82 relations: Abdominal pain, Abscess, Adenoviridae, Agar plate, Amoxicillin, Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, Anaerobic organism, Anti-streptolysin O, Antibiotic, Bad breath, Bordetella pertussis, Centor criteria, Cephalosporin, Chills, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chronic condition, Clindamycin, Coronavirus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Cytomegalovirus, Epstein–Barr virus, Erythromycin, Exudate, Fatigue, Fatty acid metabolism, Fever, Fusobacterium, Glomerulonephritis, Group A streptococcal infection, Growth medium, Haemophilus influenzae, Headache, Herpes simplex virus, HIV, Human respiratory syncytial virus, Ibuprofen, Infection, Infectious disease (medical specialty), Inflammation, Influenza, Internal jugular vein, Lemierre's syndrome, Lymphadenopathy, Macrolide, Malaise, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Nausea, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, PANDAS, Paracetamol, ..., Pathogenic bacteria, Penicillin, Peritonsillar abscess, Pharyngitis, Pharynx, Phospholipase A2, Polymerase chain reaction, Pseudodysphagia, Pus, Rapid strep test, Rheumatic fever, Rhinovirus, Sampling (medicine), Sepsis, Sore throat, Spirochaeta, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcal pharyngitis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Sydenham's chorea, Throat, Tonsil, Tonsillectomy, Tonsillolith, Treponema, Treponema pallidum, Trismus, Viral disease, Vomiting, Weight loss, White blood cell. Expand index (32 more) » « Shrink index
Abdominal pain, also known as a stomach ache, is a symptom associated with both non-serious and serious medical issues.
An abscess is a collection of pus that has built up within the tissue of the body.
Adenoviruses (members of the family Adenoviridae) are medium-sized (90–100 nm), nonenveloped (without an outer lipid bilayer) viruses with an icosahedral nucleocapsid containing a double stranded DNA genome.
An agar plate is a Petri dish that contains a solid growth medium, typically agar plus nutrients, used to culture small organisms such as microorganisms.
Amoxicillin, also spelled amoxycillin, is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, also known as co-amoxiclav, is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth.
Anti-streptolysin O (ASO or ASLO) is the antibody made against streptolysin O, an immunogenic, oxygen-labile streptococcal hemolytic exotoxin produced by most strains of group A and many strains of groups C and G Streptococcus bacteria.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Bad breath, also known as halitosis, is a symptom in which a noticeably unpleasant odor is present on the breath.
Bordetella pertussis is a Gram-negative, aerobic, pathogenic, encapsulated coccobacillus of the genus Bordetella, and the causative agent of pertussis or whooping cough.
The Centor criteria are a set of criteria which may be used to identify the likelihood of a bacterial infection in adult patients complaining of a sore throat.
The cephalosporins (sg.) are a class of β-lactam antibiotics originally derived from the fungus Acremonium, which was previously known as "Cephalosporium".
Chills is a feeling of coldness occurring during a high fever, but sometimes is also a common symptom which occurs alone in specific people.
Chlamydophila pneumoniae is a species of Chlamydophila, an obligate intracellular bacterium that infects humans and is a major cause of pneumonia.
A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.
Clindamycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
Coronaviruses are species of virus belonging to the subfamily Coronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.
Corynebacterium diphtheriae is the pathogenic bacterium that causes diphtheria.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (from the Greek cyto-, "cell", and megalo-, "large") is a genus of viruses in the order Herpesvirales, in the family Herpesviridae, in the subfamily Betaherpesvirinae.
The Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), also called human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), is one of eight known human herpesvirus types in the herpes family, and is one of the most common viruses in humans.
Erythromycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
An exudate is a fluid emitted by an organism through pores or a wound, a process known as exuding.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
Fatty acid metabolism consists of catabolic processes that generate energy, and anabolic processes that create biologically important molecules (triglycerides, phospholipids, second messengers, local hormones and ketone bodies).
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
Fusobacterium is a genus of anaerobic, Gram-negative, non-sporeforming bacteria, similar to Bacteroides.
Glomerulonephritis (GN), also known as glomerular nephritis, is a term used to refer to several kidney diseases (usually affecting both kidneys).
A group A streptococcal infection is an infection with group A streptococcus (GAS).
A growth medium or culture medium is a solid, liquid or semi-solid designed to support the growth of microorganisms or cells, or small plants like the moss Physcomitrella patens.
Haemophilus influenzae (formerly called Pfeiffer's bacillus or Bacillus influenzae) is a Gram-negative, coccobacillary, facultatively anaerobic pathogenic bacterium belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family.
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), also known as human herpesvirus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and HHV-2), are two members of the herpesvirus family, Herpesviridae, that infect humans.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a syncytial virus that causes respiratory tract infections.
Ibuprofen is a medication in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) class that is used for treating pain, fever, and inflammation.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Infectious disease, also known as infectious diseases, infectious medicine, infectious disease medicine or infectiology, is a medical specialty dealing with the diagnosis, control and treatment of infections.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
The internal jugular vein is a paired jugular vein that collects blood from the brain and the superficial parts of the face and neck.
Lemierre's syndrome (or Lemierre's disease, also known as postanginal shock including sepsis and human necrobacillosis) refers to infectious thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein.
Lymphadenopathy or adenopathy is disease of the lymph nodes, in which they are abnormal in size, number, or consistency.
The macrolides are a class of natural products that consist of a large macrocyclic lactone ring to which one or more deoxy sugars, usually cladinose and desosamine, may be attached.
Malaise is a feeling of general discomfort, uneasiness or pain, often the first indication of an infection or other disease.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a very small bacterium in the class Mollicutes.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as gonococcus (singular), or gonococci (plural) is a species of gram-negative diplococci bacteria isolated by Albert Neisser in 1879.
Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) is a hypothesis that there exists a subset of children with rapid onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) or tic disorders and these symptoms are caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infections.
--> Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by A. Cahn and P. Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects, the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesised paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of ''p''-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate. Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses. Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947 David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolised to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings. Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500 mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988 Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994. Available without a prescription since 1959, it has since become a common household drug. Patents on paracetamol have long expired, and generic versions of the drug are widely available.
Pathogenic bacteria are bacteria that can cause disease.
Penicillin (PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics which include penicillin G (intravenous use), penicillin V (use by mouth), procaine penicillin, and benzathine penicillin (intramuscular use).
Peritonsillar abscess (PTA), also known as a quinsy, is pus due to an infection behind the tonsil.
Pharyngitis is inflammation of the back of the throat, known as the pharynx.
The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs.
Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are enzymes that release fatty acids from the second carbon group of glycerol.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.
Severe Pseudodysphagia is the irrational fear of swallowing and minor Pseudodysphagia is the fear of choking.
Pus is an exudate, typically white-yellow, yellow, or yellow-brown, formed at the site of inflammation during bacterial or fungal infection.
The rapid strep test (RST) is a rapid antigen detection test (RADT) that is widely used in clinics to assist in the diagnosis of bacterial pharyngitis caused by group A streptococci (GAS), sometimes termed strep throat.
Rheumatic fever (RF) is an inflammatory disease that can involve the heart, joints, skin, and brain.
The rhinovirus (from the Greek ῥίς rhis "nose", ῥινός rhinos "of the nose", and the Latin vīrus) is the most common viral infectious agent in humans and is the predominant cause of the common cold.
In medicine, sampling is gathering of matter from the body to aid in the process of a medical diagnosis and/or evaluation of an indication for treatment, further medical tests or other procedures.
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.
Sore throat, also known as throat pain, is pain or irritation of the throat.
Spirochaeta is a genus of bacteria classified within the phylum Spirochaetes.
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and it is a member of the normal flora of the body, frequently found in the nose, respiratory tract, and on the skin.
Streptococcal pharyngitis, also known as strep throat, is an infection of the back of the throat including the tonsils caused by group A streptococcus (GAS).
Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic (under aerobic conditions) or beta-hemolytic (under anaerobic conditions), facultative anaerobic member of the genus Streptococcus.
Streptococcus pyogenes is a species of Gram-positive bacteria.
Sydenham's chorea (SC) or chorea minor (historically and traditionally referred to as St Vitus' dance) is a disorder characterized by rapid, uncoordinated jerking movements primarily affecting the face, hands and feet.
In vertebrate anatomy, the throat is the front part of the neck, positioned in front of the vertebra.
Tonsils are collections of lymphoid tissue facing into the aerodigestive tract.
Tonsillectomy is a surgical procedure in which both palatine tonsils (hereafter called "tonsils") are removed from a recess in the side of the pharynx called the tonsillar fossa.
Tonsilloliths, also known as tonsil stones, are soft aggregates of bacterial and cellular debris that form in the tonsillar crypts, the crevices of the tonsils.
Treponema is a genus of spiral-shaped bacteria.
Treponema pallidum is a spirochaete bacterium with subspecies that cause the diseases syphilis, bejel, and yaws.
Trismus, also called lockjaw, is reduced opening of the jaws (limited jaw range of motion).
A viral disease (or viral infection) occurs when an organism's body is invaded by pathogenic viruses, and infectious virus particles (virions) attach to and enter susceptible cells.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.