115 relations: Adrian Room, Albert Dauzat, Albert Hugh Smith, Arab states of the Persian Gulf, Athamas, Black Sea, Cartographic labeling, Celtic toponymy, Charles Rostaing, Dardanelles, Demonym, Eilert Ekwall, Ernest Nègre, Ethnonym, Etiology, Etymology, Exonym and endonym, F. M. Powicke, Folk etymology, Frank Stenton, Geographer, Geographic information system, George R. Stewart, German toponymy, Germanic toponymy, Google Maps, Greece, Greek language, Greek War of Independence, Helle (mythology), Henry Schoolcraft, Historical African place names, Historical revisionism, Hydronym, Iran, Isaac Taylor (priest), James Hammond Trumbull, List of adjectival and demonymic forms of place names, List of biblical place names in North America, List of continent name etymologies, List of country-name etymologies, List of double placenames, List of English exonyms for German toponyms, List of English exonyms for Italian toponyms, List of etymologies of country subdivision names, List of French exonyms for Dutch toponyms, List of French exonyms for German toponyms, List of French exonyms for Italian toponyms, List of generic forms in place names in Ireland and the United Kingdom, List of geographic names derived from acronyms and initialisms, ..., List of geographic names derived from portmanteaus, List of German exonyms for places in Italy, List of Korean placename etymologies, List of Latin names of countries, List of Latin names of rivers, List of Latin place names in Britain, List of Latin place names in Continental Europe, Ireland and Scandinavia, List of long place names, List of names in English with counterintuitive pronunciations, List of names of European cities in different languages, List of places named after Joseph Stalin, List of places named after peace, List of places named after people, List of places named after Vladimir Lenin, List of places named for their main products, List of redundant place names, List of renamed places in the United States, List of river name etymologies, List of Roman place names in Britain, List of short place names, List of state and territory name etymologies of the United States, List of Swedish place names in the United States, List of U.S. state and territory nicknames, List of United Kingdom county name etymologies, List of United Kingdom locations, List of words derived from toponyms, Lists of things named after places, Macedonia naming dispute, Maghreb placename etymology, Marcel Aurousseau, Margaret Gelling, Michel Grosclaude, New Zealand place names, Old European hydronymy, Oliver Padel, Onomastics, Oxford English Dictionary, Pelasgians, Persian Gulf, Persian Gulf naming dispute, Philology, Phono-semantic matching, Phrixus, Place names in Ireland, Place names in Japan, Planetary nomenclature, Postcolonialism, Richard Coates, Robert L. Ramsay (academic), Russian nationalism, Saint Petersburg, Sri Lankan place name etymology, Territorial designation, Toponymic surname, Toponyms of Finland, Toponymy in the United Kingdom and Ireland, UNGEGN Toponymic Guidelines, United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names, University of Nottingham, Vladimir Lenin, W. F. H. Nicolaisen, Walter William Skeat, Welsh toponymy, William Bright, William J. Watson. Expand index (65 more) » « Shrink index
Adrian Richard West Room (27 September 1933, Melksham – 6 November 2010, Stamford)Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2002; accessed 20 May 2013.
Albert Dauzat (4 July 1877 – 31 October 1955) was a French linguist specializing in toponymy and onomastics.
Albert Hugh Smith OBE (24 February 1903 – 11 May 1967) was a scholar of Old English and Scandinavian languages and played a major part in the study and publication of English place-names.
The Arab states of the Persian Gulf are the seven Arab states which border the Persian Gulf, namely Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
In Greek mythology, Athamas (Ἀθάμας "rich harvest") was a Boeotian king.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Cartographic labeling is a form of typography and strongly deals with form, style, weight and size of type on a map.
Celtic toponymy is the study of place names wholly or partially of Celtic origin.
Charles Rostaing (9 October 1904 – 24 April 1999) was a French linguist who specialised in toponymy.
The Dardanelles (Çanakkale Boğazı, translit), also known from Classical Antiquity as the Hellespont (Ἑλλήσποντος, Hellespontos, literally "Sea of Helle"), is a narrow, natural strait and internationally-significant waterway in northwestern Turkey that forms part of the continental boundary between Europe and Asia, and separates Asian Turkey from European Turkey.
A demonym (δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place.
Bror Oscar Eilert Ekwall (born 8 January 1877 in Vallsjö (now in Sävsjö, Jönköpings län, Sweden, died 23 November 1964 in Lund, Skåne län, Sweden), known as Eilert Ekwall, was Professor of English at Sweden's Lund University from 1909 to 1942 and was one of the outstanding scholars of the English language in the first half of the 20th century. He wrote works on the history of English, but he is best known as the author of numerous important books on English placenames (in the broadest sense) and personal names.
Ernest Nègre (born October, 11th 1907 in Saint-Julien-Gaulène (Tarn), died April 15th, 2000 in Toulouse) was a French toponymist.
An ethnonym (from the ἔθνος, éthnos, "nation" and ὄνομα, ónoma, "name") is a name applied to a given ethnic group.
Etiology (alternatively aetiology or ætiology) is the study of causation, or origination.
EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.
Sir Frederick Maurice Powicke (16 June 1879 – 19 May 1963) was an English medieval historian.
Folk etymology or reanalysis – sometimes called pseudo-etymology, popular etymology, or analogical reformation – is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familiar one.
Sir Frank Merry Stenton (17 May 1880 – 15 September 1967) was a 20th-century historian of Anglo-Saxon England, and president of the Royal Historical Society (1937–1945).
A geographer is a scholar whose area of study is geography, the study of Earth's natural environment and human society.
A geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data.
George Rippey Stewart (May 31, 1895 – August 22, 1980) was an American historian, toponymist, novelist, and a professor of English at the University of California, Berkeley.
Placenames in the German language area can be classified by the language from which they originate, and by their age.
Germanic toponyms are the names given to places by Germanic peoples and tribes.
Google Maps is a web mapping service developed by Google.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Greek War of Independence, also known as the Greek Revolution (Ελληνική Επανάσταση, Elliniki Epanastasi, or also referred to by Greeks in the 19th century as the Αγώνας, Agonas, "Struggle"; Ottoman: يونان عصياني Yunan İsyanı, "Greek Uprising"), was a successful war of independence waged by Greek revolutionaries against the Ottoman Empire between 1821 and 1830.
Helle (Ἕλλη), sometimes also called Athamantis (Ἀθαμαντίς), was a character in Greek mythology who figured prominently in the story of Jason and the Argonauts.
Henry Rowe Schoolcraft (March 28, 1793 – December 10, 1864) was an American geographer, geologist, and ethnologist, noted for his early studies of Native American cultures, as well as for his 1832 expedition to the source of the Mississippi River.
This is a list of historical African place names.
In historiography, the term historical revisionism identifies the re-interpretation of the historical record.
A hydronym (from ὕδωρ, hydor, "water" and ὄνομα, onoma, "name") is a proper name of a body of water.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Isaac Taylor (2 May 1829 – 18 October 1901), son of Isaac Taylor, was a philologist, toponymist, and Anglican canon of York (from 1885).
James Hammond Trumbull (December 20, 1821 – August 5, 1897) was an American scholar and philologist.
The following is a partial list of adjectival forms of place names in English and their demonymic equivalents, which denote the people or the inhabitants of these places.
North America has numerous places named after biblical towns and places.
This is a list of the etymologies of continent names as they are currently found on Earth.
This list covers English language country names with their etymologies.
Double placenames prominently feature the placenames of two or more constituent geopolitical entities.
This list is a compilation of German toponyms (i.e., names of cities, regions, rivers, mountains and other geographical features situated in a German-speaking area) that have traditional English exonyms.
This list of English exonyms for Italian toponyms is a compilation of Italian toponyms, names of cities, regions, rivers, mountains and other geographical features, in an Italian-speaking area (principally in Italy and Switzerland) which have traditional English exonyms.
This article provides a collection of the etymology of the names of country subdivisions.
This list of French exonyms for Dutch toponyms shows the French names of cities and villages in the Netherlands (les Pays-Bas) used by the French and francophones living outside France.
This list shows the French exonyms for German toponyms.
This list of French exonyms for Italian toponyms is a compilation of Italian toponyms, names of cities, regions, rivers, mountains and other geographical features which are francized in Italy l'Italie, Italian Switzerland and other areas which are Italian-speaking or influenced by the Italian language.
The study of place names is called toponymy; for a more detailed examination of this subject in relation to British place names, refer to Toponymy in Great Britain.
This is a list of geographic names derived from acronyms and initialisms.
This is a list of geographic names derived from portmanteaus.
Below is list of German language exonyms for places in non-German-speaking areas of Italy.
Most Korean place names derive either from the Korean language and its predecessors on the Korean peninsula, or from Chinese.
This list includes the Roman names of countries, or significant regions, known to the Roman Empire.
Following is a list of rivers stating the Latin and equivalent English name.
This list includes places in Great Britain (including neighbouring islands such as the Isle of Man), some of which were part of the Roman Empire, or were later given Latin place names in historical references.
This list includes European countries and regions that were part of the Roman Empire, or that were given Latin place names in historical references.
This is a list of long place names.
This is a set of lists of English personal and place names whose pronunciations are counterintuitive to their spelling, because the pronunciation does not correspond to the spelling, or because a better known namesake has a markedly different pronunciation.
Many cities in Europe have different names in different languages.
During Joseph Stalin's rule (1922–1953), many places, mostly cities, in the Soviet Union and other communist countries were named or renamed in honour of him as part of the cult of personality surrounding him.
The following is a list of geographic names denoting the concept of peace, in their respective language.
There are a number of places named after famous people.
This is a list of places which are located all around the world named or renamed in honor of famous Russian revolution leader Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the pen name Lenin.
The following places were named for their main products.
A place name is tautological if two differently sounding parts of it are synonymous.
These are the "'list of renamed places in the United States --- various political and physical entities in the U.S. that have had their names changed, though not by merger, split, or any other process which was not one-to-one.
This page lists the various etymologies (origins) of the names of rivers around the world.
A partial list of Roman place names in Great Britain.
This is a list of short placenames with one or two letters.
The fifty U.S. states, five inhabited territories and the District of Columbia have taken their names from a wide variety of languages.
This is a list of Swedish place names in the United States.
The following is a table of U.S. state and territory nicknames, including officially adopted nicknames, and other traditional nicknames for individual states and territories of the United States (and the District of Columbia).
This toponymical list of counties of the United Kingdom is a list of the origins of the names of counties of the United Kingdom.
A gazetteer of place names in the United Kingdom showing each place's county, unitary authority or council area and its geographical coordinates.
This is a list of English language words derived from toponyms, followed by the place name it derives from.
* List of chess openings named after places.
The Macedonia naming dispute is a political dispute over the use of the name "Macedonia" between the southeastern European countries of Greece and the Republic of Macedonia, formerly a region within Yugoslavia.
The place names of the Maghreb come from a variety of origins, mostly Arabic and Berber, but including a few derived from Phoenician, Latin, and several other languages.
Marcel Aurousseau BSc (Syd.) MC C. de G. (19 April 1891 in Woollahra, Sydney – 22 August 1983 in Sydney) was an Australian geographer, geologist, war hero, historian and translator.
Margaret Joy Gelling, OBE (née Midgley, 29 November 1924 – 24 April 2009) was an English toponymist, known for her extensive studies of English place-names.
Michel Grosclaude (1926–2002) was a philosopher and French linguist, the author of works on grammar, lexicography and Occitan onomastics.
Most New Zealand place names are derived from Māori and British sources.
Old European (Alteuropäisch) is the term used by Hans Krahe (1964) for the language of the oldest reconstructed stratum of European hydronymy (river names) in Central and Western Europe.
Oliver James Padel (born 31 October 1948 in St Pancras, London, England) is an English medievalist and toponymist specializing in Welsh and Cornish studies.
Onomastics or onomatology is the study of the origin, history, and use of proper names.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
The name Pelasgians (Πελασγοί, Pelasgoí, singular: Πελασγός, Pelasgós) was used by classical Greek writers to either refer to populations that were the ancestors or forerunners of the Greeks, or to signify all pre-classical indigenes of Greece.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
The Persian Gulf naming dispute is concerned with the name of the body of water known historically and internationally as the Persian Gulf (خلیج فارس), after the land of Persia (the traditional name of Iran).
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
Phono-semantic matching (PSM) is the incorporation of a word into one language from another, often creating a neologism), where the word's non-native quality is hidden by replacing it with phonetically and semantically similar words or roots from the adopting language. Thus, the approximate sound and meaning of the original expression in the source language are preserved, though the new expression (the PSM) in the target language may sound native. Phono-semantic matching is distinct from calquing, which includes (semantic) translation but does not include phonetic matching (i.e. retaining the approximate sound of the borrowed word through matching it with a similar-sounding pre-existent word or morpheme in the target language). At the same time, phono-semantic matching is also distinct from homophonic translation, which retains the sound of a word but not the meaning.
In Greek mythology Phrixus (also spelt Phryxus; Φρίξος, Phrixos) was the son of Athamas, king of Boeotia, and Nephele (a goddess of clouds).
The vast majority of placenames in Ireland are anglicisations of Irish language names; that is, adaptations of the Irish names to English phonology and spelling.
Japanese place names include names for geographic features, present and former administrative divisions, transportation facilities such as railroad stations, and historic sites in Japan.
Planetary nomenclature, like terrestrial nomenclature, is a system of uniquely identifying features on the surface of a planet or natural satellite so that the features can be easily located, described, and discussed.
Postcolonialism or postcolonial studies is the academic study of the cultural legacy of colonialism and imperialism, focusing on the human consequences of the control and exploitation of colonised people and their lands.
Richard Coates (born 16 April 1949, in Grimsby, Lincolnshire, and educated at Wintringham School) is an English linguist.
Robert Lee Ramsay (December 14, 1880 – December 14, 1953) was a professor of English at the University of Missouri from 1907 to 1952.
Russian nationalism is a form of nationalism that asserts that Russians are a nation and promotes their cultural unity.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Sri Lankan place name etymology is characterized by the linguistic and ethnic diversity of the island of Sri Lanka through the ages and the position of the country in the centre of ancient and medieval sea trade routes.
In the United Kingdom, a territorial designation follows modern peerage titles, linking them to a specific place or places.
A toponymic surname is a surname derived from a place name.
The toponyms of Finland result mainly from the legacy left by three linguistic heritages: the Finnish language (spoken as first language by about 93% of the population), the Swedish language (about 5.5%) and Sami languages (about 0.03%).
Britain and Ireland have a very varied toponymy due the different settlement patterns, political and linguistic histories.
Toponymic Guidelines (full title: Toponymic guidelines for map and other editors, for international use) are up-to-date documents promoted by the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN).
The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN) is one of the nine expert groups of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) and deals with the national and international standardization of geographical names.
The University of Nottingham is a public research university in Nottingham, United Kingdom.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Wilhelm Fritz Hermann Nicolaisen (13 June 1927 – 15 February 2016) was a folklorist, linguist, medievalist, scholar of onomastics and literature, educator, and author with specialties in Scottish and American studies.
Walter William Skeat (21 November 1835 – 6 October 1912), FBA, was the pre-eminent British philologist of his time.
The placenames of Wales derive in most cases from the Welsh language, but have also been influenced by linguistic contact with the Romans, Anglo-Saxons, Vikings, Anglo-Normans and modern English.
William Bright (August 13, 1928 Oxnard, California – October 15, 2006 Louisville, Colorado) was an American linguist who specialized in Native American and South Asian languages and descriptive linguistics.
William J. Watson (1865–1948) was a toponymist, one of the greatest Scottish scholars of the 20th century, and was the first scholar to place the study of Scottish place names on a firm linguistic basis.
Etymology of geographic names, Geographical name, Named place, Oronymy, Place name, Place names, Place-name, Place-names, Placename, Placename etymologies, Placenames, Topographic name, Toponomasiology, Toponomastic, Toponomastics, Toponomatology, Toponomy, Toponym, Toponymic, Toponymist, Toponymists, Toponyms.