230 relations: Abugida, Acute accent, Affirmation and negation, Afroasiatic languages, Alaska, Algonquian languages, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, Amdo Tibetan, André-Georges Haudricourt, Arapaho language, Areal feature, Assimilation (phonology), Athabaskan languages, Austroasiatic languages, Austronesian languages, Bantu languages, Bench language, Bengali–Assamese languages, Berber languages, Bhutan, Burmese language, Cambridge University Press, Cangin languages, Cantonese, Cèmuhî language, Central Franconian dialects, Central Tibetan language, Chadic languages, Chakma language, Chamic languages, Chatino language, Cherokee language, Cheyenne language, Chichimeca Jonaz language, China, Chinese language, Chittagonian language, Circumflex, Constructed language, Contour (linguistics), Cori language, Creaky voice, Creole language, Cushitic languages, Depressor consonant, Diacritic, Dinka people, Diphthong, Dogri language, Dot (diacritic), ..., Downdrift, Downstep, Dungan language, Egyptian language, Elision, Etymology, Ewe language, Floating tone, Fox language, Fricative consonant, Fula language, Glottalization, Grammatical person, Grammatical tense, Grave accent, Greek language, Gyeongsang dialect, Hainan, Hangul, Hausa language, History of Korean, Hmong language, Hmong–Mien languages, Hook above, Hopi language, Huave language, Huichol language, Hupa language, Igbo language, Indo-Aryan languages, Inflection, International Phonetic Alphabet, Intonation (linguistics), Iroquoian languages, Iu Mien language, James Matisoff, Japanese language, Japanese pitch accent, Kam language, Kam–Sui languages, Ket language, Khmer language, Khoisan languages, Koyra Chiini language, Koyukon language, Kra–Dai languages, Kru languages, Lahnda, Language, Lao language, Larry Hyman, Latvian language, Lenition, Lhasa, Limburgish, Lingala, Lion-Eating Poet in the Stone Den, Lithuanian language, Luo dialect, Ma'ya language, Mainland Southeast Asia, Mainland Southeast Asia linguistic area, Malay language, Malayo-Polynesian languages, Mandarin Chinese, Maninka language, Matbat language, Matlatzinca languages, Mayan languages, Meeussen's rule, Mesoamerica, Middle Chinese, Minimal pair, Mixtec, Mixtecan languages, Mohawk language, Mon language, Mongolian language, Mor language (Austronesian), Morpheme, Morphology (linguistics), Mpi language, Munda languages, Murmured voice, Musical language, Navajo language, Ndyuka language, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Niger–Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, North Germanic languages, Norwegian language, Old Chinese, Omotic languages, Oto-Manguean languages, Otomi language, Oxford University Press, Paicî language, Papiamento, Papuan languages, Phonation, Phoneme, Phonological change, Pinyin, Pirahã language, Pitch (music), Pitch-accent language, Pragmatics, Prosodic unit, Prosody (linguistics), Punjabi language, Register (phonology), Rohingya language, Romanized Popular Alphabet, Russian language, Sandawe language, Saramaccan language, Sekani language, Semitic languages, Senegambia Confederation, Serbo-Croatian, Serer language, Shanghainese, Siane language, Sino-Tibetan languages, Slavey language, Slovene language, Solresol, South Korea, Southern Athabaskan languages, Southwestern United States, Standard Chinese, Standard Chinese phonology, Stiff voice, Stress (linguistics), Sub-Saharan Africa, Swahili language, Swedish language, Sylheti language, Syllabic consonant, Syllable, Talking drum, Terrace (agriculture), Thai alphabet, Thai language, Tibetic languages, Ticuna language, Tilde, Tone (linguistics), Tone contour, Tone letter, Tone name, Tone number, Tone pattern, Tone sandhi, Tone terracing, Tongue-twister, Trail of Tears, Transphonologization, Trique language, Tsat language, Tzotzil language, Usila Chinantec, Uspantek language, Utsul, Uyghur language, Varieties of Chinese, Vietic languages, Vietnamese language, Voice (phonetics), Whistled language, Wobé language, Wolof language, Yoruba language, Yucatec Maya language, Yue Chinese, Yuen Ren Chao, Zapotec languages, Zulu language. Expand index (180 more) » « Shrink index
An abugida (from Ge'ez: አቡጊዳ ’abugida), or alphasyllabary, is a segmental writing system in which consonant–vowel sequences are written as a unit: each unit is based on a consonant letter, and vowel notation is secondary.
The acute accent (´) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.
In linguistics and grammar, affirmation and negation (abbreviated respectively and) are the ways that grammar encode negative and positive polarity in verb phrases, clauses, or other utterances.
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
The Algonquian languages (or; also Algonkian) are a subfamily of Native American languages which includes most of the languages in the Algic language family.
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (commonly shortened to Alice in Wonderland) is an 1865 novel written by English author Charles Lutwidge Dodgson under the pseudonym Lewis Carroll.
The Amdo language (also called Am kä) is the Tibetic language spoken by the majority of Amdo Tibetans, mainly in Qinghai and some parts of Sichuan (Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture) and Gansu (Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture).
André-Georges Haudricourt (January 17, 1911 - August 20, 1996) was a French botanist, anthropologist and linguist.
The Arapaho (Arapahoe) language (in Arapaho: Hinónoʼeitíít) is one of the Plains Algonquian languages, closely related to Gros Ventre and other Arapahoan languages.
In linguistics, areal features are elements shared by languages or dialects in a geographic area, particularly when the languages are not descended from a common ancestor language.
In phonology, assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound.
Athabaskan or Athabascan (also Dene, Athapascan, Athapaskan) is a large family of indigenous languages of North America, located in western North America in three groups of contiguous languages: Northern, Pacific Coast and Southern (or Apachean).
The Austroasiatic languages, formerly known as Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China, with around 117 million speakers.
The Austronesian languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.
The Bantu languages (English:, Proto-Bantu: */baⁿtʊ̀/) technically the Narrow Bantu languages, as opposed to "Wide Bantu", a loosely defined categorization which includes other "Bantoid" languages are a large family of languages spoken by the Bantu peoples throughout Sub-Saharan Africa.
Bench (Bencnon, Shenon or Mernon, formerly called Gimira Rapold 2006) is a Northern Omotic language of the "Gimojan" subgroup, spoken by about 174,000 people (in 1998) in the Bench Maji Zone of the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples Region, in southern Ethiopia, around the towns of Mizan Teferi and Shewa Gimira.
The Bengali–Assamese languages (or Assamese-Bengali languages) belong to the Eastern zone of Indo-Aryan languages.
The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
Bhutan, officially the Kingdom of Bhutan (Druk Gyal Khap), is a landlocked country in South Asia.
The Burmese language (မြန်မာဘာသာ, MLCTS: mranmabhasa, IPA) is the official language of Myanmar.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The Cangin languages are spoken by 200,000 people (as of 2007) in a small area east of Dakar, Senegal.
The Cantonese language is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton) and its surrounding area in southeastern China.
Cemuhî (Camuhi, Camuki, Tyamuhi, Wagap) is an Oceanic language spoken on the island of New Caledonia, in the area of Poindimié, Koné, and Touho.
Central Franconian (mittelfränkische Dialekte, mittelfränkische Mundarten, Mittelfränkisch) refers to the following continuum of West Central German dialects.
Central Tibetan, also known as Dbus, Ü or Ü-Tsang, is the most widely spoken Tibetic language and the basis of Standard Tibetan.
The Chadic languages form a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
Chakma language (autonym: 𑄌𑄋𑄴𑄟𑄳𑄦 𑄞𑄌𑄴, script) is an Indo-European language spoken by the Chakma and Daingnet people.
The Chamic languages, also known as Aceh–Chamic and Achinese–Chamic, are a group of ten languages spoken in Aceh (Sumatra, Indonesia) and in parts of Cambodia, Vietnam and Hainan, China.
Chatino is a group of indigenous Mesoamerican languages.
Cherokee (ᏣᎳᎩ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ, Tsalagi Gawonihisdi) is an endangered Iroquoian language and the native language of the Cherokee people.
The Cheyenne language (Tsėhésenėstsestȯtse), or Tsisinstsistots, is the Native American language spoken by the Cheyenne people, predominantly in present-day Montana and Oklahoma, in the United States.
Chichimeca or Chichimeca Jonaz is an indigenous language of Mexico spoken by around 200 Chichimeca Jonaz people in Misión de Chichimecas near San Luis de la Paz in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Chittagonian or Chittagong Bangla, also Chatgaya (চাঁটগাঁইয়া) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the people of Chittagong in Bangladesh and in much of the southeast of the country.
The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin, Greek and Cyrillic scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and transcription schemes.
A constructed language (sometimes called a conlang) is a language whose phonology, grammar, and vocabulary have been consciously devised for human or human-like communication, instead of having developed naturally.
In phonetics, contour describes speech sounds which behave as single segments, but which make an internal transition from one quality, place, or manner to another.
The Cori (Chori) language is a minor Plateau language spoken in a single village in Kaduna State in Nigeria.
In linguistics, creaky voice (sometimes called laryngealisation, pulse phonation, vocal fry, or glottal fry) is a special kind of phonation in which the arytenoid cartilages in the larynx are drawn together; as a result, the vocal folds are compressed rather tightly, becoming relatively slack and compact.
A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages at a fairly sudden point in time: often, a pidgin transitioned into a full, native language.
The Cushitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
A depressor consonant is a consonant that depresses (lowers) the tone of its or a neighboring syllable.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
The Dinka people (Jiɛ̈ɛ̈ŋ) are a community, composed of many ethnic groups, inhabiting the East and West Banks of River Nile, from Mangalla to Renk, regions of Bahr el Ghazal, Upper Nile (former two of three Southern Provinces in Sudan) and Abyei Area of the Angok Dinka in South Khordofan of Sudan.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
Dogri (डोगरी or), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about five million people in India and Pakistan, chiefly in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh, but also in northern Punjab, other parts of Jammu and Kashmir, and elsewhere.
When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the Interpunct (·), or to the glyphs 'combining dot above' (◌̇) and 'combining dot below' (◌̣) which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Central European languages and Vietnamese.
In phonetics, downdrift (also known as 'automatic downstep') is the cumulative lowering of pitch in the course of a sentence due to interactions among tones in a tonal language.
Downstep is a phenomenon in tone languages in which if two syllables have the same tone (for example, both with a high tone or both with a low tone), the second syllable is lower in pitch than the first.
The Dungan language is a Sinitic language spoken primarily in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan by the Dungan people, an ethnic group related to the Hui people of China.
The Egyptian language was spoken in ancient Egypt and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages.
In linguistics, an elision or deletion is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or a whole syllable) in a word or phrase.
EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".
Ewe (Èʋe or Èʋegbe) is a Niger–Congo language spoken in southeastern Ghana by approximately 6–7 million people as either the first or second language.
A floating tone is a morpheme or element of a morpheme that contains no consonants, no vowels, but only tone.
Fox (known by a variety of different names, including Mesquakie (Meskwaki), Mesquakie-Sauk, Mesquakie-Sauk-Kickapoo, Sauk-Fox, and Sac and Fox) is an Algonquian language, spoken by a thousand Meskwaki, Sauk, and Kickapoo in various locations in the Midwestern United States and in northern Mexico.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
Fula Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh, also known as Fulani or Fulah (Fula: Fulfulde, Pulaar, Pular; Peul), is a language spoken as a set of various dialects in a continuum that stretches across some 20 countries in West and Central Africa.
Glottalization is the complete or partial closure of the glottis during the articulation of another sound.
Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person).
In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.
The grave accent (`) is a diacritical mark in many written languages, including Breton, Catalan, Corsican, Dutch, Emilian-Romagnol, French, West Frisian, Greek (until 1982; see polytonic orthography), Haitian Creole, Italian, Mohawk, Occitan, Portuguese, Ligurian, Scottish Gaelic, Vietnamese, Welsh, Romansh, and Yoruba.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Gyeongsang dialects (also spelled Kyŏngsang), or Southeastern Korean, are dialects of the Korean language of the Yeongnam region, which includes both Gyeongsang provinces, North and South.
Hainan is the smallest and southernmost province of the People's Republic of China (PRC), consisting of various islands in the South China Sea.
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul (from Korean hangeul 한글), has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by Sejong the Great.
Hausa (Yaren Hausa or Harshen Hausa) is the Chadic language (a branch of the Afroasiatic language family) with the largest number of speakers, spoken as a first language by some 27 million people, and as a second language by another 20 million.
The Korean language is attested from the early centuries of the Common Era in Chinese characters.
Hmong (RPA: Hmoob) or Mong (RPA: Moob), known as First Vernacular Chuanqiandian Miao in China, is a dialect continuum of the West Hmongic branch of the Hmongic languages spoken by the Hmong of Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, northern Vietnam, Thailand, and Laos.
The Hmong–Mien (also known as Miao–Yao) languages are a highly tonal language family of southern China and northern Southeast Asia.
In typesetting, the hook above (dấu hỏi) is a diacritic mark placed on top of vowels in the Vietnamese alphabet.
Hopi (Hopi: Hopílavayi) is a Uto-Aztecan language spoken by the Hopi people (a Pueblo group) of northeastern Arizona, United States, but some Hopi are now monolingual English-speakers.
Huave (also spelled Wabe) is a language isolate spoken by the indigenous Huave people on the Pacific coast of the Mexican state of Oaxaca.
The Huichol language is an indigenous language of Mexico which belongs to the Uto-Aztecan language family.
Hupa (native name: Na:tinixwe Mixine:whe, lit. "language of the Hoopa Valley people") is an Athabaskan language (of Na-Dené stock) spoken along the lower course of the Trinity River in Northwestern California by the Hupa (Na:tinixwe) and, before European contact, by the Chilula and Whilkut peoples, to the west.
Igbo (Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh), is the principal native language of the Igbo people, an ethnic group of southeastern Nigeria.
The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.
In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
In linguistics, intonation is variation in spoken pitch when used, not for distinguishing words (a concept known as tone), but, rather, for a range of other functions such as indicating the attitudes and emotions of the speaker, signalling the difference between statements and questions, and between different types of questions, focusing attention on important elements of the spoken message and also helping to regulate conversational interaction.
The Iroquoian languages are a language family of indigenous peoples of North America.
The Iu Mien language (Chinese: 勉語 or 勉方言; Thai: ภาษาอิวเมี่ยน) is the language spoken by the Iu Mien people in China (where they are considered a constituent group of the Yao peoples), Laos, Vietnam, Thailand and, more recently, the United States in diaspora.
James A. Matisoff (Chinese name: 马蒂索夫 Mǎdìsuǒfū or 马提索夫 Mǎtísuǒfū; born July 14, 1937) is a professor emeritus of Linguistics at the University of California, Berkeley and noted authority on Tibeto-Burman languages and other languages of mainland Southeast Asia.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
is the pitch accent in the Japanese language, which distinguishes words in most Japanese dialects.
The Kam language, also known as Gam (autonym: lix Gaeml), or in Chinese, Dong or Tung-Chia, is a Kam–Sui language spoken by the Dong people.
The Kam–Sui languages are a branch of the Kra–Dai languages spoken by the Kam–Sui peoples.
The Ket language, or more specifically Imbak and formerly known as Yenisei Ostyak,Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh is a Siberian language long thought to be an isolate, the sole surviving language of a Yeniseian language family.
Khmer or Cambodian (natively ភាសាខ្មែរ phiəsaa khmae, or more formally ខេមរភាសា kheemaʾraʾ phiəsaa) is the language of the Khmer people and the official language of Cambodia.
The Khoisan languages (also Khoesan or Khoesaan) are a group of African languages originally classified together by Joseph Greenberg.
Koyra Chiini (figuratively "town language"), or Western Songhay, is a member of the Songhay languages spoken in Mali by about 200,000 people (in 1999) along the Niger River in Timbuktu and upriver from it in the towns of Diré, Tonka, Goundam and Niafunké as well as in the Saharan town of Araouane to its north.
Koyukon (also called Denaakk'e) is the geographically most widespread Athabascan language spoken in Alaska.
The Kra–Dai languages (also known as Tai–Kadai, Daic and Kadai) are a language family of tonal languages found in southern China, Northeast India and Southeast Asia.
The Kru languages belong to the Niger–Congo language family and are spoken by the Kru people from the southeast of Liberia to the east of Ivory Coast.
Lahnda also known as Lahndi or Western Punjabi (is a group of north-western Indo-Aryan language varieties spoken in Pakistani Punjab and in parts of the neighbouring Azad Kashmir and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. These terms are exonyms and are not used by the speakers themselves. The emerging languages of this dialect area are Saraiki, Hindko and Pothohari. --> The validity of Lahnda as a genetic grouping has not been established.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Lao, sometimes referred to as Laotian (ລາວ 'Lao' or ພາສາລາວ 'Lao language') is a tonal language of the Kra–Dai language family.
Larry M. Hyman (born September 26, 1947 in Los Angeles) is Professor of Linguistics in the Department of Linguistics at the University of California at Berkeley.
Latvian (latviešu valoda) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
In linguistics, lenition is a kind of sound change that alters consonants, making them more sonorous.
Lhasa is a city and administrative capital of the Tibet Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China.
LimburgishLimburgish is pronounced, whereas Limburgan, Limburgian and Limburgic are, and.
Lingala (Ngala) is a Bantu language spoken throughout the northwestern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and a large part of the Republic of the Congo, as well as to some degree in Angola and the Central African Republic.
The Lion-Eating Poet in the Stone Den is a passage composed of 92 characters written in Classical Chinese by linguist and poet Yuen Ren Chao (1892–1982), in which every syllable has the sound shi when read in modern Mandarin Chinese, with only the tones differing.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
The Luo dialect, Dholuo (pronounced) or Nilotic Kavirondo (pejorative colonial term), is the eponymous dialect of the Luo group of Nilotic languages, spoken by about 6 million Luo people of Kenya and Tanzania, who occupy parts of the eastern shore of Lake Victoria and areas to the south.
Ma'ya is an Austronesian language spoken in West Papua by 6,000 people.
Mainland Southeast Asia, also known as the Indochinese Peninsula and previously as Indochina, is the continental portion of Southeast Asia east of India and south of China that is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the west and the Pacific Ocean to the east.
The Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA) linguistic area is a linguistic area that stretches from Thailand to China and is home to speakers of languages of the Sino-Tibetan, Hmong–Mien (or Miao–Yao), Kra–Dai, Austronesian (represented by Chamic) and Austroasiatic families.
Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.
The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages, with approximately 385.5 million speakers.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
Maninka (Malinke), or more precisely Eastern Maninka, is the name of several closely related languages and dialects of the southeastern Manding subgroup of the Mande branch of the Niger–Congo languages.
Matbat is a heavily Papuan-influenced Austronesian language spoken in West Papua on the island of Misool, Raja Ampat islands.
The Matlatzincan languages are two closely related Oto-Manguean language of the Oto-Pamean spoken in Central Mexico: Tlahuica/Ocuiltec and Matlatzinca.
The Mayan languagesIn linguistics, it is conventional to use Mayan when referring to the languages, or an aspect of a language.
Meeussen’s rule is a special case of tone reduction in Bantu languages.
Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Middle Chinese (formerly known as Ancient Chinese) or the Qieyun system (QYS) is the historical variety of Chinese recorded in the Qieyun, a rime dictionary first published in 601 and followed by several revised and expanded editions.
In phonology, minimal pairs are pairs of words or phrases in a particular language that differ in only one phonological element, such as a phoneme, toneme or chroneme, and have distinct meanings.
The Mixtecs, or Mixtecos, are indigenous Mesoamerican peoples of Mexico inhabiting the region known as La Mixteca of Oaxaca and Puebla as well as the state of Guerrero's Región Montañas, and Región Costa Chica, which covers parts of the Mexican states of Oaxaca, Guerrero and Puebla. The Mixtec region and the Mixtec peoples are traditionally divided into three groups, two based on their original economic caste and one based on the region they settled. High Mixtecs or mixteco alto were of the upper class and generally richer; the Low Mixtecs or "mixteco bajo" were generally poorer. In recent times, an economic reversal or equalizing has been seen. The third group is Coastal Mixtecs "mixteco de la costa" whose language is closely related to that of the Low Mixtecs; they currently inhabit the Pacific slope of Oaxaca and Guerrero. The Mixtec languages form a major branch of the Otomanguean language family. In pre-Columbian times, a number of Mixtecan city states competed with each other and with the Zapotec kingdoms. The major Mixtec polity was Tututepec which rose to prominence in the 11th century under the leadership of Eight Deer Jaguar Claw, the only Mixtec king who ever united the Highland and Lowland polities into a single state. Like the rest of the indigenous peoples of Mexico, the Mixtec were conquered by the Spanish invaders and their indigenous allies in the 16th century. Pre-Columbia Mixtecs numbered around 1.5 million. Today there are approximately 800,000 Mixtec people in Mexico, and there are also large populations in the United States.
The Mixtecan languages constitute a branch of the Otomanguean language family of Mexico.
Mohawk (Kanien’kéha, " of the Flint Place") is a threatened Iroquoian language currently spoken by around 3,500 people of the Mohawk nation, located primarily in Canada (southern Ontario and Quebec) and to a lesser extent in the United States (western and northern New York).
The Mon language (ဘာသာ မန်; မွန်ဘာသာ) is an Austroasiatic language spoken by the Mon people, who live in Myanmar and Thailand.
The Mongolian language (in Mongolian script: Moŋɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: монгол хэл, mongol khel.) is the official language of Mongolia and both the most widely-spoken and best-known member of the Mongolic language family.
Mor is a tonal Austronesian language in the putative Cenderawasih (Geelvink Bay) of Indonesian Papua.
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
Mpi is a Loloish language of Thailand.
The Munda languages are a language family spoken by about nine million people in central and eastern India and Bangladesh.
Murmur (also called breathy voice, whispery voice, soughing and susurration) is a phonation in which the vocal folds vibrate, as they do in normal (modal) voicing, but are adjusted to let more air escape which produces a sighing-like sound.
Musical languages are constructed languages based on musical sounds, which tend to incorporate articulation.
Navajo or Navaho (Navajo: Diné bizaad or Naabeehó bizaad) is a Southern Athabaskan language of the Na-Dené family, by which it is related to languages spoken across the western areas of North America.
Ndyuka, also called Aukan, Okanisi, Ndyuka tongo, Aukaans, Businenge Tongo (considered by some to be pejorative), Eastern Maroon Creole, or Nenge is a creole language of Suriname, spoken by the Ndyuka people.
New Caledonia (Nouvelle-Calédonie)Previously known officially as the "Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies" (Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et dépendances), then simply as the "Territory of New Caledonia" (French: Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie), the official French name is now only Nouvelle-Calédonie (Organic Law of 19 March 1999, article 222 IV — see). The French courts often continue to use the appellation Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie.
New Guinea (Nugini or, more commonly known, Papua, historically, Irian) is a large island off the continent of Australia.
The Niger–Congo languages constitute one of the world's major language families and Africa's largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers and number of distinct languages.
The Nilo-Saharan languages are a proposed family of African languages spoken by some 50–60 million people, mainly in the upper parts of the Chari and Nile rivers, including historic Nubia, north of where the two tributaries of the Nile meet.
The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese, and the ancestor of all modern varieties of Chinese.
The Omotic languages are group of languages spoken in southwestern Ethiopia.
Oto-Manguean languages (also Otomanguean) are a large family comprising several subfamilies of indigenous languages of the Americas.
Otomi (Spanish: Otomí) is a group of closely related indigenous languages of Mexico, spoken by approximately 240,000 indigenous Otomi people in the central ''altiplano'' region of Mexico.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Paicî is the most widely spoken of the two dozen languages on the main island of New Caledonia.
Papiamento or Papiamentu is a Portuguese-based creole language spoken in the Dutch West Indies.
The Papuan languages are the non-Austronesian and non-Australian languages spoken on the western Pacific island of New Guinea, and neighbouring islands, by around 4 million people.
The term phonation has slightly different meanings depending on the subfield of phonetics.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
In historical linguistics, phonological change is any sound change which alters the distribution of phonemes in a language.
Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.
Pirahã (also spelled Pirahá, Pirahán), or Múra-Pirahã, is the indigenous language of the isolated Pirahã of Amazonas, Brazil.
Pitch is a perceptual property of sounds that allows their ordering on a frequency-related scale, or more commonly, pitch is the quality that makes it possible to judge sounds as "higher" and "lower" in the sense associated with musical melodies.
A pitch-accent language is a language that has word-accents—that is, where one syllable in a word or morpheme is more prominent than the others, but the accentuated syllable is indicated by a particular pitch contour (linguistic tones) rather than by stress.
Pragmatics is a subfield of linguistics and semiotics that studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning.
In linguistics, a prosodic unit, often called an intonation unit or intonational phrase, is a segment of speech that occurs with a single prosodic contour (pitch and rhythm contour).
In linguistics, prosody is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual phonetic segments (vowels and consonants) but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech.
Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
In phonology, a register, or pitch register, is a prosodic feature of syllables in certain languages in which tone, vowel phonation, glottalization or similar features depend upon one another.
Rohingya, or Ruáingga, is a language spoken by the Rohingya people of Rakhine State.
The Romanized Popular Alphabet (RPA) or Hmong RPA (also Roman Popular Alphabet), is a system of romanization for the various dialects of the Hmong language.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Sandawe is a "click language" spoken by about 60,000 Sandawe people in the Dodoma region of Tanzania.
Saramaccan (autonym: Saamáka) is a creole language spoken by about 58,000 ethnic African people near the Saramacca and upper Suriname River, as well as in the capital Paramaribo, in Suriname (formerly also known as Dutch Guiana), 25,000 in French Guiana, and 8,000 in the Netherlands.
The Sekani language is a Northern Athabaskan language spoken by the Sekani people of north-central British Columbia, Canada.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
Senegambia, officially the Senegambia Confederation, was a loose confederation in the late 20th century between the West African countries of Senegal and its neighbour The Gambia, which is almost completely surrounded by Senegal.
Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
Serer, often broken into differing regional dialects such as Serer-Sine and Serer saloum, is a language of the Senegambian branch of Niger–Congo spoken by 1.2 million people in Senegal and 30,000 in the Gambia.
Siane (Siani) is a Papuan language spoken in the eastern highlands of Papua New Guinea.
The Sino-Tibetan languages, in a few sources also known as Trans-Himalayan, are a family of more than 400 languages spoken in East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia.
Slavey (also Slave, Slavé) is an Athabaskan language spoken among the Slavey and Sahtu people of Canada in the Northwest Territories where it also has official status.
Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.
Solresol (Solfège: Sol-Re-Sol) is a constructed language devised by François Sudre, beginning in 1827.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
Southern Athabaskan (also Apachean) is a subfamily of Athabaskan languages spoken primarily in the Southwestern United States (including Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah) and the Mexican state of Sonora, with two outliers in Oklahoma and Texas.
The Southwestern United States (Suroeste de Estados Unidos; also known as the American Southwest) is the informal name for a region of the western United States.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
This article summarizes the phonology (the sound system, or in more general terms, the pronunciation) of Standard Chinese (Standard Mandarin).
The term stiff voice describes the pronunciation of consonants or vowels with a glottal opening narrower, and the vocal folds stiffer, than occurs in modal voice.
In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
Swahili, also known as Kiswahili (translation: coast language), is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Sylheti (ꠍꠤꠟꠐꠤ Silôṭi) is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language, primarily spoken in the Sylhet Division of Bangladesh and in the Barak Valley of the Indian state of Assam.
A syllabic consonant or vocalic consonant is a consonant that forms a syllable on its own, like the m, n and l in the English words rhythm, button and bottle, or is the nucleus of a syllable, like the r sound in the American pronunciation of work.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
The talking drum is an hourglass-shaped drum from West Africa, whose pitch can be regulated to mimic the tone and prosody of human speech.
In agriculture, a terrace is a piece of sloped plane that has been cut into a series of successively receding flat surfaces or platforms, which resemble steps, for the purposes of more effective farming.
Thai alphabet (อักษรไทย) is used to write the Thai, Southern Thai and other languages in Thailand.
Thai, Central Thai, or Siamese, is the national and official language of Thailand and the first language of the Central Thai people and vast majority Thai of Chinese origin.
The Tibetic languages are a cluster of Sino-Tibetan languages descended from Old Tibetan, spoken across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering the Indian subcontinent, including the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayas in Baltistan, Ladakh, Nepal, Sikkim, and Bhutan.
Ticuna, or Tikuna, is a language spoken by approximately 50,000 people in Brazil, Peru, and Colombia.
The tilde (in the American Heritage dictionary or; ˜ or ~) is a grapheme with several uses.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
A tone contour, or contour tone, is a tone in a tonal language which shifts from one pitch to another over the course of the syllable or word.
Tone letters are letters that represent the tones of a language, most commonly in languages with contour tones.
In tonal languages, tone names are the names given to the tones these languages use.
Tone numbers are numerical digits used like letters to mark the tones of a language.
Tone patterns are common constraints in classical Chinese poetry.
Tone sandhi is a phonological change occurring in tonal languages, in which the tones assigned to individual words or morphemes change based on the pronunciation of adjacent words or morphemes.
Tone terracing is a type of phonetic downdrift, where the high or mid tones, but not the low tone, shift downward in pitch (downstep) after certain other tones.
A tongue-twister is a phrase that is designed to be difficult to articulate properly, and can be used as a type of spoken (or sung) word game.
The Trail of Tears was a series of forced relocations of Native American peoples from their ancestral homelands in the Southeastern United States, to areas to the west (usually west of the Mississippi River) that had been designated as Indian Territory.
In historical linguistics, transphonologization is a type of sound change whereby a phonemic contrast that used to involve a certain feature X evolves in such a way that the contrast is preserved, yet becomes associated with a different feature Y. For example, a language contrasting two words */sat/ vs.
The Triqui, or Trique, languages are Oto-Manguean languages of Mexico spoken by the Trique people of the state of Oaxaca and the state of Baja California (due to recent population movements).
Tsat, also known as Utsat, Utset, Hainan Cham, or Huíhuī, is a language spoken by 4,500 Utsul people in Yanglan and Huixin villages near Sanya, Hainan, China.
Tzotzil (Bats'i k'op) is a Maya language spoken by the indigenous Tzotzil Maya people in the Mexican state of Chiapas.
Usila is a Chinantec language of Mexico.
The Uspanteko (Uspanteco, Uspanteko, Uspantec) is a Mayan language of Guatemala, closely related to K'iche'.
The Utsuls or are a Chamic-speaking ethnic group which lives on the island of Hainan, China, and are considered one of the People's Republic of China's unrecognized ethnic groups.
The Uyghur or Uighur language (Уйғур тили, Uyghur tili, Uyƣur tili or, Уйғурчә, Uyghurche, Uyƣurqə), formerly known as Eastern Turki, is a Turkic language with 10 to 25 million speakers, spoken primarily by the Uyghur people in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of Western China.
Chinese, also known as Sinitic, is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local language varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible.
The Vietic languages are a branch of the Austroasiatic language family.
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
Whistled languages use whistling to emulate speech and facilitate communication.
Wobé (Ouobe) is a Kru language spoken in Ivory Coast.
Wolof is a language of Senegal, the Gambia and Mauritania, and the native language of the Wolof people.
Yoruba (Yor. èdè Yorùbá) is a language spoken in West Africa.
Yucatec Maya (endonym: Maya; Yukatek Maya in the revised orthography of the Academia de Lenguas Mayas de Guatemala), called Màaya t'àan (lit. "Maya speech") by its speakers, is a Mayan language spoken in the Yucatán Peninsula and northern Belize.
Yue or Yueh is one of the primary branches of Chinese spoken in southern China, particularly the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi, collectively known as Liangguang.
Yuen Ren Chao (3 November 1892 – 25 February 1982) was a Chinese-American linguist, educator, scholar, poet, and composer, who contributed to the modern study of Chinese phonology and grammar.
The Zapotec languages are a group of closely related indigenous Mesoamerican languages that constitute a main branch of the Oto-Manguean language family and which is spoken by the Zapotec people from the southwestern-central highlands of Mexico.
Zulu (Zulu: isiZulu) is the language of the Zulu people, with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa.
Bottom tone, Extra-high tone, Extra-low tone, Falling–rising tone, Gliding tone, Grammatical tone, High tone, Lexical tone, Low tone, Mid tone, Phonemic tone, Phonemic tones, Pitch level, Register tone, Rising–falling tone, Syllable tone, Tonal (linguistics), Tonal Language, Tonal Languages, Tonal accent, Tonal language, Tonal languages, Tonal polarity, Tone (Linguistics), Tone (phonology), Tone (tonal language), Tone Language, Tone Languages, Tone accent, Tone group, Tone language, Tone languages, Tone mark, Tone marks, Tone unit, Toneme, Tonemes, Tonogenesis, Tonology, Top tone, Vocal tone, Word tone.