipal magistrate, who had both judicial and administrative functions.
The Alcázar of Toledo (Alcázar de Toledo) is a stone fortification located in the highest part of Toledo, Spain.
Alfonso III (20 December 910), called the Great (el Magno), was the king of León, Galicia and Asturias from 866 until his death.
Alfonso IV (s933), called the Monk (el Monje), was King of León from 925 (or 926) and King of Galicia from 929, until he abdicated in 931.
Alfonso VI (1 July 1109), nicknamed the Brave (El Bravo) or the Valiant, was the son of King Ferdinand I of León and Queen Sancha, daughter of Alfonso V and sister of Bermudo III.
Alfonso VIII (11 November 11555 October 1214), called the Noble (El Noble) or the one of the Navas (el de las Navas), was the King of Castile from 1158 to his death and King of Toledo.
Alfonso X (also occasionally Alphonso, Alphonse, or Alfons, 23 November 1221 – 4 April 1284), called the Wise (el Sabio), was the King of Castile, León and Galicia from 30 May 1252 until his death in 1284.
The Alhambra Decree (also known as the Edict of Expulsion; Spanish: Decreto de la Alhambra, Edicto de Granada) was an edict issued on 31 March 1492, by the joint Catholic Monarchs of Spain (Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon) ordering the expulsion of practicing Jews from the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon and its territories and possessions by 31 July of that year.
Abu al-Hassan Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ash-Shaybani, better known as Ali 'Izz al-Din Ibn al-Athir al-Jazari (Arabic: علي عز الدین بن الاثیر الجزري) (1233–1160) was an Arab or Kurdish historian and biographer who wrote in Arabic and was from the Ibn Athir family.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
Almonacid de Toledo is a municipality located in the province of Toledo, Castile-La Mancha, Spain.
'Amrus ibn Yusuf al-Muwallad al-Laridi (عمروس بن يوسف المولد ﺍﻟﻟﺎﺮﺿﻰ, died 808/9 or 813/4) was a Muwallad (probably of Visigothic origin) general of the Emirate of Córdoba and governor of Zaragoza.
Aranjuez, also called the Royal Estate of Aranjuez, is a city and municipality, capital of the Las Vegas district, in the southern part of the Community of Madrid, Spain.
Argés is a municipality located in the province of Toledo, Castile-La Mancha, Spain.
Arianism is a nontrinitarian Christological doctrine which asserts the belief that Jesus Christ is the Son of God who was begotten by God the Father at a point in time, a creature distinct from the Father and is therefore subordinate to him, but the Son is also God (i.e. God the Son).
The Artificio de Juanelo was the name of two devices built in Toledo in the 16th century by Juanelo Turriano.
Athanagild (517 – December 567) was Visigothic King of Hispania and Septimania.
In Spain, an autonomous community (comunidad autónoma, autonomia erkidegoa, comunitat autònoma, comunidade autónoma, comunautat autonòma) is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain.
The Banu Qasi, Banu Kasi, Beni Casi (بني قسي or بنو قسي, meaning "sons" or "heirs of Cassius") or Banu Musa were a Hispano-Roman Muwallad dynasty that ruled the upper Ebro valley in the 9th century, before being displaced in the first quarter of the 10th century.
Bargas is a municipality located in the province of Toledo, Castile-La Mancha, Spain.
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
The Battle of Aqbat al-Bakr (2 June 1010) was a battle of the Fitna of al-Andalus that took place in the area in and around Espiel, Spain.
The Battle of Monte Laturce, also known as the second Battle of Albelda, was a victory for the forces of Ordoño I of Asturias and his ally García Íñiguez of Pamplona.
Beatrice of Silva, O.I.C., also known (in Spanish) as Beatriz da Silva y de Menezes and (in Portuguese) as Beatriz de Menezes da Silva, (Campo Maior, Portugal ca. 1424 – Toledo, Castile, 9 August 1492) was a noblewoman of Portugal, who became the foundress of the monastic Order of the Immaculate Conception of Our Lady in Spain.
Saint Beatus of Liébana (c. 730 – c. 800) was a monk, theologian and geographer from the former Duchy of Cantabria and Kingdom of Asturias, in modern Cantabria, northern Spain, who worked and lived in the Picos de Europa mountains of the region of Liébana.
Bladesmithing is the art of making knives, swords, daggers and other blades using a forge, hammer, anvil, and other smithing tools.
Bourges Cathedral (French: Cathédrale Saint-Étienne de Bourges) is a Roman Catholic church located in Bourges, France.
Saint Braulio or Braulius (Braulius Caesaraugustanus; 590 – 651 AD) was bishop of Zaragoza and a learned cleric living in the Kingdom of the Visigoths.
Brunhilda (c. 543–613) was a Queen of Austrasia by marriage to the Merovingian King Sigebert I of Austrasia, part of Francia.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Burguillos de Toledo is a municipality located in the province of Toledo, Castile-La Mancha, Spain.
Calatrava la Vieja (formerly just Calatrava) is a medieval site and original nucleus of the Order of Calatrava.
The Caliphate of Córdoba (خلافة قرطبة; trans. Khilāfat Qurṭuba) was a state in Islamic Iberia along with a part of North Africa ruled by the Umayyad dynasty.
Canon law (from Greek kanon, a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members.
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.
Carcamusa is a traditional dish of Spanish cuisine and a speciality of Toledo, often served as a bar-snack.
The Carpetani (Greek: Karpetanoi) were one of the Celtic pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula (the Roman Hispania, modern Spain and Portugal), akin to the Celtiberians, dwelling in the central part of the meseta - the high central upland plain of the Iberian Peninsula.
Carpetania was an ancient region of what is today Spain, located between the Sierra de Guadarrama, the mountains of Toledo, the river Guadiana and the mountain range of Alcaraz, including approximately, the present independent communities of Madrid and Castile-La Mancha.
The Kingdom of Toledo (Spanish: Reino de Toledo) was a realm in the Iberian Peninsula, created after Alfonso VI of León's capture of Toledo in 1085.
Castilla–La Mancha (or Castile–La Mancha) is an autonomous community of Spain.
The Castle of San Servando is a medieval castle in Toledo, Spain, near the Tagus River.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Club Deportivo Toledo, S.A.D. is a Spanish football team based in Toledo, in the autonomous community of Castile-La Mancha.
The Celtiberians were a group of Celts or Celticized peoples inhabiting the central-eastern Iberian Peninsula during the final centuries BC.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
The Cerro del Bu is an archaeological site in the Bu hill of the Spanish municipality of Toledo, located on a promontory next to the Tagus river.
Charles III (Spanish: Carlos; Italian: Carlo; 20 January 1716 – 14 December 1788) was King of Spain and the Spanish Indies (1759–1788), after ruling Naples as Charles VII and Sicily as Charles V (1734–1759), kingdoms he abdicated to his son Ferdinand.
Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.
Chindasuinth (Also spelled Chindaswinth, Chindaswind, Chindasuinto, Chindasvindo, or Khindaswinth (Latin: Chintasvintus, Cindasvintus; 563 – 30 September 653 AD) was Visigothic King of Hispania, from 642 until his death in 653. He succeeded Tulga, from whom he took the throne in a coup. He was elected by the nobles and anointed by the bishops 30 April 642.
The Chronicle of 754 (also called the Mozarabic Chronicle or Continuatio Hispana) is a Latin-language history in 95 sections, which was composed in 754 in a part of Spain under Arab rule.
The Chronicle of Alfonso III (Chronica Adefonsi tertii regis) is a chronicle composed in the early tenth century on the order of King Alfonso III of León with the goal of showing the continuity between Visigothic Spain and the later Christian medieval Spain.
The Roman circus (from Latin, "circle") was a large open-air venue used for public events in the ancient Roman Empire.
Cixila (died 783) was the Archbishop of Toledo from 774 until his death in 783.
The coat of arms of Spain represents Spain and the Spanish nation.
Cobisa is a municipality located in the province of Toledo, Castile-La Mancha, Spain.
A comarca (or, pl. comarcas; or, pl. comarques) is a traditional region or local administrative division found in Portugal, Spain and some of their former colonies: Panama, Nicaragua, and Brazil.
Saint Gregory's Commentary on Job, or Moralia, sive Expositio in Job, sometimes called Magna Moralia (not to be confused with Aristotle's Magna Moralia), was written between 578 and 595, begun when Gregory was at the court of Tiberius II at Constantinople, but finished only after he had already been in Rome for several years.
The Order of the Immaculate Conception (Ordo Inmaculatae Conceptionis), also known as the Conceptionists, are a contemplative religious order of nuns.
In Ancient Rome territorial organization, a conventus iuridicus was the capital city of a subdivision of some provinces (Dalmatia, Hispania, Asia) with functions of seat of a district court of justice and maybe others.
The Council of Trent (Concilium Tridentinum), held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent (or Trento, in northern Italy), was an ecumenical council of the Catholic Church.
Councils of Toledo (Concilia toletana).
A country is a region that is identified as a distinct national entity in political geography.
A court is an extended royal household in a monarchy, including all those who regularly attend on a monarch, or another central figure.
The Crown of Castile was a medieval state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then Castilian king, Ferdinand III, to the vacant Leonese throne. It continued to exist as a separate entity after the personal union in 1469 of the crowns of Castile and Aragon with the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs up to the promulgation of the Nueva Planta decrees by Philip V in 1715. The Indies, Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea were also a part of the Crown of Castile when transformed from lordships to kingdoms of the heirs of Castile in 1506, with the Treaty of Villafáfila, and upon the death of Ferdinand the Catholic. The title of "King of Castile" remained in use by the Habsburg rulers during the 16th and 17th centuries. Charles I was King of Aragon, Majorca, Valencia, and Sicily, and Count of Barcelona, Roussillon and Cerdagne, as well as King of Castile and León, 1516–1556. In the early 18th century, Philip of Bourbon won the War of the Spanish Succession and imposed unification policies over the Crown of Aragon, supporters of their enemies. This unified the Crown of Aragon and the Crown of Castile into the kingdom of Spain. Even though the Nueva Planta decrees did not formally abolish the Crown of Castile, the country of (Castile and Aragon) was called "Spain" by both contemporaries and historians. "King of Castile" also remains part of the full title of Felipe VI of Spain, the current King of Spain according to the Spanish constitution of 1978, in the sense of titles, not of states.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
Damascus steel was the forged steel composing the blades of swords smithed in the Near East from ingots of wootz steel.
The Decretum Gratiani, also known as the Concordia discordantium canonum or Concordantia discordantium canonum or simply as the Decretum, is a collection of Canon law compiled and written in the 12th century as a legal textbook by the jurist known as Gratian.
The Ingenious Nobleman Sir Quixote of La Mancha (El Ingenioso Hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha), or just Don Quixote (Oxford English Dictionary, ""), is a Spanish novel by Miguel de Cervantes.
Blossius Aemilius Dracontius of Carthage was a Christian poet who flourished in the latter part of the 5th century.
Bladed and edged weapons have been used throughout history for combat, hunting and in ceremonies.
Egica, Ergica, or Egicca (c. 610 – 701x703), was the Visigoth King of Hispania and Septimania from 687 until his death.
The Eighth Council of Toledo commenced on 16 December 653 in the church of the Holy Apostles in Toledo.
Doménikos Theotokópoulos (Δομήνικος Θεοτοκόπουλος; October 1541 7 April 1614), most widely known as El Greco ("The Greek"), was a painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish Renaissance.
The El Greco Museum (in Spanish: Museo del Greco) is located in Toledo, Spain.
El Transparente is a Baroque altarpiece in the ambulatory of the Cathedral of Toledo.
Eleanor of Toledo (Italian: Eleonora di Toledo (1522 – 17 December 1562), born Doña Leonor Álvarez de Toledo y Osorio, was a Spanish noblewoman who was Duchess of Florence from 1539, after Margaret of Austria. Although, Eleanor is often referred to as the Grand Duchess of Tuscany, she predeceased the creation of the Grand Duke of Tuscany. She is credited with being the first modern first lady, or consort. She served as regent of Florence during the absence of her spouse.
The Eleventh Council of Toledo convened first on 7 November 675 attended by seventeen bishops and two deacons representing the sees of Segovia and Ergávica (also Ercávica or Arcávica) as well as five abbots.
Elipando (717 - 808?) named Elipandus in some sources was a Spanish archbishop of Toledo and theologian.
The Emirate of Córdoba (إمارة قرطبة, Imārat Qurṭuba) was an independent emirate in the Iberian Peninsula ruled by the Umayyad dynasty with Córdoba as its capital.
Erwig (Flavius Ervigius; after 642 – 687) was a king of the Visigoths in Hispania (680–687).
Etymologiae (Latin for "The Etymologies"), also known as the Origines ("Origins") and usually abbreviated Orig., is an etymological encyclopedia compiled by Isidore of Seville (c. 560–636) towards the end of his life.
Saint Eugenius II (died 13 November 657), sometimes called Eugenius the Younger as the successor of Eugenius I, was Archbishop of Toledo from 647 until his death.
Excommunication is an institutional act of religious censure used to deprive, suspend, or limit membership in a religious community or to restrict certain rights within it, in particular receiving of the sacraments.
Federico Martín Bahamontes (born 9 July 1928) is a Spanish former professional road racing cyclist.
Ferdinand I (c. 1015 – 24 December 1065), called the Great (el Magno), was the Count of Castile from his uncle's death in 1029 and the King of León after defeating his brother-in-law in 1037.
The Fifteenth Council of Toledo first met on 11 May 688 under King Egica.
The Fifth Council of Toledo was convoked by King Chintila and opened on 30 June 636 in the church of Saint Leocadia in Toledo.
The Flavian dynasty was a Roman imperial dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 69 AD and 96 AD, encompassing the reigns of Vespasian (69–79), and his two sons Titus (79–81) and Domitian (81–96).
The Fourteenth Council of Toledo first met on 14 November 684 under King Erwig.
The Fourth Council of Toledo occurred in 633.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francesco Sabatini (1721 – 19 February 1797), also known as Francisco Sabatini, was an Italian architect of the 18th century who worked in Spain.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.
Gallaecia or Callaecia, also known as Hispania Gallaecia, was the name of a Roman province in the north-west of Hispania, approximately present-day Galicia, northern Portugal, Asturias and Leon and the later Suebic Kingdom of Gallaecia.
Garcilaso de la Vega (c. 1501 – 14 October 1536) was a Spanish soldier and poet.
Three European Union schemes of geographical indications and traditional specialties, known as protected designation of origin (PDO), protected geographical indication (PGI), and traditional specialities guaranteed (TSG), promote and protect names of quality agricultural products and foodstuffs.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The golden age of Jewish culture in Spain coincided with the Middle Ages in Europe, a period of Muslim rule throughout much of the Iberian Peninsula.
Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages.
Goya Foods, Inc. is an American producer of a brand of foods sold in the United States and many Hispanic countries.
Guadalajara is a city and municipality in the autonomous community of Castilla–La Mancha, Spain, and in the natural region of La Alcarria.
Guadamur is a municipality located in the province of Toledo, Castile-La Mancha, Spain.
Guanajuato is a city and municipality in central Mexico and the capital of the state of the same name.
Hannibal Barca (𐤇𐤍𐤁𐤏𐤋 𐤁𐤓𐤒 ḥnb‘l brq; 247 – between 183 and 181 BC) was a Carthaginian general, considered one of the greatest military commanders in history.
Havana (Spanish: La Habana) is the capital city, largest city, province, major port, and leading commercial center of Cuba.
The term Hexameron (Greek: Ἡ Ἑξαήμερος Δημιουργία Hē Hexaēmeros Dēmiourgia) refers either to the genre of theological treatise that describes God's work on the six days of creation or to the six days of creation themselves.
Hisham I or Hisham Al-Reda (هشام بن عبد الرحمن الداخل) was the second Umayyad Emir of Cordoba, ruling from 788 to 796 in al-Andalus.
Hispania Baetica, often abbreviated Baetica, was one of three Roman provinces in Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula).
The Historia de regibus Gothorum, Vandalorum et Suevorum ("History of the Kings of the Goths, Vandals and Suevi") is a Latin history of the Goths from 265 to 624, written by Isidore of Seville.
Historical fiction is a literary genre in which the plot takes place in a setting located in the past.
Toledo is the repository of more than 2000 years of history.
The iglesia de San Andrés is a church located in the city of Toledo, in Castile-La Mancha, Spain.
Santiago del Arrabal is a church in Toledo, Spain, built in 1245–48, at the orders of Sancho II, on the site of an older church and a mosque that is known to have been used since 1125.
The Iglesia de Santo Tomé is a church located in the historical center of the city of Toledo (Spain), and was founded after the reconquest of this city by King Alfonso VI of León.
Saint Ildefonsus or Ildephonsus (rarely Ildephoses or Ildefonse; Spanish San Ildefonso; born circa 607, died 23 January 667) was a scholar and theologian who served as the metropolitan Bishop of Toledo for the last decade of his life.
The National Institute of Statistics (Instituto Nacional de Estadística, INE) is the official organisation in Spain that collects statistics about demography, economy, and Spanish society.
Isaac ben Judah Abarbanel (Hebrew: יצחק בן יהודה אברבנאל;‎ 1437–1508), commonly referred to as Abarbanel (אַבַּרבְּנְאֵל), also spelled Abravanel, Avravanel or Abrabanel, was a Portuguese Jewish statesman, philosopher, Bible commentator, and financier.
Isaac Israeli ben Joseph or Yitzhak ben Yosef (often known as Isaac Israeli the Younger) was a Spanish-Jewish astronomer/astrologer who flourished at Toledo in the first half of the fourteenth century.
The Isabelline style, also called the Isabelline Gothic (in Spanish, Gótico Isabelino), or Castilian late Gothic, was the dominant architectural style of the Crown of Castile during the reign of the Catholic Monarchs, Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon in the late-15th century to early-16th century.
Saint Isidore of Seville (Isidorus Hispalensis; c. 560 – 4 April 636), a scholar and, for over three decades, Archbishop of Seville, is widely regarded as the last of the Fathers of the Church, as the 19th-century historian Montalembert put it in an oft-quoted phrase, "The last scholar of the ancient world." At a time of disintegration of classical culture, and aristocratic violence and illiteracy, he was involved in the conversion of the Arian Visigothic kings to Catholicism, both assisting his brother Leander of Seville, and continuing after his brother's death.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Judaeo-Spanish or Judeo-Spanish (judeo-español, Hebrew script: גֿודֿיאו-איספאנייול, Cyrillic: Ђудео-Еспањол), commonly referred to as Ladino, is a Romance language derived from Old Spanish.
Judah Halevi (also Yehuda Halevi or ha-Levi; יהודה הלוי and Judah ben Shmuel Halevi; يهوذا اللاوي; 1075 – 1141) was a Spanish Jewish physician, poet and philosopher.
Julian of Toledo (642 – 690) was born to parents of Jewish descent in Toledo, Hispania, but was raised Christian.
The Kingdom of Asturias (Regnum Asturorum) was a kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula founded in 718 by the Visigothic nobleman Pelagius of Asturias (Asturian: Pelayu, Spanish: Pelayo).
The Primera División, commonly known as La Liga and as La Liga Santander for sponsorship reasons with Santander, is the men's top professional football division of the Spanish football league system.
Saint Leocadia (Sainte Léocadie; Santa Leocadia) is a Spanish saint.
The Libu (rbw; also transcribed Rebu, Lebu) were an Ancient Libyan tribe of Berber origin, from which the name ''Libya'' derives.
This is a list of notable people who were born at Toledo, Spain.
The southern part of the Iberian peninsula was under Islamic rule for seven hundred years.
Liuvigild, Leuvigild, Leovigild, or Leovigildo (Spanish and Portuguese), (519 – 21 April 586) was a Visigothic King of Hispania and Septimania from 568 to April 21, 586.
Titus Livius Patavinus (64 or 59 BCAD 12 or 17) – often rendered as Titus Livy, or simply Livy, in English language sources – was a Roman historian.
The Lower March (الثغر الأدنى, al-Ṯaḡr al-ʾAdnā) was a march of the Al Andalus.
Luis Javier García Sanz (born 24 June 1978) is a Spanish former professional footballer who played as a left winger.
Lusitania (Lusitânia; Lusitania) or Hispania Lusitana was an ancient Iberian Roman province located where most of modern Portugal (south of the Douro river) and part of western Spain (the present autonomous community of Extremadura and a part of the province of Salamanca) lie.
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.
Manchego cuisine (or Castilian-Manchego cuisine) refers to the typical dishes and ingredients in the cuisine of Castilla–La Mancha region of Spain.
Marcus Fulvius Nobilior, Roman general, a member of one of the most important families of the plebeian Fulvia gens.
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.
Marzipan is a confection consisting primarily of sugar or honey and almond meal (ground almonds), sometimes augmented with almond oil or extract.
Mauregatus the Usurper was the king of Asturias from 783 to 788 or 789.
Mérida (Extremaduran: Méria) is the capital of the autonomous community of Extremadura, western central Spain.
Medinaceli is a municipality and town in the province of Soria, in Castile and León, Spain.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Migas ("crumbs" in English) is the name used for an ancient dish in Spanish and Portuguese cuisines.
A military academy or service academy (in the United States) is an educational institution which prepares candidates for service in the officer corps.
In visual art, mixed media is an artwork in which more than one medium or material has been employed.
Mocejón is a municipality located in the province of Toledo, Castile-La Mancha, Spain.
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits).
The Monastery of San Juan de los Reyes (English: Monastery of Saint John of the Monarchs) is an Isabelline style monastery in Toledo, in Castile-La Mancha, Spain, built by the Catholic Monarchs (1477–1504).
The Montes de Toledo are one of the main systems of mountain ranges in the Iberian Peninsula.
The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Malta during the Middle Ages.
The Mosque of Cristo de la Luz is a former mosque in Toledo, Spain.
The Mezquita de las Tornerías (italic) is a Moorish former mosque in Toledo (Castile-La Mancha, Spain).
Mudéjar (Mudèjar, مدجن trans. Mudajjan, "tamed; domesticated") is also the name given to Moors or Muslims of Al-Andalus who remained in Iberia after the Christian Reconquista but were not initially forcibly converted to Christianity.
Muhammad I (محمد بن عبد الرحمن الأوسط) (823–886) was the Umayyad emir of Córdoba from 852 to 886 in the Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia).
Muhammad II al-Mahdi (Muḥammad al-Mahdī bi-ʾllāh) was the fourth Caliph of Cordoba of the Umayyad dynasty in Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia).
The Muladi (mulaˈði, pl. muladíes; mulɐˈði, pl. muladis; muɫəˈðitə or muladí, pl. muladites or muladís; مولد trans. muwallad, pl. مولدون muwalladūn or مولدين muwalladīn) were Muslims of local descent or of mixed Arab, Berber, and Iberian origin, who lived in Al-Andalus during the Middle Ages.
A municipality is usually a single urban or administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and state laws to which it is subordinate.
Municipium (pl. municipia) was the Latin term for a town or city.
Musa bin Nusayr (موسى بن نصير Mūsá bin Nuṣayr; 640–716) served as a governor and general under the Umayyad caliph Al-Walid I. He ruled over the Muslim provinces of North Africa (Ifriqiya), and directed the Islamic conquest of the Visigothic Kingdom in Hispania (Spain, Portugal, Andorra and part of France).
Musa ibn Musa al-Qasawi (Arabic: موسى بن موسى القسوي) also nicknamed the Great (Arabic: الكبير, Al-Kabīr) (born circa 790 – 26 September 862) was leader of the Muwallad Banu Qasi clan and ruler of a semi-autonomous principality in the upper Ebro valley in northern Iberia in the 9th century.
The Museum of Santa Cruz (Spanish: Museo de Santa Cruz) is a building of the 16th century of the city of Toledo, Spain), which originally was an important hospital (Hospital de Santa Cruz), although it was converted into a museum in the 19th century. The hospital was founded by Cardinal Mendoza at the end of the 15th century to centralize assistance to orphaned and abandoned children in the city. It has a remarkable Plateresque portal, work of Alonso de Covarrubias. The building has a Greek cross plant and four courtyards, two of which were completely completed. The first is of Covarrubias and gives access to the upper floor through a three-ladder staircase. The museum has two floors. The cruiser covers the two floors and is covered with ribbed vaults. In the north arm was located the chapel. The museum has sections of Archeology, Fine Arts and Decorative Arts. The Fine Arts funds are distributed on the first and second floor of the building, and those of archeology, in the Noble Cloister and in an underground floor. The Decorative Arts have a sample of Toledan folk handicrafts, which is also located on the floor of the basement.
Nambroca is a municipality located in the province of Toledo, Castile-La Mancha, Spain.
is the capital city of Nara Prefecture located in the Kansai region of Japan.
Narciso Tomé (1690–1742) was a Spanish architect and sculptor of the late-Baroque or Rococo period.
The Neo-Mudéjar is a type of Moorish Revival architecture.
The Ninth Council of Toledo was a provincial synod of bishops of Carthaginiensis.
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States.
Olías del Rey is a municipality located in the province of Toledo, Castile-La Mancha, Spain.
Oppas or Oppa (died after 712) was a member of the Visigothic elite in the city of Toledo on the eve of the Muslim conquest of Hispania.
Ordoño I (c. 821 – 27 May 866) was King of Asturias from 850 until his death.
The Palacio de Galiana is a Mudéjar palace in Toledo, Spain, on the borders of the Tagus River.
In medieval Spain, parias (from medieval Latin pariāre, "to make equal ", i.e. pay) were a form of tribute paid by the taifas of al-Andalus to the Christian kingdoms of the north.
Paul Bede Johnson (born 2 November 1928) is an English journalist, popular historian, speechwriter, and author.
Penance is repentance of sins as well as an alternate name for the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox sacrament of Reconciliation or Confession.
Philip II (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–58).
Polán is a municipality located in the province of Toledo, Castile-La Mancha, Spain.
Primate is a title or rank bestowed on some archbishops in certain Christian churches.
Priscillian (died c.385) was a wealthy nobleman of Roman Hispania who promoted a strict form of Christian asceticism.
Priscillianism is a Christian belief system developed in the Iberian Peninsula (the Roman Hispania) in the 4th century by Priscillian, derived from the Gnostic-Manichaean doctrines taught by Marcus, an Egyptian from Memphis, and later considered a heresy by both the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church.
Toledo is a province of central Spain, in the western part of the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha.
Spain and its autonomous communities are divided into fifty provinces (provincias,; sing. provincia).
The Puente de Alcántara is a Roman arch bridge in Toledo, Spain, spanning the Tagus River.
The Puente de San Martín (St Martin's Bridge) is a medieval bridge across the river Tagus in Toledo, Spain.
The Puerta Bab al-Mardum, or Puerta de Valmardón, is a city gate of Toledo, Spain.
The Puerta de Bisagra (originally Bab al-Saqra, also called Puerta de Alfonso VI) is a city gate of Toledo, Spain.
250px The Puerta de Bisagra Nueva ("The New Bisagra Gate") is the best known city gate of Toledo, Spain.
The Puerta del Cambrón is a gate located in the west sector of the Spanish city of Toledo, in Castile-La Mancha.
Puerta del Sol is a city gate of Toledo, Spain, built in the late 14th century by the Knights Hospitaller.
The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage from 264 BC to 146 BC.
Qays ʿAylān (قيس عيلان), often referred to simply as Qays (also spelled Qais, Kais or Kays) were an Arab tribal confederation that branched from the Mudhar section of the Adnanites.
Ramiro II (c. 900 – 1 January 951), son of Ordoño II, was a King of León from 931 until his death.
Francis Raymond de Sauvetât, or Raymond of Toledo, was the Archbishop of Toledo from 1125 to 1152.
Real Valladolid Club de Fútbol, S.A.D., or simply Real Valladolid, is a Spanish football club based in Valladolid, in the autonomous community of Castile and León, from where the nickname Pucela is derived.
Reccared I (or Recared; Reccaredus; Recaredo; 559 – 31 May 601 AD; reigned 586–601) was Visigothic King of Hispania and Septimania.
Recceswinth, also known as Reccesuinth, Recceswint, Reccaswinth, Recesvinto (Spanish, Galician and Portuguese), Recceswinthus, Reccesvinthus, and Recesvindus (Latin), (? – 1 September 672) was the Visigothic King of Hispania, Septimania and Galicia in 649–672.
The Reconquista (Spanish and Portuguese for the "reconquest") is a name used to describe the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492.
Rielves is a municipality located in the province of Toledo, Castile-La Mancha, Spain.
Ruderic (also spelled Roderic, Roderik, Roderich, or Roderick; Spanish and Rodrigo, لذريق; died 711 or 712) was the Visigothic King of Hispania for a brief period between 710 and 712.
This is a list of Bishops and Archbishops of Toledo (Archidioecesis Toletana).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
A Roman legion (from Latin legio "military levy, conscription", from legere "to choose") was a large unit of the Roman army.
Safed (צְפַת Tsfat, Ashkenazi: Tzfas, Biblical: Ṣ'fath; صفد, Ṣafad) is a city in the Northern District of Israel.
San Sebastian is one of the oldest churches of Toledo, Spain.
Sancho II (1036/1038 – 7 October 1072), called the Strong (el Fuerte), was King of Castile (1065–72), Galicia (1071–72) and León (1072).
Ṣaqāliba (Arabic: صقالبة, sg. ṣaqlabī) refers to Slavs, captured on the coasts of Europe in raids or wars, as well as mercenaries in the medieval Muslim world, in the Middle East, North Africa, Sicily and Al-Andalus.
The Spanish Republic (República Española), commonly known as the Second Spanish Republic (Segunda República Española), was the democratic government that existed in Spain from 1931 to 1939.
The Segunda División, officially known as La Liga 2 and stylized as La Liga 1|2|3 for sponsorship reasons, is the men's second professional association football division of the Spanish football league system.
Segunda División B (Second Division B) is the third level of the Spanish football league system currently divided into 4 groups of 20 teams each.
Segundo Víctor Aurelio Chomón y Ruiz (also Chomont or Chaumont,; 17 October 1871 – 2 May 1929) was a pioneering Spanish film director, cinematographer and screenwriter.
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.
Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּים, Modern Hebrew: Sefaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also Ye'hude Sepharad, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), originally from Sepharad, Spain or the Iberian peninsula, are a Jewish ethnic division.
The Seventeenth Council of Toledo first met on 9 November 694 under King Egica.
The Seventh Council of Toledo commenced on 18 November 646 and was attended by 41 bishops either personally or by delegation.
The Siege of the Alcázar was a highly symbolic Nationalist victory in Toledo in the opening stages of the Spanish Civil War.
The Sierra de Guadarrama (Guadarrama Mountains) is a mountain range forming the main eastern section of the Sistema Central, the system of mountain ranges along the centre of the Iberian Peninsula.
Sisbert or Sisebert was the metropolitan archbishop of Toledo from 690 to 693 as successor to the famous Julian.
Sisebut (Sisebutus, Sisebuto; also Sisebuth, Sisebur, Sisebod or Sigebut) (565 – February 621) was King of the Visigoths and ruler of Hispania and Septimania.
Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
The Sixteenth Council of Toledo first met on 25 April 693, the second of Egica's three councils.
The Sixth Council of Toledo was the second council convoked by King Chintila and opened on 9 January 638.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spanish Adoptionism was a Christian theological position which was articulated in Umayyad and Christian-held regions of the Iberian peninsula in the 8th- and 9th centuries.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (Partido Socialista Obrero Español; PSOE) is a social-democraticThe PSOE is described as a social-democratic party by numerous sources.
The Suebi (or Suevi, Suavi, or Suevians) were a large group of Germanic tribes, which included the Marcomanni, Quadi, Hermunduri, Semnones, Lombards and others, sometimes including sub-groups simply referred to as Suebi.
Sulayman ibn al-Hakam or Sulayman al-Musta'in bi-llah (سليمان المستعين بالله; died 1016) was the fifth Umayyad Caliph of Córdoba, ruling from 1009 to 1010, and from 1013 to 1016 in Al-Andalus.
Suniefred (fl. 690s) was a Visigoth who carried out a rebellion against the Visigothic king Egica.
A surname, family name, or last name is the portion of a personal name that indicates a person's family (or tribe or community, depending on the culture).
The Synagogue of El Transito, once also known as the "Synagogue of Samuel ha-Levi" (Spanish sinagoga de Samuel ha-Leví) is a historic building in Toledo, Spain.
The Synagogue of Santa María la Blanca (literally Synagogue of Saint Mary the White, originally known as the Ibn Shushan Synagogue, or commonly the Congregational Synagogue of Toledo) is a museum and former synagogue in Toledo, Spain.
A synod is a council of a church, usually convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Tagus (Tajo,; Tejo) is the longest river in the Iberian Peninsula.
In the history of the Iberian Peninsula, a taifa (from طائفة ṭā'ifa, plural طوائف ṭawā'if) was an independent Muslim-ruled principality, of which a number were formed in Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031.
The Taifa of Granada (rtl, Ta'ifa Garnata) was a Berber taifa in Al-Andalus, within the present day Granada Province in southern Spain.
The taifa of Toledo was a Berber Muslim taifa located in what is now central Spain.
The Taifa of Valencia was a medieval Moorish taifa kingdom which existed, in and around Valencia, Spain during four distinct periods: from 1010 to 1065, from 1075 to 1099, from 1145 to 1147 and last from 1229 to 1238 when it was finally conquered by the Aragon.
Taius (Taio, Tago, Tajo, Tajón, Tayon) (c. 600—c. 683) was a bishop of Zaragoza during the Visigothic period, from 651-664, succeeding his teacher Saint Braulius.
Talamanca de Jarama is a municipality of the Community of Madrid, Spain.
Talavera de la Reina is a city and municipality in the western part of the province of Toledo, which in turn is part of the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha, Spain.
āriq ibn Ziyād (طارق بن زياد) was a Muslim commander who led the Islamic Umayyad conquest of Visigothic Hispania in 711–718 A.D. Under the orders of the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I he led a large army and crossed the Strait of Gibraltar from the North African coast, consolidating his troops at what is today known as the Rock of Gibraltar.
The Tenth Council of Toledo was summoned to meet on 1 December 656 by King Reccesuinth.
Tha'laba ibn Salama al-Amili (?–750?) was an Arab military commander in Jordan, North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula, and briefly ruler of al-Andalus from August 742 to May 743.
The Blade, also known as the Toledo Blade, is a daily newspaper in Toledo, Ohio, in the United States, first published on December 19, 1835.
The Burial of the Count of Orgaz (Spanish: El Entierro del Conde de Orgaz) is a painting by El Greco, a prominent Renaissance painter, sculptor, and architect of Greek origin.
In ancient Rome, thermae (from Greek θερμός thermos, "hot") and balneae (from Greek βαλανεῖον balaneion) were facilities for bathing.
Theudis (Spanish: Teudis, Portuguese: Têudis), (470 – June 548) was king of the Visigoths in Hispania from 531 to 548.
The Third Council of Toledo (589) marks the entry of Visigothic Spain into the Catholic Church, and known for codifying the filioque clause into Western Christianity.
The Thirteenth Council of Toledo opened on 4 November 683.
Toledano (טולדנו, טולידאנו) is a family name derived from the city of Toledo, Spain.
The Primate Cathedral of Saint Mary of Toledo (Catedral Primada Santa María de Toledo) is a Roman Catholic church in Toledo, Spain.
The Toledo School of Translators (Escuela de Traductores de Toledo) is the group of scholars who worked together in the city of Toledo during the 12th and 13th centuries, to translate many of the philosophical and scientific works from Classical Arabic.
Toledo steel, known historically as unusually hard, is from Toledo, Spain, which has been a traditional sword-making, steel-working center since about 500 BC, and came to the attention of Rome when used by Hannibal in the Punic Wars.
Toledo is a city in and the county seat of Lucas County, Ohio, United States.
The Tour de France is an annual male multiple stage bicycle race primarily held in France, while also occasionally making passes through nearby countries.
The Treasure of Guarrazar, Guadamur, Province of Toledo, Castile-La Mancha, Spain, is an archeological find composed of twenty-six votive crowns and gold crosses that had originally been offered to the Roman Catholic Church by the Kings of the Visigoths in the seventh century in Hispania, as a gesture of the orthodoxy of their faith and their submission to the ecclesiastical hierarchy.
The True Cross is the name for physical remnants which, by a Christian Church tradition, are said to be from the cross upon which Jesus was crucified.
The Twelfth Council of Toledo was initiated on 9 January 681 by the new King Erwig.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
United Left (Izquierda Unida, IU) is a political coalition that was organized in 1986, bringing together several left-wing and far-left political organizations.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The Upper March (in الثغر الأعلى, aṯ-Tagr al-A'la; in Spanish: Marca Superior) was an administrative and military division in northeast Al-Andalus, roughly corresponding to the Ebro valley and adjacent Mediterranean coast, from the 8th century to the early 11th century.
The Vaccaei or Vaccei were a pre-Roman Celtic people of Spain, who inhabited the sedimentary plains of the central Duero valley, in the Meseta Central of northern Hispania (specifically in Castile and León).
Veliko Tarnovo (Велико Търново, "Great Tarnovo") is a city in north central Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Veliko Tarnovo Province.
The Vettones (Greek: Ouettones) were a pre-Roman people of the Iberian Peninsula of possibly Celtic ethnicity.
The Visigoths entered Hispania (modern Spain and Portugal) in 415, and they rose to be the dominant people there until the Moorish invasion of 711 brought their kingdom to an end.
The Visigothic Code (Latin, Forum Iudicum or Liber Iudiciorum; Spanish, Libro de los Jueces, Book of the Judges), also called Lex Visigothorum (English: Law of the Visigoths) is a set of laws first promulgated by king Chindasuinth (642-653) of the Visigothic Kingdom in his second year of rule (642-643) that survives only in fragments.
The Visigothic Kingdom or Kingdom of the Visigoths (Regnum Gothorum) was a kingdom that occupied what is now southwestern France and the Iberian Peninsula from the 5th to the 8th centuries.
The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi; Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.
Wamba (Medieval Latin: VVamba, Vamba, Wamba; 643 – 687/688) was the king of the Visigoths from 672 to 680.
Wittiza (Witiza, Witica, Witicha, Vitiza, or Witiges; 687 – probably 710) was the Visigothic King of Hispania from 694 until his death, co-ruling with his father, Egica, until 702 or 703.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
Yusuf ibn 'Abd al-Rahman al-Fihri (يوسف بن عبد الرحمن الفهري) was an Umayyad governor of Narbonne in Septimania and governor of al-Andalus from 747 to 756, ruling independently following the collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate in 750.
Zaragoza, also called Saragossa in English, is the capital city of the Zaragoza province and of the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain.
The 1968 Summer Olympics (Spanish: Juegos Olímpicos de Verano de 1968), officially known as the Games of the XIX Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in Mexico City, Mexico, in October 1968.
The 2004 Summer Olympic Games (Θερινοί Ολυμπιακοί Αγώνες 2004), officially known as the Games of the XXVIII Olympiad and commonly known as Athens 2004, was a premier international multi-sport event held in Athens, Greece, from 13 to 29 August 2004 with the motto Welcome Home. 10,625 athletes competed, some 600 more than expected, accompanied by 5,501 team officials from 201 countries.
The 2008 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad and commonly known as Beijing 2008, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 8 to 24 August 2008 in Beijing, China.