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Index Tornado

A tornado is a rapidly rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the Earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud. [1]

214 relations: Acoustics, Adiabatic process, Adriatic Sea, Amateur radio operator, Andover, Kansas, Anemometer, Angular momentum, Anticyclonic tornado, Arctic, Arcus cloud, Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Atmosphere of Earth, Atmospheric pressure, Audio frequency, Backlighting (lighting design), Balanced flow, Bangladesh, Bar (unit), Baroclinity, Bernoulli's principle, British Columbia, Canada, Canadian Prairies, Canwarn, Central United States, Civil defense, Civil defense siren, Climate, Cloud, Cloud base, Computer simulation, Coriolis force, Cultural significance of tornadoes, Cumulonimbus cloud, Cumulus cloud, Cumulus congestus cloud, Cyclogenesis, Cycloid, Cyclone, Daulatpur–Saturia tornado, Death, Debris, Derecho, Detroit, Doppler on Wheels, Downburst, Dry line, Dust, Dust devil, Earth, ..., Eddy (fluid dynamics), El Niño, El Niño–Southern Oscillation, Electric field, Electromagnetic spectrum, Electromagnetism, Elie, Manitoba, Emergency Alert System, Emergency management, Enhanced Fujita scale, Equator, Expert elicitation, Extreme weather, Eye (cyclone), Fire whirl, Flammagenitus (cloud), Flash flood, Florida Keys, Folk etymology, Fujita scale, Funnel, Funnel cloud, Global warming, Great Bend, Kansas, Great Plains, Ground truth, Gulf of Mexico, Gustnado, HarperCollins, History of tropical cyclone-spawned tornadoes, Hook echo, Hot spring, Illinois, In situ, Inch of mercury, Indiana, Inflow (meteorology), Infrasound, Injury, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Kansas Turnpike, La Niña, Laminar flow, Landfall, Landspout, List of tornadoes and tornado outbreaks, List of tornadoes causing 100 or more deaths, List of tornadoes striking downtown areas of large cities, Low-pressure area, Luminosity, Manchester, South Dakota, Marquette, Kansas, Mathematical model, Mediterranean Sea, Mesocyclone, Middle latitudes, Missouri, Moisture, Multiple-vortex tornado, National Center for Atmospheric Research, National Science Foundation, National Severe Storms Laboratory, National Weather Service, New Brunswick, NEXRAD, Northern Hemisphere, Oklahoma City, Ontario, Orbit, Outflow boundary, Overshooting top, Pacific Ocean, Palmyra, Nebraska, Pascal (unit), Photogrammetry, Polar regions of Earth, Power flash, Prevailing winds, Property damage, Pulse-Doppler radar, Quebec, Radio atmospheric, Rain of animals, Río de la Plata Basin, Rear flank downdraft, Relative direction, Remote sensing, Roanoke, Illinois, Rocky Mountains, Rossby number, Rotation, Satellite tornado, Science News, Sea surface temperature, Secondary flow, Seismology, Severe weather, Seymour, Texas, Skipping tornado, Skyscraper, Skywarn, Skywarn Europe, Solar irradiance, South African Weather Service, Southern Africa, Southern Hemisphere, Space tornado, Steam devil, Storm cell, Storm cellar, Storm chasing, Storm Prediction Center, Storm spotting, Storm Track, Supercell, Supernatural, Teleconnection, Tellus A, Temperature, The Wizard of Oz (1939 film), Thermodynamics, Thunderstorm, Tornado Alley, Tornado debris signature, Tornado outbreak, Tornado outbreak of April 26, 1991, Tornado outbreak sequence of May 2004, Tornado preparedness, Tornado warning, Tornado watch, Tornadogenesis, TORRO scale, TOtable Tornado Observatory, Tri-State Tornado, Tropical cyclone, Tropics, Troposphere, Twister (1996 film), Typhoon, Union City, Oklahoma, United States, University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Venturi effect, Vertical draft, Vortex, VORTEX projects, Vortex stretching, Vorticity, Wall cloud, Water vapor, Waterspout, Weather radar, Weather radio, Wedge, Whirlwind, Wildfire, Wind, Wind shear, 1936 Tupelo–Gainesville tornado outbreak, 1974 Super Outbreak, 1999 Bridge Creek–Moore tornado, 1999 Oklahoma tornado outbreak, 2011 Super Outbreak, 2013 El Reno tornado. Expand index (164 more) »


Acoustics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound.

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Adiabatic process

In thermodynamics, an adiabatic process is one that occurs without transfer of heat or matter between a thermodynamic system and its surroundings.

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Adriatic Sea

The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.

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Amateur radio operator

An amateur radio operator is someone who uses equipment at an amateur radio station to engage in two-way personal communications with other amateur operators on radio frequencies assigned to the amateur radio service.

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Andover, Kansas

Andover is a city in Butler County, Kansas, United States, and a suburb of Wichita.

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An anemometer is a device used for measuring the speed of wind, and is also a common weather station instrument.

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Angular momentum

In physics, angular momentum (rarely, moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational equivalent of linear momentum.

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Anticyclonic tornado

An anticyclonic tornado is a tornado which rotates in a clockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere and a counterclockwise direction in the Southern Hemisphere.

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The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

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Arcus cloud

An arcus cloud is a low, horizontal cloud formation, usually appearing as an accessory cloud to a cumulonimbus.

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Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory

The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML), a federal research laboratory, is part of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR), located in Miami, Florida.

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Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.

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Atmospheric pressure

Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).

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Audio frequency

An audio frequency (abbreviation: AF) or audible frequency is characterized as a periodic vibration whose frequency is audible to the average human.

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Backlighting (lighting design)

In lighting design, backlighting is the process of illuminating the subject from the back.

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Balanced flow

In atmospheric science, balanced flow is an idealisation of atmospheric motion.

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Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.

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Bar (unit)

The bar is a metric unit of pressure, but is not approved as part of the International System of Units (SI).

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In fluid dynamics, the baroclinity (often called baroclinicity) of a stratified fluid is a measure of how misaligned the gradient of pressure is from the gradient of density in a fluid.

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Bernoulli's principle

In fluid dynamics, Bernoulli's principle states that an increase in the speed of a fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid's potential energy.

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British Columbia

British Columbia (BC; Colombie-Britannique) is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains.

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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Canadian Prairies

The Canadian Prairies is a region in Western Canada, which may correspond to several different definitions, natural or political.

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CANWARN, acronym for CANadian Weather Amateur Radio Network, is an organized severe weather spotting and reporting program organized and run by the Meteorological Services Division of Environment Canada.

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Central United States

The Central United States is sometimes conceived as between the Eastern United States and Western United States as part of a three-region model, roughly coincident with the U.S. Census' definition of the Midwestern United States plus the western and central portions of the U.S. Census' definition of the Southern United States.

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Civil defense

Civil defense or civil protection is an effort to protect the citizens of a state (generally non-combatants) from military attacks and natural disasters.

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Civil defense siren

A civil defense siren (also known as an air-raid siren or tornado siren) is a siren used to provide emergency population warning of approaching danger and sometimes to indicate when the danger has passed.

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Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.

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In meteorology, a cloud is an aerosol consisting of a visible mass of minute liquid droplets, frozen crystals, or other particles suspended in the atmosphere of a planetary body.

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Cloud base

The cloud base (or the base of the cloud) is the lowest altitude of the visible portion of the cloud.

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Computer simulation

Computer simulation is the reproduction of the behavior of a system using a computer to simulate the outcomes of a mathematical model associated with said system.

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Coriolis force

In physics, the Coriolis force is an inertial force that acts on objects that are in motion relative to a rotating reference frame.

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Cultural significance of tornadoes

Tornado damage to human-made structures is a result of the high wind velocity and windblown debris.

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Cumulonimbus cloud

Cumulonimbus, from the Latin cumulus ("heaped") and nimbus ("rainstorm"), is a dense, towering vertical cloud, forming from water vapor carried by powerful upward air currents.

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Cumulus cloud

Cumulus clouds are clouds which have flat bases and are often described as "puffy", "cotton-like" or "fluffy" in appearance.

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Cumulus congestus cloud

Cumulus congestus clouds, also known as towering cumulus, are a form of cumulus cloud that can be based in the low or middle height ranges.

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Cyclogenesis is the development or strengthening of cyclonic circulation in the atmosphere (a low-pressure area).

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A cycloid is the curve traced by a point on the rim of a circular wheel as the wheel rolls along a straight line without slipping.

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In meteorology, a cyclone is a large scale air mass that rotates around a strong center of low atmospheric pressure.

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Daulatpur–Saturia tornado

The Daulatpur–Saturia, Bangladesh tornado occurred in the Manikganj District, Bangladesh on April 26, 1989.

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Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.

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Debris or débris is rubble, wreckage, ruins, litter and discarded garbage/refuse/trash, scattered remains of something destroyed, discarded, or as in geology, large rock fragments left by a melting glacier etc.

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A derecho (from derecho, "straight") is a widespread, long-lived, straight-line wind storm that is associated with a land-based, fast-moving group of severe thunderstorms.

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Detroit is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Michigan, the largest city on the United States–Canada border, and the seat of Wayne County.

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Doppler on Wheels

Doppler on Wheels (or DOW) is a fleet of X-band radar trucks maintained by the Center for Severe Weather Research (CSWR) in Boulder, Colorado, led by principal investigator Joshua Wurman, with the funding largely provided by the National Science Foundation (NSF).

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A downburst is a strong ground-level wind system that emanates from a point source above and blows radially, that is, in straight lines in all directions from the point of contact at ground level.

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Dry line

A dry line (also called a dew point line, or Marfa front, after Marfa, Texas) is an imaginary line across a continent that separates moist air from an eastern body of water and dry desert air from the west.

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Dust are fine particles of matter.

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Dust devil

A dust devil is a strong, well-formed, and relatively long-lived whirlwind, ranging from small (half a metre wide and a few metres tall) to large (more than 10 metres wide and more than 1000 metres tall).

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Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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Eddy (fluid dynamics)

In fluid dynamics, an eddy is the swirling of a fluid and the reverse current created when the fluid is in a turbulent flow regime.

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El Niño

El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (commonly called ENSO) and is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific (between approximately the International Date Line and 120°W), including off the Pacific coast of South America.

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El Niño–Southern Oscillation

El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an irregularly periodic variation in winds and sea surface temperatures over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, affecting climate of much of the tropics and subtropics.

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Electric field

An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.

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Electromagnetic spectrum

The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.

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Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.

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Elie, Manitoba

Elie is an unincorporated community recognized as a local urban district in the Rural Municipality of Cartier in the Canadian province of Manitoba.

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Emergency Alert System

The Emergency Alert System (EAS) is a national warning system in the United States put into place on January 1, 1997 (approved by Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in November 1994), when it replaced the Emergency Broadcast System (EBS), which in turn replaced the CONELRAD System.

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Emergency management

Emergency management or disaster management is the organization and management of the resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies (preparedness, response, and recovery).

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Enhanced Fujita scale

The Enhanced Fujita scale (EF-Scale) rates the intensity of tornadoes in the United States and Canada based on the damage they cause.

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An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).

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Expert elicitation

In science, engineering, and research, expert elicitation is the synthesis of opinions of authorities of a subject where there is uncertainty due to insufficient data or when such data is unattainable because of physical constraints or lack of resources.

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Extreme weather

Extreme weather includes unexpected, unusual, unpredictable, severe or unseasonal weather; weather at the extremes of the historical distribution—the range that has been seen in the past.

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Eye (cyclone)

The eye is a region of mostly calm weather at the center of strong tropical cyclones.

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Fire whirl

A fire whirl – also commonly known as a fire devil, or, (in many cases erroneously), as a fire tornado, firenado, fire swirl, or fire twister – is a whirlwind induced by a fire and often made up of flame or ash.

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Flammagenitus (cloud)

A flammagenitus, also known as a pyrocumulus cloud or fire cloud, is a dense cumuliform cloud associated with fire or volcanic eruptions that may produce dry lightning (lightning without rain).

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Flash flood

A flash flood is a rapid flooding of geomorphic low-lying areas: washes, rivers, dry lakes and basins.

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Florida Keys

The Florida Keys are a coral cay archipelago located off the southern coast of Florida, forming the southernmost portion of the continental United States.

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Folk etymology

Folk etymology or reanalysis – sometimes called pseudo-etymology, popular etymology, or analogical reformation – is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familiar one.

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Fujita scale

The Fujita scale (F-Scale), or Fujita–Pearson scale (FPP scale), is a scale for rating tornado intensity, based primarily on the damage tornadoes inflict on human-built structures and vegetation.

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A funnel is a pipe with a wide (often conical) mouth and a narrow stem.

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Funnel cloud

A funnel cloud is a funnel-shaped cloud of condensed water droplets, associated with a rotating column of wind and extending from the base of a cloud (usually a cumulonimbus or towering cumulus cloud) but not reaching the ground or a water surface.

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Global warming

Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.

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Great Bend, Kansas

Great Bend is a city in and the county seat of Barton County, Kansas, United States.

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Great Plains

The Great Plains (sometimes simply "the Plains") is the broad expanse of flat land (a plain), much of it covered in prairie, steppe, and grassland, that lies west of the Mississippi River tallgrass prairie in the United States and east of the Rocky Mountains in the U.S. and Canada.

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Ground truth

Ground truth is a term used in various fields to refer to information provided by direct observation (i.e. empirical evidence) as opposed to information provided by inference.

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Gulf of Mexico

The Gulf of Mexico (Golfo de México) is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent.

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A gustnado is a short-lived, shallow surface-based vortex which forms within the downburst emanating from a thunderstorm.

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HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster.

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History of tropical cyclone-spawned tornadoes

Intense tropical cyclones usually produce tornadoes, the majority of those weak, especially upon landfall.

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Hook echo

A hook echo is a pendant or hook-shaped weather radar signature as part of some supercell thunderstorms.

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Hot spring

A hot spring is a spring produced by the emergence of geothermally heated groundwater that rises from the Earth's crust.

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Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.

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In situ

In situ (often not italicized in English) is a Latin phrase that translates literally to "on site" or "in position".

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Inch of mercury

Inch of mercury (inHg and ″Hg) is a unit of measurement for pressure.

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Indiana is a U.S. state located in the Midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America.

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Inflow (meteorology)

Inflow is the flow of a fluid into a large collection of that fluid.

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Infrasound, sometimes referred to as low-frequency sound, is sound that is lower in frequency than 20 Hz or cycles per second, the "normal" limit of human hearing.

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Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force.

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Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific and intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations, set up at the request of member governments, dedicated to the task of providing the world with an objective, scientific view of climate change and its political and economic impacts.

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Kansas Turnpike

The Kansas Turnpike is a, freeway-standard toll road that lies entirely within the U.S. state of Kansas.

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La Niña

La Niña is a coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomenon that is the counterpart of El Niño as part of the broader El Niño–Southern Oscillation climate pattern.

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Laminar flow

In fluid dynamics, laminar flow (or streamline flow) occurs when a fluid flows in parallel layers, with no disruption between the layers.

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Landfall is the event of a storm moving over egregious land after being over water.

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A landspout is a term coined by meteorologist Howard B. Bluestein in 1985 for a kind of tornado not associated with a mesocyclone.

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List of tornadoes and tornado outbreaks

These are some notable tornadoes, tornado outbreaks, and tornado outbreak sequences that have occurred around the globe.

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List of tornadoes causing 100 or more deaths

This is a list of the deadliest tornadoes in world history.

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List of tornadoes striking downtown areas of large cities

This article is a list of tornadoes that have impacted the central business district (downtown or city centre) of a large city (that is, one having at least 50,000 people, not counting suburbs or outlying communities, at the time of the storm).

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Low-pressure area

A low-pressure area, low, or depression, is a region on the topographic map where the atmospheric pressure is lower than that of surrounding locations.

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In astronomy, luminosity is the total amount of energy emitted per unit of time by a star, galaxy, or other astronomical object.

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Manchester, South Dakota

Manchester was a small unincorporated community in Kingsbury County in the east-central part of the U.S. state of South Dakota.

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Marquette, Kansas

Marquette is a city located in the northwest corner of McPherson County, Kansas, United States, between K-4 and the Smoky Hill River.

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Mathematical model

A mathematical model is a description of a system using mathematical concepts and language.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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A mesocyclone is a vortex of air within a convective storm.

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Middle latitudes

The middle latitudes (also called the mid-latitudes, sometimes midlatitudes, or moderate latitudes) of Earth lie between 23°26'22" and 66°33'39" north, and between 23°26'22" and 66°33'39" south.

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Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States.

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Moisture is the presence of a liquid, especially water, often in trace amounts.

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Multiple-vortex tornado

A multiple-vortex tornado is a tornado that contains several vortices (called subvortices or suction vortices) rotating around, inside of, and as part of the main vortex.

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National Center for Atmospheric Research

The US National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) is a US federally funded research and development center (FFRDC) managed by the nonprofit University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) and funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF).

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National Science Foundation

The National Science Foundation (NSF) is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering.

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National Severe Storms Laboratory

The National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL) is a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) weather research laboratory under the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research.

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National Weather Service

The National Weather Service (NWS) is an agency of the United States Federal Government that is tasked with providing weather forecasts, warnings of hazardous weather, and other weather-related products to organizations and the public for the purposes of protection, safety, and general information.

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New Brunswick

New Brunswick (Nouveau-Brunswick; Canadian French pronunciation) is one of three Maritime provinces on the east coast of Canada.

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NEXRAD or Nexrad (Next-Generation Radar) is a network of 159 high-resolution S-band Doppler weather radars operated by the National Weather Service (NWS), an agency of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) within the United States Department of Commerce, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) within the Department of Transportation, and the U.S. Air Force within the Department of Defense.

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Northern Hemisphere

The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is north of the Equator.

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Oklahoma City

Oklahoma City, often shortened to OKC, is the capital and largest city of the U.S. state of Oklahoma.

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Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.

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In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet.

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Outflow boundary

An outflow boundary, also known as a gust front, is a storm-scale or mesoscale boundary separating thunderstorm-cooled air (outflow) from the surrounding air; similar in effect to a cold front, with passage marked by a wind shift and usually a drop in temperature and a related pressure jump.

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Overshooting top

An overshooting top (or penetrating top) is a dome-like protrusion shooting out of the top of the anvil of a thunderstorm.

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Pacific Ocean

The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.

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Palmyra, Nebraska

Palmyra is a village in Otoe County, Nebraska, United States.

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Pascal (unit)

The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.

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Photogrammetry is the science of making measurements from photographs, especially for recovering the exact positions of surface points.

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Polar regions of Earth

The polar regions, also called the frigid zones, of Earth are the regions of the planet that surround its geographical poles (the North and South Poles), lying within the polar circles.

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Power flash

A power flash is a flash of light caused by arcing electrical discharges from damaged electrical equipment, most often severed power lines.

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Prevailing winds

Prevailing winds are winds that blow predominantly from a single general direction over a particular point on the Earth's surface.

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Property damage

Property damage (or, in England and Wales criminal damage) is damage to or the destruction of public or private property, caused either by a person who is not its owner or by natural phenomena.

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Pulse-Doppler radar

A pulse-Doppler radar is a radar system that determines the range to a target using pulse-timing techniques, and uses the Doppler effect of the returned signal to determine the target object's velocity.

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Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.

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Radio atmospheric

A radio atmospheric signal or sferic (sometimes also spelled "spheric") is a broadband electromagnetic impulse that occurs as a result of natural atmospheric lightning discharges.

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Rain of animals

Raining animals is a rare meteorological phenomenon in which flightless animals fall from the sky.

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Río de la Plata Basin

The Río de la Plata basin (Cuenca del Plata, Bacia do Prata), more often called the River Plate basin in scholarly writings, sometimes called the Platine basin or Platine region, is the hydrographical area in South America that drains to the Río de la Plata.

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Rear flank downdraft

The rear flank downdraft or RFD is a region of dry air wrapping around the back of a mesocyclone in a supercell thunderstorm.

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Relative direction

The most common relative directions are left, right, forward(s), backward(s), up, and down.

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Remote sensing

Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on-site observation.

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Roanoke, Illinois

Roanoke is a village in Roanoke Township, Woodford County, Illinois, United States.

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Rocky Mountains

The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America.

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Rossby number

The Rossby number (Ro) named for Carl-Gustav Arvid Rossby, is a dimensionless number used in describing fluid flow.

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A rotation is a circular movement of an object around a center (or point) of rotation.

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Satellite tornado

A satellite tornado is a tornado that rotates around a larger, primary tornado and interacts with the same mesocyclone.

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Science News

Science News is an American bi-weekly magazine devoted to short articles about new scientific and technical developments, typically gleaned from recent scientific and technical journals.

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Sea surface temperature

Sea surface temperature (SST) is the water temperature close to the ocean's surface.

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Secondary flow

In fluid dynamics, a secondary flow is a relatively minor flow superimposed on the primary flow, where the primary flow usually matches very closely the flow pattern predicted using simple analytical techniques and assuming the fluid is inviscid.

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Seismology (from Ancient Greek σεισμός (seismós) meaning "earthquake" and -λογία (-logía) meaning "study of") is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies.

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Severe weather

Severe weather refers to any dangerous meteorological phenomena with the potential to cause damage, serious social disruption, or loss of human life.

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Seymour, Texas

Seymour is a city in and the county seat of Baylor County, Texas, United States.

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Skipping tornado

A skipping tornado is a vaguely defined term which refers to a process tornado (or a series of tornadoes) which has a discontinuous damage path.

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A skyscraper is a continuously habitable high-rise building that has over 40 floors and is taller than approximately.

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Skywarn (stylized as SKYWARN) is a program of the United States' National Weather Service (NWS).

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Skywarn Europe

Skywarn Europe is a network of volunteer storm spotters throughout Europe based on the U.S. Skywarn program (a similar program, Canwarn operates in Canada).

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Solar irradiance

Solar irradiance is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument.

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South African Weather Service

The South African Weather Service (SAWS) is the meteorological service under the South African government's Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism.

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Southern Africa

Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics, and including several countries.

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Southern Hemisphere

The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is south of the Equator.

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Space tornado

A space tornado is solar windstorm and is exponentially larger and more powerful than conventional tornadoes on Earth.

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Steam devil

A steam devil is a small, weak whirlwind over water (or sometimes wet land) that has drawn fog into the vortex, thus rendering it visible.

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Storm cell

A storm cell is an air mass that contains up and down drafts in convective loops and that moves and reacts as a single entity, functioning as the smallest unit of a storm-producing system.

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Storm cellar

A storm shelter or storm cellar is a type of underground bunker designed to protect the occupants from violent severe weather, particularly tornadoes.

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Storm chasing

Storm chasing is broadly defined as the pursuit of any severe weather condition, regardless of motive, which can be curiosity, adventure, scientific investigation, or for news or media coverage.

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Storm Prediction Center

The Storm Prediction Center (SPC) is a government agency that is part of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), operating under the control of the National Weather Service (NWS), which in turn is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the United States Department of Commerce (DoC).

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Storm spotting

Storm spotting is a form of weather spotting in which observers watch for the approach of severe weather, monitor its development and progression, and actively relay their findings to local authorities.

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Storm Track

Storm Track was the first magazine for and about storm chasing.

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A supercell is a thunderstorm characterized by the presence of a mesocyclone: a deep, persistently rotating updraft.

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The supernatural (Medieval Latin: supernātūrālis: supra "above" + naturalis "natural", first used: 1520–1530 AD) is that which exists (or is claimed to exist), yet cannot be explained by laws of nature.

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Teleconnection in atmospheric science refers to climate anomalies being related to each other at large distances (typically thousands of kilometers).

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Tellus A

Tellus Series A: Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by Co-action Publishing on behalf of the International Meteorological Institute in Stockholm, Sweden.

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Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

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The Wizard of Oz (1939 film)

The Wizard of Oz is a 1939 American musical fantasy film produced by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.

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Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.

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A thunderstorm, also known as an electrical storm, lightning storm, or thundershower, is a storm characterized by the presence of lightning and its acoustic effect on the Earth's atmosphere, known as thunder.

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Tornado Alley

Tornado Alley is a colloquial term for the area of the United States (or by some definitions extending into Canada) where tornadoes are most frequent.

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Tornado debris signature

A tornadic debris signature (TDS), often colloquially referred to as a debris ball, is an area of high reflectivity on weather radar caused by debris lofting into the air, usually associated with a tornado.

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Tornado outbreak

A tornado outbreak is the occurrence of multiple tornadoes spawned by the same synoptic scale weather system.

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Tornado outbreak of April 26, 1991

The April 26, 1991 tornado outbreak was a violent outbreak of 55 tornadoes that took place on April 26, 1991 in the Central and Southern Great Plains, killing 21 people and injuring hundreds more.

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Tornado outbreak sequence of May 2004

The Tornado outbreak sequence of May 2004 was a series of tornado outbreaks that affected much of southern Ontario, the Central and Southern United States from east of the Rockies to the Mid-Atlantic States from May 21 to May 31, 2004.

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Tornado preparedness

The term "tornado preparedness" refers to safety precautions made before the arrival of and during a tornado.

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Tornado warning

A tornado warning (SAME code: TOR) is an alert issued by national weather forecasting agencies to warn the public that severe thunderstorms with tornadoes are imminent or occurring.

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Tornado watch

A tornado watch (SAME code: TOA) is issued when weather conditions are favorable for the development of severe thunderstorms called a supercell that are capable of producing tornadoes.

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Tornadogenesis is the process by which a tornado forms.

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TORRO scale

The TORRO tornado intensity scale (or T-Scale) is a scale measuring tornado intensity between T0 and T11.

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TOtable Tornado Observatory

The TOtable Tornado Observatory (nicknamed "TOTO" after Toto the dog in Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's 1939 film The Wizard of Oz, in which a tornado is a key plot element) is a large, instrumented barrel-shaped device invented in 1979 by engineers Dr.

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Tri-State Tornado

The Tri-State Tornado of Wednesday, March 18, 1925 was the deadliest tornado in United States history. It was also the most exceptional tornado during a major outbreak of at least 12 known significant tornadoes, spanning a large portion of the Midwestern and Southern United States. This one tornado alone inflicted 695 fatalities, more than twice as many as the second deadliest, the Great Natchez, Mississippi Tornado of May 7, 1840. The track left by the tornado was the longest ever recorded in the world as it crossed from southeastern Missouri, through southern Illinois, then into southwestern Indiana. Although not officially rated by NOAA, it is recognized by most experts (such as Tom Grazulis and Ted Fujita) as an F5 tornado, the maximum damage rating issued on the Fujita scale.

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Tropical cyclone

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.

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The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.

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The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere, and is also where nearly all weather conditions take place.

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Twister (1996 film)

Twister is a 1996 American epic disaster adventure film starring Helen Hunt and Bill Paxton as storm chasers researching tornadoes.

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A typhoon is a mature tropical cyclone that develops between 180° and 100°E in the Northern Hemisphere.

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Union City, Oklahoma

Union City is a town in Canadian County, Oklahoma, United States.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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University of Nebraska–Lincoln

The University of Nebraska–Lincoln, often referred to as Nebraska, UNL or NU, is a public research university in the city of Lincoln, in the state of Nebraska in the Midwestern United States.

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Venturi effect

The Venturi effect is the reduction in fluid pressure that results when a fluid flows through a constricted section (or choke) of a pipe.

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Vertical draft

An updraft is a small‐scale current of rising air, often within a cloud.

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In fluid dynamics, a vortex (plural vortices/vortexes) is a region in a fluid in which the flow revolves around an axis line, which may be straight or curved.

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VORTEX projects

The Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes Experiment or VORTEX are field projects that study tornadoes.

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Vortex stretching

In fluid dynamics, vortex stretching is the lengthening of vortices in three-dimensional fluid flow, associated with a corresponding increase of the component of vorticity in the stretching direction—due to the conservation of angular momentum.

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In continuum mechanics, the vorticity is a pseudovector field that describes the local spinning motion of a continuum near some point (the tendency of something to rotate), as would be seen by an observer located at that point and traveling along with the flow.

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Wall cloud

A wall cloud (murus or pedestal cloud) is a large, localized, persistent, and often abrupt lowering of cloud that develops beneath the surrounding base of a cumulonimbus cloud and from which tornadoes sometimes form.

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Water vapor

No description.

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A waterspout is an intense columnar vortex (usually appearing as a funnel-shaped cloud) that occurs over a body of water.

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Weather radar

Weather radar, also called weather surveillance radar (WSR) and Doppler weather radar, is a type of radar used to locate precipitation, calculate its motion, and estimate its type (rain, snow, hail etc.). Modern weather radars are mostly pulse-Doppler radars, capable of detecting the motion of rain droplets in addition to the intensity of the precipitation.

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Weather radio

A weather radio is a specialized radio receiver that is designed to receive a public broadcast service, typically from government-owned radio stations, dedicated to airing weather reports on a continual basis, with the routine weather reports being interrupted by emergency weather reports whenever needed.

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A wedge is a triangular shaped tool, and is a portable inclined plane, and one of the six classical simple machines.

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A whirlwind is a weather phenomenon in which a vortex of wind (a vertically oriented rotating column of air) forms due to instabilities and turbulence created by heating and flow (current) gradients.

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A wildfire or wildland fire is a fire in an area of combustible vegetation that occurs in the countryside or rural area.

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Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale.

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Wind shear

Wind shear (or windshear), sometimes referred to as wind gradient, is a difference in wind speed and/or direction over a relatively short distance in the atmosphere.

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1936 Tupelo–Gainesville tornado outbreak

The 1936 Tupelo–Gainesville tornado outbreak was an outbreak of at least 12 tornadoes that struck the Southeastern United States from April 5–6, 1936.

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1974 Super Outbreak

The 1974 Super Outbreak was the second-largest tornado outbreak on record for a single 24-hour period, just behind the 2011 Super Outbreak.

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1999 Bridge Creek–Moore tornado

The 1999 Bridge Creek–Moore tornado (locally referred to as the May 3rd tornado) was an extremely powerful F5 tornado in which the highest wind speeds ever measured globally were recorded at by a Doppler on Wheels (DOW) radar.

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1999 Oklahoma tornado outbreak

The 1999 Oklahoma tornado outbreak was a significant tornado outbreak which produced the highest wind speeds ever recorded on Earth,.

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2011 Super Outbreak

The 2011 Super Outbreak was the largest, costliest, and one of the deadliest tornado outbreaks ever recorded, affecting the Southern, Midwestern, and Northeastern United States and leaving catastrophic destruction in its wake.

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2013 El Reno tornado

The 2013 El Reno tornado was a very large EF3 tornado that occurred over rural areas of Central Oklahoma during the early evening of May 31, 2013.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tornado

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