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Topaz

Index Topaz

Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F, OH)2. [1]

73 relations: Afghanistan, Aluminium, American Golden Topaz, Aurangzeb, Australia, Ångström, Bible, Birthstone, Brazil, Cassiterite, Chemical formula, Chivinar, Chrysoberyl, Conchoidal fracture, Corundum, Crystal, Czech Republic, Emporia State University, Engraved gem, Flinders Island, Fluorine, Fluorite, Gemstone irradiation, Germany, Granite, Greek language, Hermann–Mauguin notation, Hydroxide, Italy, Japan, Jean-Baptiste Tavernier, King James Version, Latin, List of U.S. state minerals, rocks, stones and gemstones, Llano Uplift, Lunatic, Mason County, Texas, Matrix (geology), Mexico, Middle Ages, Mineral, Mohs scale of mineral hardness, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Nigeria, Norway, Old French, Olivine, Orthorhombic crystal system, Oxygen, Pakistan, ..., Pegmatite, Peridot, Pliny the Elder, Precambrian, Quartz, Red Sea, Refractive index, Rhyolite, Russia, Septuagint, Silicate minerals, Silicic, Silicon, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Texas, Topaz Mountain, United States, Ural Mountains, Utah, Vacuum deposition, Zabargad Island, Zimbabwe. Expand index (23 more) »

Afghanistan

Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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Aluminium

Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.

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American Golden Topaz

The American Golden Topaz, a 172-faceted topaz weighing, is the largest cut yellow topaz in the world, and one of the largest faceted gems of any type in the world.

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Aurangzeb

Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad (محي الدين محمد) (3 November 1618 – 3 March 1707), commonly known by the sobriquet Aurangzeb (اَورنگزیب), (اورنگ‌زیب "Ornament of the Throne") or by his regnal title Alamgir (عالمگِیر), (عالمگير "Conqueror of the World"), was the sixth, and widely considered the last effective Mughal emperor.

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Australia

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Ångström

The ångström or angstrom is a unit of length equal to (one ten-billionth of a metre) or 0.1 nanometre.

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Bible

The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.

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Birthstone

A birthstone is a gemstone that represents a person's month of birth.

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Brazil

Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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Cassiterite

Cassiterite is a tin oxide mineral, SnO2.

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Chemical formula

A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.

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Chivinar

Chivinar is a high Late Miocene volcano in Northwest Argentina.

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Chrysoberyl

The mineral or gemstone chrysoberyl is an aluminate of beryllium with the formula BeAl2O4.

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Conchoidal fracture

Conchoidal fracture describes the way that brittle materials break or fracture when they do not follow any natural planes of separation.

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Corundum

Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide typically containing traces of iron, titanium, vanadium and chromium.

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Crystal

A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.

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Czech Republic

The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.

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Emporia State University

Emporia State University, often referred to as Emporia State or ESU, is a public university in Emporia, Kansas.

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Engraved gem

An engraved gem, frequently referred to as an intaglio, is a small and usually semi-precious gemstone that has been carved, in the Western tradition normally with images or inscriptions only on one face.

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Flinders Island

Flinders Island, the largest island in the Furneaux Group, is a island located in the Bass Strait, northeast of the island of Tasmania.

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Fluorine

Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.

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Fluorite

Not to be confused with Fluoride. Fluorite (also called fluorspar) is the mineral form of calcium fluoride, CaF2.

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Gemstone irradiation

The gemstone irradiation is a process in which a gemstone is artificially irradiated in order to enhance its optical properties.

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Germany

Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Granite

Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Hermann–Mauguin notation

In geometry, Hermann–Mauguin notation is used to represent the symmetry elements in point groups, plane groups and space groups.

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Hydroxide

Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.

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Italy

Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Japan

Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Jean-Baptiste Tavernier

Jean-Baptiste Tavernier (1605 – 1689) was a 17th-century French gem merchant and traveler.

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King James Version

The King James Version (KJV), also known as the King James Bible (KJB) or simply the Version (AV), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, begun in 1604 and completed in 1611.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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List of U.S. state minerals, rocks, stones and gemstones

States in the U.S. which have significant mineral deposits often create a state mineral, rock, stone or gemstone to promote interest in their natural resources, history, tourism, etc.

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Llano Uplift

The Llano uplift is a low geologic dome that is about in diameter.

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Lunatic

Lunatic is an informal term referring to a person who is considered as mentally ill, dangerous, foolish or unpredictable, crazy, conditions once attributed to lunacy.

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Mason County, Texas

Mason County is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in the U.S. state of Texas.

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Matrix (geology)

The matrix or groundmass of rock is the finer-grained mass of material wherein larger grains, crystals or clasts are embedded.

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Mexico

Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Mineral

A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.

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Mohs scale of mineral hardness

The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is a qualitative ordinal scale characterizing scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of harder material to scratch softer material.

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Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County

The Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County is the largest natural and historical museum in the western United States.

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Nigeria

Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.

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Norway

Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.

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Old French

Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.

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Olivine

The mineral olivine is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg2+, Fe2+)2SiO4.

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Orthorhombic crystal system

In crystallography, the orthorhombic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.

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Oxygen

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Pakistan

Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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Pegmatite

A pegmatite is a holocrystalline, intrusive igneous rock composed of interlocking phaneritic crystals usually larger than 2.5 cm in size (1 in); such rocks are referred to as pegmatitic.

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Peridot

Peridot is gem-quality olivine, which is a silicate mineral with the formula of (Mg, Fe)2SiO4.

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Pliny the Elder

Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.

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Precambrian

The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic Eon.

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Quartz

Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.

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Red Sea

The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.

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Refractive index

In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.

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Rhyolite

Rhyolite is an igneous, volcanic rock, of felsic (silica-rich) composition (typically > 69% SiO2 – see the TAS classification).

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Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Septuagint

The Septuagint or LXX (from the septuāgintā literally "seventy"; sometimes called the Greek Old Testament) is the earliest extant Greek translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew.

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Silicate minerals

Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals with predominantly silicate anions.

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Silicic

Silicic is an adjective to describe magma or igneous rock rich in silica.

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Silicon

Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.

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Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.

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Sweden

Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Texas

Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.

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Topaz Mountain

Topaz Mountain is a summit in the Thomas Range of Utah, east of the Thomas caldera.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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Ural Mountains

The Ural Mountains (p), or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River and northwestern Kazakhstan.

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Utah

Utah is a state in the western United States.

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Vacuum deposition

Vacuum deposition is a family of processes used to deposit layers of material atom-by-atom or molecule-by-molecule on a solid surface.

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Zabargad Island

Zabargad Island (جزيرة الزبرجد, also known as St. John's Island in English) is the largest of a group of islands in Foul Bay, Egypt.

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Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.

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Redirects here:

Al2SiO4(F,OH)2, Blue Topaz, Blue topaz, Swiss Blue Topaz, Texas blue topaz, Utah state gem, Yellow topaz, Ädelstenar.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Topaz

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