220 relations: A Critique of Pure Tolerance, A Letter Concerning Toleration, Achaemenid Empire, Age of Enlightenment, Alexandria, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Anabaptism, Anekantavada, Anglicanism, Areopagitica, Ashoka, Atheism, Avignon, Baptists in the history of separation of church and state, Baron Baltimore, Baruch Spinoza, Bayezid II, Benjamin Franklin, Bernard Lewis, Bhikkhu Bodhi, Black Death, Bohemia, Book of Deuteronomy, Book of Exodus, Book of Leviticus, Brian Barry, Calvinism, Catharism, Christianity, Cicero, Congregational church, Connecticut, Constantine the Great, Council of Constance, Cyberbullying, Cyrus the Great, Day of Prayer, Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen of 1789, Definitions of Puritanism, Democracy, Dennis Prager, Dhimmi, Dictionnaire Historique et Critique, Diet of Worms, Dignitatis humanae, Dorje Shugden controversy, Edict of Fontainebleau, Edict of Nantes, Edict of Serdica, Edict of toleration, ..., Edict of Torda, Edict of Versailles, Edicts of Ashoka, Edirne, Erasmus, Ernest Renan, Exegesis, Exponential growth, Feroze Gandhi, First Amendment to the United States Constitution, Freedom of religion, Freedom of religion by country, Freedom of thought, French Revolution, Galerius, Gautama Buddha, Glasnost, Gospel, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, H. L. A. Hart, Hasia Diner, Hellenistic period, Henrician Articles, Henry IV of France, Henry VIII of England, Herbert Butterfield, Herbert Marcuse, Hindu, History of Christian thought on persecution and tolerance, History of the Jews in Poland, Holy Roman Empire, Holy Spirit, Huguenots, Huldrych Zwingli, Human rights, Hussites, India, Indian people, Indira Gandhi, Information, Information and communications technology, International Day for Tolerance, Iran, Isaiah Berlin, Islam and other religions, Islamic scarf controversy in France, James Freeman Clarke, Jan Hus, Jean Bodin, Jeremy Bentham, Jesus, Jewish diaspora, Jews, Johann Reuchlin, Johannes Brenz, Johannes Oecolampadius, Johannes Pfefferkorn, John Calvin, John Gray (philosopher), John Locke, John Milton, John Rawls, John Sigismund Zápolya, John Stuart Mill, Joseph Telushkin, Judaism, Julia Kristeva, Karl Popper, Knowledge, LGBT, Libertarianism, Licinius, Louis XIV of France, Louis XV of France, Louis XVI of France, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Bucer, Martin Luther, Maryland Toleration Act, Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, Michael Servetus, Michael Walzer, Michel de Montaigne, Middle Ages, Mikhail Gorbachev, Minority influence, Moral relativism, Mormons, Multifaith space, Mumbai, Nathan Katz (professor), Nathan the Wise, National Constituent Assembly (France), New Amsterdam, Nontrinitarianism, Old Testament, On Liberty, Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance, Ottoman Empire, Paganism, Papal bull, Parable of the Tares, Paradox of tolerance, Parsi, Partition of India, Patrick Devlin, Baron Devlin, Paweł Włodkowic, People of the Book, Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse, Pierre Bayle, Pilgrims (Plymouth Colony), Plymouth Colony, Pogrom, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Polygamy, Pope Clement VI, Protestantism, Quran, Reformation, Religious discrimination, Religious intolerance, Religious persecution, Religious pluralism, Religious war, Rhode Island, Rigveda, Robert Nozick, Roger Williams, Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829, Roman Empire, Romani people, Ronald Dworkin, Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, Sam Harris, Sati (practice), Sebastian Castellio, Sebastian Franck, Second Vatican Council, Secular state, Separation of church and state, Sharia, Simon & Schuster, State religion, Statute of Kalisz, Sustainable development, Tata family, Temple in Jerusalem, Teutonic Order, The Bloudy Tenent of Persecution for Cause of Conscience, The End of Faith, Thomas Hobbes, Thomas Hooker, Thomas More, Toleration Act 1689, Totalitarianism, Tractatus Theologico-Politicus, Treatise on Tolerance, Tyranny of the majority, United Nations, United States Bill of Rights, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Utopia (book), Voltaire, Waldensians, Warsaw Confederation, Wazo of Liège, What Is a Nation?, Will Kymlicka, Wolfgang Capito, Zeno (periodical). Expand index (170 more) » « Shrink index
A Critique of Pure Tolerance is a 1965 book by the philosopher Robert Paul Wolff, the sociologist Barrington Moore Jr., and the philosopher Herbert Marcuse.
A Letter Concerning Toleration by John Locke was originally published in 1689.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding is a work by John Locke concerning the foundation of human knowledge and understanding.
Anabaptism (from Neo-Latin anabaptista, from the Greek ἀναβαπτισμός: ἀνά- "re-" and βαπτισμός "baptism", Täufer, earlier also WiedertäuferSince the middle of the 20th century, the German-speaking world no longer uses the term "Wiedertäufer" (translation: "Re-baptizers"), considering it biased. The term Täufer (translation: "Baptizers") is now used, which is considered more impartial. From the perspective of their persecutors, the "Baptizers" baptized for the second time those "who as infants had already been baptized". The denigrative term Anabaptist signifies rebaptizing and is considered a polemical term, so it has been dropped from use in modern German. However, in the English-speaking world, it is still used to distinguish the Baptizers more clearly from the Baptists, a Protestant sect that developed later in England. Cf. their self-designation as "Brethren in Christ" or "Church of God":.) is a Christian movement which traces its origins to the Radical Reformation.
(अनेकान्तवाद, "many-sidedness") refers to the Jain doctrine about metaphysical truths that emerged in ancient India.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
Areopagitica; A speech of Mr.
Ashoka (died 232 BCE), or Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from to 232 BCE.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Avignon (Avenio; Provençal: Avignoun, Avinhon) is a commune in south-eastern France in the department of Vaucluse on the left bank of the Rhône river.
Separation of church and state is one of the primary theological distinctions of the Baptist tradition.
Baron Baltimore, of Baltimore Manor in County Longford, was a title in the Peerage of Ireland.
Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa,; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.
Bayezid II (3 December 1447 – 26 May 1512) (Ottoman Turkish: بايزيد ثانى Bāyezīd-i s̱ānī, Turkish: II. Bayezid or II. Beyazıt) was the eldest son and successor of Mehmed II, ruling as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512.
Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
Bernard Lewis, FBA (31 May 1916 – 19 May 2018) was a British American historian specializing in oriental studies.
Bhikkhu Bodhi (born December 10, 1944), born Jeffrey Block, is an American Theravada Buddhist monk, ordained in Sri Lanka and currently teaching in the New York and New Jersey area.
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
The Book of Deuteronomy (literally "second law," from Greek deuteros + nomos) is the fifth book of the Torah (a section of the Hebrew Bible) and the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Exodus or, simply, Exodus (from ἔξοδος, éxodos, meaning "going out"; וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמוֹת, we'elleh shəmōṯ, "These are the names", the beginning words of the text: "These are the names of the sons of Israel" וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמֹות בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל), is the second book of the Torah and the Hebrew Bible (the Old Testament) immediately following Genesis.
The Book of Leviticus is the third book of the Torah and of the Old Testament.
Brian Barry FBA (13 January 1936 – 10 March 2009) was a moral and political philosopher.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
Catharism (from the Greek: καθαροί, katharoi, "the pure ") was a Christian dualist or Gnostic revival movement that thrived in some areas of Southern Europe, particularly northern Italy and what is now southern France, between the 12th and 14th centuries.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
Congregational churches (also Congregationalist churches; Congregationalism) are Protestant churches in the Reformed tradition practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs.
Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
The Council of Constance is the 15th-century ecumenical council recognized by the Catholic Church, held from 1414 to 1418 in the Bishopric of Constance.
Cyberbullying or cyberharassment is a form of bullying or harassment using electronic means.
Cyrus II of Persia (𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 Kūruš; New Persian: کوروش Kuruš;; c. 600 – 530 BC), commonly known as Cyrus the Great  and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire.
A Day of Prayer is a day allocated to prayer, either by leaders of religions or the general public, for a specific purpose.
The Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen of 1789 (Déclaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen de 1789), set by France's National Constituent Assembly in 1789, is a human civil rights document from the French Revolution.
Historians have produced and worked with a number of definitions of Puritanism, in an unresolved debate on the nature of the Puritan movement of the 16th and 17th century.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
Dennis Mark Prager (born 1948) is an American nationally syndicated conservative radio talk show host and writer.
A (ذمي,, collectively أهل الذمة / "the people of the dhimma") is a historical term referring to non-Muslims living in an Islamic state with legal protection.
The Dictionnaire Historique et Critique (in English, the Historical and Critical Dictionary) was a biographical dictionary written by Pierre Bayle (1647–1706), a Huguenot who lived and published in Holland after fleeing his native France due to religious persecution.
The Diet of Worms 1521 (Reichstag zu Worms) was an imperial diet (assembly) of the Holy Roman Empire held at the Heylshof Garden in Worms, then an Imperial Free City of the Empire.
Dignitatis humanae (Of the Dignity of the Human Person) is the Second Vatican Council's Declaration on Religious Freedom.
The Dorje Shugden controversy is a controversy over Dorje Shugden, also known as Dolgyal, who some consider to be one of several protectors of the Gelug school, the school of Tibetan Buddhism to which the Dalai Lamas belong.
The Edict of Fontainebleau (22 October 1685) was an edict issued by Louis XIV of France, also known as the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes.
The Edict of Nantes (French: édit de Nantes), signed in April 1598 by King Henry IV of France, granted the Calvinist Protestants of France (also known as Huguenots) substantial rights in the nation, which was still considered essentially Catholic at the time.
The Edict of Serdica, also called Edict of Toleration by Galerius, was issued in 311 in Serdica (today Sofia, Bulgaria) by the Roman emperor Galerius, officially ending the Diocletianic persecution of Christianity in the East.
An edict of toleration is a declaration, made by a government or ruler and states, that members of a given religion will not be persecuted for engaging in their religious practices and traditions.
The Edict of Torda (tordai ediktum) was a decree that authorized local communities to freely elect their preachers in the "eastern Hungarian Kingdom" of John Sigismund Zápolya.
The Edict of Versailles, commonly known as the Edict of Tolerance, was an official act that gave non-Catholics in France the right to openly practice their religions as well as legal and civil status, which included the right to contract marriages without having to convert to the Catholic faith.
The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka as well as boulders and cave walls made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan Empire during his reign from 269 BCE to 232 BCE.
Edirne, historically known as Adrianople (Hadrianopolis in Latin or Adrianoupolis in Greek, founded by the Roman emperor Hadrian on the site of a previous Thracian settlement named Uskudama), is a city in the northwestern Turkish province of Edirne in the region of East Thrace, close to Turkey's borders with Greece and Bulgaria.
Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (28 October 1466Gleason, John B. "The Birth Dates of John Colet and Erasmus of Rotterdam: Fresh Documentary Evidence," Renaissance Quarterly, The University of Chicago Press on behalf of the Renaissance Society of America, Vol. 32, No. 1 (Spring, 1979), pp. 73–76; – 12 July 1536), known as Erasmus or Erasmus of Rotterdam,Erasmus was his baptismal name, given after St. Erasmus of Formiae.
Joseph Ernest Renan (28 February 1823 – 2 October 1892) was a French expert of Semitic languages and civilizations (philology), philosopher, historian, and writer, devoted to his native province of Brittany.
Exegesis (from the Greek ἐξήγησις from ἐξηγεῖσθαι, "to lead out") is a critical explanation or interpretation of a text, particularly a religious text.
Exponential growth is exhibited when the rate of change—the change per instant or unit of time—of the value of a mathematical function is proportional to the function's current value, resulting in its value at any time being an exponential function of time, i.e., a function in which the time value is the exponent.
Feroze Gandhi (born Feroze Jehangir Ghandy;: "Feroze Gandhi was also from the Nehrus' home town, Allahabad. A Parsi by faith, he at first spelt his surname 'Ghandy'. However, after he joined the national movement as a young man, he changed the spelling to bring it in line with that of Mahatma Gandhi." 12 September 1912 – 8 September 1960) was an Indian politician and journalist.
The First Amendment (Amendment I) to the United States Constitution prevents Congress from making any law respecting an establishment of religion, prohibiting the free exercise of religion, or abridging the freedom of speech, the freedom of the press, the right to peaceably assemble, or to petition for a governmental redress of grievances.
Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.
The status of religious freedom around the world varies from country to country.
Freedom of thought (also called freedom of conscience or ideas) is the freedom of an individual to hold or consider a fact, viewpoint, or thought, independent of others' viewpoints.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Galerius (Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus Augustus; c. 250 – April or May 311) was Roman Emperor from 305 to 311.
Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
In the Russian language the word glasnost (гла́сность) has several general and specific meanings.
Gospel is the Old English translation of Greek εὐαγγέλιον, evangelion, meaning "good news".
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (22 January 1729 – 15 February 1781) was a German writer, philosopher, dramatist, publicist and art critic, and one of the most outstanding representatives of the Enlightenment era.
Herbert Lionel Adolphus Hart, FBA (18 July 1907 – 19 December 1992), usually cited as H. L. A. Hart, was a British legal philosopher, and a major figure in political and legal philosophy.
Hasia Diner is an American historian.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
The Henrician Articles or King Henry's Articles (Polish: Artykuły henrykowskie, Latin: Articuli Henriciani) were a permanent contract between the "Polish nation" (i.e., the szlachta (nobility) of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) and a newly elected king upon his election to the throne that stated the fundamental principles of governance and constitutional law in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Henry IV (Henri IV, read as Henri-Quatre; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithet Good King Henry, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610.
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death.
Sir Herbert Butterfield (7 October 1900 – 20 July 1979) was Regius Professor of History and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge.
Herbert Marcuse (July 19, 1898 – July 29, 1979) was a German-American philosopher, sociologist, and political theorist, associated with the Frankfurt School of Critical Theory.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
This article gives a historical overview of Christian positions on Persecution of Christians, persecutions by Christians, religious persecution and toleration.
The history of the Jews in Poland dates back over 1,000 years.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Holy Spirit (also called Holy Ghost) is a term found in English translations of the Bible that is understood differently among the Abrahamic religions.
Huguenots (Les huguenots) are an ethnoreligious group of French Protestants who follow the Reformed tradition.
Huldrych Zwingli or Ulrich Zwingli (1 January 1484 – 11 October 1531) was a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
The Hussites (Husité or Kališníci; "Chalice People") were a pre-Protestant Christian movement that followed the teachings of Czech reformer Jan Hus, who became the best known representative of the Bohemian Reformation.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (née Nehru; 19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984) was an Indian politician, stateswoman and a central figure of the Indian National Congress.
Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty.
Information and communication technology (ICT) is another/extensional term for information technology (IT) which stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), computers as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audio-visual systems, which enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information.
The International Day for Tolerance is an annual observance declared by UNESCO in 1995 to generate public awareness of the dangers of intolerance.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Sir Isaiah Berlin (6 June 1909 – 5 November 1997) was a Russian-British social and political theorist, philosopher and historian of ideas.
Over the centuries of Islamic history, Muslim rulers, Islamic scholars, and ordinary Muslims have held many different attitudes towards other religions.
The Islamic scarf controversy in France, referred to there as l'affaire du voile (the veil affair), l'affaire du voile islamique (the Islamic veil affair), and l'affaire du foulard (the scarf affair) arose in 1989, pertaining to the wearing of the hijab in French public schools.
James Freeman Clarke (April 4, 1810 – June 8, 1888) was an American theologian and author.
Jan Hus (– 6 July 1415), sometimes Anglicized as John Hus or John Huss, also referred to in historical texts as Iohannes Hus or Johannes Huss) was a Czech theologian, Roman Catholic priest, philosopher, master, dean, and rectorhttps://www.britannica.com/biography/Jan-Hus Encyclopedia Britannica - Jan Hus of the Charles University in Prague who became a church reformer, an inspirer of Hussitism, a key predecessor to Protestantism and a seminal figure in the Bohemian Reformation. After John Wycliffe, the theorist of ecclesiastical reform, Hus is considered the first church reformer, as he lived before Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli. His teachings had a strong influence on the states of Western Europe, most immediately in the approval of a reformed Bohemian religious denomination, and, more than a century later, on Martin Luther himself. He was burned at the stake for heresy against the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church, including those on ecclesiology, the Eucharist, and other theological topics. After Hus was executed in 1415, the followers of his religious teachings (known as Hussites) rebelled against their Roman Catholic rulers and defeated five consecutive papal crusades between 1420 and 1431 in what became known as the Hussite Wars. Both the Bohemian and the Moravian populations remained majority Hussite until the 1620s, when a Protestant defeat in the Battle of the White Mountain resulted in the Lands of the Bohemian Crown coming under Habsburg dominion for the next 300 years and being subject to immediate and forced conversion in an intense campaign of return to Roman Catholicism.
Jean Bodin (1530–1596) was a French jurist and political philosopher, member of the Parlement of Paris and professor of law in Toulouse.
Jeremy Bentham (15 February 1748 – 6 June 1832) was an English philosopher, jurist, and social reformer regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tfutza, תְּפוּצָה) or exile (Hebrew: Galut, גָּלוּת; Yiddish: Golus) is the dispersion of Israelites, Judahites and later Jews out of their ancestral homeland (the Land of Israel) and their subsequent settlement in other parts of the globe.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Johann Reuchlin (sometimes called Johannes; 29 January 1455 – 30 June 1522) was a German-born humanist and a scholar of Greek and Hebrew, whose work also took him to modern-day Austria, Switzerland, and Italy and France.
Johann (Johannes) Brenz (24 June 1499 – 11 September 1570) was a German theologian and the Protestant Reformer of the Duchy of Württemberg.
Johannes Oecolampadius (also Œcolampadius, in German also Oekolampadius, Oekolampad; 1482 in Weinsberg, Electoral Palatinate in the Holy Roman Empire – 24 November 1531 in Basel, Canton of Basel in the Old Swiss Confederacy) was a German Protestant reformer in the Reformed tradition from the Electoral Palatinate.
Johannes (Josef) Pfefferkorn (1469–1523) was a German Catholic theologian and writer who converted from Judaism.
John Calvin (Jean Calvin; born Jehan Cauvin; 10 July 150927 May 1564) was a French theologian, pastor and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation.
John Nicholas Gray (born 17 April 1948) is an English political philosopher with interests in analytic philosophy and the history of ideas.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John Milton (9 December 16088 November 1674) was an English poet, polemicist, man of letters, and civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under its Council of State and later under Oliver Cromwell.
John Bordley Rawls (February 21, 1921 – November 24, 2002) was an American moral and political philosopher in the liberal tradition.
John Sigismund Zápolya or Szapolyai (Szapolyai János Zsigmond; 7 July 1540 – 14 March 1571) was King of Hungary as John II from 1540 to 1551, and from 1556 to 1570, and the first Prince of Transylvania from 1570 to his death.
John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.
Joseph Telushkin (born 1948) is an American rabbi, lecturer, and bestselling author of more than 15 books, including volumes about Jewish ethics, Jewish literacy, and "Rebbe", a New York Times bestseller released in June 2014.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Julia Kristeva (Юлия Кръстева; born 24 June 1941) is a Bulgarian-French philosopher, literary critic, psychoanalyst, feminist, and, most recently, novelist, who has lived in France since the mid-1960s.
Sir Karl Raimund Popper (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher and professor.
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.
LGBT, or GLBT, is an initialism that stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender.
Libertarianism (from libertas, meaning "freedom") is a collection of political philosophies and movements that uphold liberty as a core principle.
Licinius I (Gaius Valerius Licinianus Licinius Augustus;In Classical Latin, Licinius' name would be inscribed as GAIVS VALERIVS LICINIANVS LICINIVS AVGVSTVS. c. 263 – 325) was a Roman emperor from 308 to 324.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774.
Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793), born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule.
Martin Bucer (early German: Martin Butzer; 11 November 1491 – 28 February 1551) was a German Protestant reformer based in Strasbourg who influenced Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anglican doctrines and practices.
Martin Luther, (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.
The Maryland Toleration Act, also known as the Act Concerning Religion, was a law mandating religious tolerance for Trinitarian Christians.
Maximilian II (31 July 1527 – 12 October 1576), a member of the Austrian House of Habsburg, was Holy Roman Emperor from 1564 until his death.
Michael Servetus (Miguel Serveto, Michel Servet), also known as Miguel Servet, Miguel Serveto, Michel Servet, Revés, or Michel de Villeneuve (29 September 1509 or 1511 – 27 October 1553), was a Spanish (then French) theologian, physician, cartographer, and Renaissance humanist.
Michael Walzer (March 3, 1935) is a prominent American political theorist and public intellectual.
Michel Eyquem de Montaigne, Lord of Montaigne (28 February 1533 – 13 September 1592) was one of the most significant philosophers of the French Renaissance, known for popularizing the essay as a literary genre.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
Minority influence, a form of social influence, takes place when a member of a minority group influences the majority to accept the minority's beliefs or behavior.
Moral relativism may be any of several philosophical positions concerned with the differences in moral judgments across different people and cultures.
Mormons are a religious and cultural group related to Mormonism, the principal branch of the Latter Day Saint movement of Restorationist Christianity, initiated by Joseph Smith in upstate New York during the 1820s.
A multifaith space or multifaith prayer room is a quiet location set aside in a busy public place (hospital, university, airport, etc.) where people of differing religious beliefs, or none at all, are able to spend time in contemplation or prayer.
Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
Nathan Katz, Ph.D., is Distinguished Professor, Emeritus, in the School of International and Public Affairs, Florida International University (FIU).
Nathan the Wise (original German title) is a play published by Gotthold Ephraim Lessing in 1779.
The National Constituent Assembly (Assemblée nationale constituante) was formed from the National Assembly on 9 July 1789 during the first stages of the French Revolution.
New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam, or) was a 17th-century Dutch settlement established at the southern tip of Manhattan Island that served as the seat of the colonial government in New Netherland.
Nontrinitarianism is a form of Christianity that rejects the mainstream Christian doctrine of the Trinity—the teaching that God is three distinct hypostases or persons who are coeternal, coequal, and indivisibly united in one being, or essence (from the Greek ousia).
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
On Liberty is a philosophical work by the English philosopher John Stuart Mill, originally intended as a short essay.
The Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance (OCRT) is a group in Kingston, Ontario dedicated to the promotion of religious tolerance through their website, ReligiousTolerance.org.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Roman Catholic Church.
The Parable of the Tares (also known as the Parable of the Weeds, Parable of the Wheat and Tares, Parable of the Wheat and Weeds, or the Parable of the Weeds in the Grain), is one of the parables of Jesus, which appears in.
The paradox of tolerance was described by Karl Popper in 1945.
A Parsi (or Parsee) means "Persian" in the "Persian Language", which today mainly refers to a member of a Zoroastrian community, one of two (the other being Iranis) mainly located in India, with a few in Pakistan.
The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan.
Patrick Arthur Devlin, Baron Devlin, PC (25 November 1905 – 9 August 1992) was a British judge who served as a Law Lord.
Paweł Włodkowic (Paulus Vladimiri in Latin) (ca. 1370 – 9 October 1435) was a distinguished scholar, jurist and rector of the Kraków Academy who defended Poland and native non-Christian tribes against the Teutonic Knights and their policies of conquest.
People of the Book/Scripture (أهل الكتاب ′Ahl al-Kitāb) is an Islamic term referring to Jews, Christians, and Sabians and sometimes applied to members of other religions such as Zoroastrians.
Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse (13 November 1504 – 31 March 1567), nicknamed der Großmütige ("the magnanimous"), was a leading champion of the Protestant Reformation and one of the most important of the early Protestant rulers in Germany.
Pierre Bayle (18 November 1647 – 28 December 1706) was a French philosopher and writer best known for his seminal work the Historical and Critical Dictionary, published beginning in 1697.
The Pilgrims or Pilgrim Fathers were early European settlers of the Plymouth Colony in present-day Plymouth, Massachusetts, United States.
Plymouth Colony (sometimes New Plymouth) was an English colonial venture in North America from 1620 to 1691.
The term pogrom has multiple meanings, ascribed most often to the deliberate persecution of an ethnic or religious group either approved or condoned by the local authorities.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
Polygamy (from Late Greek πολυγαμία, polygamía, "state of marriage to many spouses") is the practice of marrying multiple spouses.
Clement VI (Clemens VI; 1291 – 6 December 1352), born Pierre Roger, was Pope from 7 May 1342 to his death in 1352.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
Religious discrimination is treating a person or group differently because of the beliefs they hold about a religion.
Religious intolerance is intolerance against another's religious beliefs or practices or lack thereof.
Religious persecution is the systematic mistreatment of an individual or group of individuals as a response to their religious beliefs or affiliations or lack thereof.
Religious pluralism is an attitude or policy regarding the diversity of religious belief systems co-existing in society.
A religious war or holy war (bellum sacrum) is a war primarily caused or justified by differences in religion.
Rhode Island, officially the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, is a state in the New England region of the United States.
The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.
Robert Nozick (November 16, 1938 – January 23, 2002) was an American philosopher.
Roger Williams (c. 21 December 1603 – between 27 January and 15 March 1683) was a Puritan minister, English Reformed theologian, and Reformed Baptist who founded the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
The Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829, passed by Parliament in 1829, was the culmination of the process of Catholic Emancipation throughout the UK.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
Ronald Myles Dworkin, FBA (December 11, 1931 – February 14, 2013) was an American philosopher, jurist, and scholar of United States constitutional law.
Rudolf II (18 July 1552 – 20 January 1612) was Holy Roman Emperor (1576–1612), King of Hungary and Croatia (as Rudolf I, 1572–1608), King of Bohemia (1575–1608/1611) and Archduke of Austria (1576–1608).
Sam Benjamin Harris (born April 9, 1967) is an American author, philosopher, neuroscientist, critic of religion, blogger, and podcast host.
Sati or suttee is an obsolete funeral custom where a widow immolates herself on her husband's pyre or takes her own life in another fashion shortly after her husband's death.
Sebastian Castellio (also Sébastien Châteillon, Châtaillon, Castellión, and Castello; 1515 – 29 December 1563) was a French preacher and theologian; and one of the first Reformed Christian proponents of religious toleration, freedom of conscience and thought.
Sebastian Franck (20 January 1499 – c. 1543) was a 16th-century German freethinker, humanist, and radical reformer.
The Second Vatican Council, fully the Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican and informally known as addressed relations between the Catholic Church and the modern world.
A secular state is an idea pertaining to secularism, whereby a state is or purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion, supporting neither religion nor irreligion.
The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation state.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
The General Charter of Jewish Liberties known as the Statute of Kalisz, and as the Kalisz Privilege, was issued by the Duke of Greater Poland Boleslaus the Pious on September 8, 1264 in Kalisz.
Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while at the same time sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services upon which the economy and society depend.
The Tata family is a prominent Indian business family, based in the Indian city of Mumbai.
The Temple in Jerusalem was any of a series of structures which were located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem, the current site of the Dome of the Rock and Al-Aqsa Mosque.
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.
The Bloudy Tenent of Persecution, for Cause of Conscience, Discussed in a Conference between Truth and Peace is a 1644 book about government force written by Roger Williams, the founder of the American colony of Providence Plantation and the co-founder of the First Baptist Church in America.
The End of Faith: Religion, Terror, and the Future of Reason is a 2004 book by Sam Harris, concerning organized religion, the clash between religious faith and rational thought, and the problems of tolerance towards religious fundamentalism.
Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.
Thomas Hooker (July 5, 1586 – July 7, 1647) was a prominent Puritan colonial leader, who founded the Colony of Connecticut after dissenting with Puritan leaders in Massachusetts.
Sir Thomas More (7 February 14786 July 1535), venerated in the Catholic Church as Saint Thomas More, was an English lawyer, social philosopher, author, statesman, and noted Renaissance humanist.
The Toleration Act 1689 (1 Will & Mary c 18), also referred to as the Act of Toleration, was an Act of the Parliament of England, which received the royal assent on 24 May 1689.
Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
Written by the Dutch philosopher Baruch Spinoza, the Tractatus Theologico-Politicus (TTP) or Theologico-Political Treatise was one of the most controversial texts of the early modern period.
The Treatise on Tolerance on the Occasion of the Death of Jean Calas from the Judgment Rendered in Toulouse (Pieces Originales Concernant la Mort des Sieurs Calas det le Jugement rendu a Toulouse) is a work by French philosopher Voltaire, published in 1763, in which he calls for tolerance between religions, and targets religious fanaticism, especially that of the Jesuits (under whom Voltaire received his early education), indicting all superstitions surrounding religions.
Tyranny of the majority (or tyranny of the masses) refers to an inherent weakness of direct democracy and majority rule in which the majority of an electorate can and does place its own interests above, and at the expense of, those in the minority.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The Bill of Rights is the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.
Utopia (Libellus vere aureus, nec minus salutaris quam festivus, de optimo rei publicae statu deque nova insula Utopia) is a work of fiction and socio-political satire by Thomas More (1478–1535) published in 1516 in Latin.
François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.
The Waldensians (also known variously as Waldenses, Vallenses, Valdesi or Vaudois) are a pre-Protestant Christian movement founded by Peter Waldo in Lyon around 1173.
The Warsaw Confederation, signed on 28 January 1573 by the Polish national assembly (sejm konwokacyjny) in Warsaw, was the first European act granting religious freedoms.
Wazo of Liège (c. 985 – 1048) was bishop of Liège from 1041 to 1048, and a significant educator and theologian.
"What is a Nation?" ("Qu'est-ce qu'une nation?") is an 1882 lecture by French historian Ernest Renan (1823–1892), known for the statements that a nation is "a daily referendum", and that nations are based as much on what the people jointly forget, as what they remember.
Will Kymlicka (born 1962) is a Canadian political philosopher best known for his work on multiculturalism and animal ethics.
Wolfgang Fabricius Capito (also Koepfel) (– November 1541) was a German Protestant reformer in the Reformed tradition.
Zeno is the single German-language periodical devoted specifically to work at the intersection of philosophy and literature, featuring essays, reviews, stories and poems.