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Topography

Index Topography

Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids. [1]

88 relations: Algorithm, Altitude, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Ancient Rome, Angle, Asteroid, Astronomical object, Atomic force microscopy, Bathymetry, Boundary (topology), Brain mapping, Cadastre, Cartography, Civil engineering, Conceptual model, Construction, Contour line, Coordinate system, Cornea, Corneal topography, Corps of Topographical Engineers, Culture, DeLorme, Depiction, Digital data, Digital elevation model, Earth, Earth science, Elevation, Fall line (topography), Geographic information system, Geologic map, Geomorphology, Geomorphometry, Geostatistics, Geovisualization, Giovanni Domenico Cassini, Global Relief Model, Great Britain, Human body, Hypsometric tints, Hypsometry, Image, Inclinometer, Landform, Level (instrument), Lidar, Local history, Map, ..., Marine habitats, Nanotopography, Natural satellite, Nature, Neuroimaging, Neurology, Neuroscience, Ophthalmology, Ordnance Survey, Oxford English Dictionary, Photography, Pixel, Planet, Planetary science, Planning, Public works, Radar, Raster graphics, Ray (optics), Remote sensing, Sonar, Spectrum, Surface (topology), Surface anatomy, Surveying, Terrain, Terrain cartography, Terrestrial planet, Theodolite, Three-dimensional space, Tissue engineering, Topographic map, Triangulated irregular network, Triangulation, United States, United States Geological Survey, USGS DEM, War of 1812. Expand index (38 more) »

Algorithm

In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.

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Altitude

Altitude or height (sometimes known as depth) is defined based on the context in which it is used (aviation, geometry, geographical survey, sport, atmospheric pressure, and many more).

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Angle

In plane geometry, an angle is the figure formed by two rays, called the sides of the angle, sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle.

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Asteroid

Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.

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Astronomical object

An astronomical object or celestial object is a naturally occurring physical entity, association, or structure that exists in the observable universe.

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Atomic force microscopy

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) or scanning force microscopy (SFM) is a very-high-resolution type of scanning probe microscopy (SPM), with demonstrated resolution on the order of fractions of a nanometer, more than 1000 times better than the optical diffraction limit.

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Bathymetry

Bathymetry is the study of underwater depth of lake or ocean floors.

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Boundary (topology)

In topology and mathematics in general, the boundary of a subset S of a topological space X is the set of points which can be approached both from S and from the outside of S. More precisely, it is the set of points in the closure of S not belonging to the interior of S. An element of the boundary of S is called a boundary point of S. The term boundary operation refers to finding or taking the boundary of a set.

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Brain mapping

Brain mapping is a set of neuroscience techniques predicated on the mapping of (biological) quantities or properties onto spatial representations of the (human or non-human) brain resulting in maps.

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Cadastre

A cadastre (also spelled cadaster) is a comprehensive land recording of the real estate or real property's metes-and-bounds of a country.

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Cartography

Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.

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Civil engineering

Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works such as roads, bridges, canals, dams, airports, sewerage systems, pipelines, and railways.

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Conceptual model

A conceptual model is a representation of a system, made of the composition of concepts which are used to help people know, understand, or simulate a subject the model represents.

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Construction

Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure.

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Contour line

A contour line (also isocline, isopleth, isarithm, or equipotential curve) of a function of two variables is a curve along which the function has a constant value, so that the curve joins points of equal value.

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Coordinate system

In geometry, a coordinate system is a system which uses one or more numbers, or coordinates, to uniquely determine the position of the points or other geometric elements on a manifold such as Euclidean space.

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Cornea

The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.

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Corneal topography

Corneal topography, also known as photokeratoscopy or videokeratography, is a non-invasive medical imaging technique for mapping the surface curvature of the cornea, the outer structure of the eye.

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Corps of Topographical Engineers

The U.S. Army Corps of Topographical Engineers, authorized on 4 July 1838, consisted only of officers and was used for mapping and the design and construction of federal civil works such as lighthouses and other coastal fortifications and navigational routes.

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Culture

Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.

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DeLorme

DeLorme is a producer of personal satellite tracking, messaging, and navigation technology.

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Depiction

Depiction is reference conveyed through pictures.

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Digital data

Digital data, in information theory and information systems, is the discrete, discontinuous representation of information or works.

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Digital elevation model

A digital elevation model (DEM) is a 3D CG representation of a terrain's surface – commonly of a planet (e.g. Earth), moon, or asteroid – created from a terrain's elevation data.

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Earth

Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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Earth science

Earth science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of natural science related to the planet Earth.

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Elevation

The elevation of a geographic location is its height above or below a fixed reference point, most commonly a reference geoid, a mathematical model of the Earth's sea level as an equipotential gravitational surface (see Geodetic datum § Vertical datum).

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Fall line (topography)

In mountain biking and skiing, a fall line refers to the line down a mountain or hill which is most directly downhill.

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Geographic information system

A geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data.

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Geologic map

A geologic map or geological map is a special-purpose map made to show geological features.

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Geomorphology

Geomorphology (from Ancient Greek: γῆ, gê, "earth"; μορφή, morphḗ, "form"; and λόγος, lógos, "study") is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface.

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Geomorphometry

Geomorphometry, or geomorphometrics, is the science of quantitative land surface analysis.

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Geostatistics

Geostatistics is a branch of statistics focusing on spatial or spatiotemporal datasets.

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Geovisualization

Geovisualization or Geovisualisation, short for Geographic Visualization, refers to a set of tools and techniques supporting the analysis of geospatial data through the use of interactive visualization.

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Giovanni Domenico Cassini

Giovanni Domenico Cassini (8 June 1625 – 14 September 1712) was an Italian (naturalised French) mathematician, astronomer and engineer.

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Global Relief Model

A global relief model, sometimes also denoted as global topography model or composite model, combines digital elevation model (DEM) data over land with digital bathymetry model (DBM) data over water-covered areas (oceans, lakes) to describe Earth’s relief.

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Great Britain

Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.

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Human body

The human body is the entire structure of a human being.

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Hypsometric tints

Hypsometric tints (also called layer tinting, elevation tinting, elevation coloring, or hysometric coloring) are colors placed between contour lines to indicate elevation.

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Hypsometry

Hypsometry (from Greek ὕψος, hupsos, "height" and μέτρον, metron, "measure") is the measurement of land elevation relative to sea level.

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Image

An image (from imago) is an artifact that depicts visual perception, for example, a photo or a two-dimensional picture, that has a similar appearance to some subject—usually a physical object or a person, thus providing a depiction of it.

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Inclinometer

An inclinometer or clinometer is an instrument used for measuring angles of slope (or tilt), elevation, or depression of an object with respect to gravity.

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Landform

A landform is a natural feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body.

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Level (instrument)

A level is a surveying optical instrument used to establish or verify points in the same horizontal plane.

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Lidar

Lidar (also called LIDAR, LiDAR, and LADAR) is a surveying method that measures distance to a target by illuminating the target with pulsed laser light and measuring the reflected pulses with a sensor.

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Local history

Local history is the study of history in a geographically local context and it often concentrates on the local community.

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Map

A map is a symbolic depiction emphasizing relationships between elements of some space, such as objects, regions, or themes.

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Marine habitats

The marine environment supplies many kinds of habitats that support marine life.

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Nanotopography

Nanotopography refers to specific surface features which form or are generated at the nanoscopic scale.

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Natural satellite

A natural satellite or moon is, in the most common usage, an astronomical body that orbits a planet or minor planet (or sometimes another small Solar System body).

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Nature

Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe.

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Neuroimaging

Neuroimaging or brain imaging is the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure, function/pharmacology of the nervous system.

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Neurology

Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.

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Neuroscience

Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.

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Ophthalmology

Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine and surgery (both methods are used) that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyeball and orbit.

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Ordnance Survey

Ordnance Survey (OS) is a national mapping agency in the United Kingdom which covers the island of Great Britain.

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Oxford English Dictionary

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.

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Photography

Photography is the science, art, application and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film.

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Pixel

In digital imaging, a pixel, pel, dots, or picture element is a physical point in a raster image, or the smallest addressable element in an all points addressable display device; so it is the smallest controllable element of a picture represented on the screen.

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Planet

A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.

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Planetary science

Planetary science or, more rarely, planetology, is the scientific study of planets (including Earth), moons, and planetary systems (in particular those of the Solar System) and the processes that form them.

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Planning

Planning is the process of thinking about the activities required to achieve a desired goal.

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Public works

Public works (or internal improvements historically in the United States)Carter Goodrich, (Greenwood Press, 1960)Stephen Minicucci,, Studies in American Political Development (2004), 18:2:160-185 Cambridge University Press.

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Radar

Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.

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Raster graphics

In computer graphics, a raster graphics or bitmap image is a dot matrix data structure that represents a generally rectangular grid of pixels (points of color), viewable via a monitor, paper, or other display medium.

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Ray (optics)

In optics a ray is an idealized model of light, obtained by choosing a line that is perpendicular to the wavefronts of the actual light, and that points in the direction of energy flow.

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Remote sensing

Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on-site observation.

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Sonar

Sonar (originally an acronym for SOund Navigation And Ranging) is a technique that uses sound propagation (usually underwater, as in submarine navigation) to navigate, communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water, such as other vessels.

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Spectrum

A spectrum (plural spectra or spectrums) is a condition that is not limited to a specific set of values but can vary, without steps, across a continuum.

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Surface (topology)

In topology and differential geometry, a surface is a two-dimensional manifold, and, as such, may be an "abstract surface" not embedded in any Euclidean space.

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Surface anatomy

Surface anatomy (also called superficial anatomy and visual anatomy) is the study of the external features of the body of an animal.

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Surveying

Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them.

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Terrain

Terrain or relief (also topographical relief) involves the vertical and horizontal dimensions of land surface.

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Terrain cartography

Terrain or relief is an essential aspect of physical geography, and as such its portrayal presents a central problem in cartography, and more recently GIS and geovisualization.

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Terrestrial planet

A terrestrial planet, telluric planet, or rocky planet is a planet that is composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals.

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Theodolite

A theodolite is a precision instrument for measuring angles in the horizontal and vertical planes.

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Three-dimensional space

Three-dimensional space (also: 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional space) is a geometric setting in which three values (called parameters) are required to determine the position of an element (i.e., point).

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Tissue engineering

Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physicochemical factors to improve or replace biological tissues.

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Topographic map

In modern mapping, a topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief, usually using contour lines, but historically using a variety of methods.

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Triangulated irregular network

A triangulated irregular network (TIN) is a representation of a continuous surface consisting entirely of triangular facets.

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Triangulation

In trigonometry and geometry, triangulation is the process of determining the location of a point by forming triangles to it from known points.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Geological Survey

The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.

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USGS DEM

The USGS DEM standard is a geospatial file format developed by the United States Geological Survey for storing a raster-based digital elevation model.

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War of 1812

The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, and their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815.

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Physical diversity, Topographer, Topographic, Topographical, Topographies.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Topography

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