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Index Toruń

Toruń (Thorn) is a city in northern Poland, on the Vistula River. [1]

169 relations: A1 autostrada (Poland), Angels Toruń, Anno Domini, Archaeology, Augustus II the Strong, Čadca, Łysomice, Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, Baj Pomorski Theatre, Baroque architecture, Brick, Brick Gothic, Bydgoszcz, Bydgoszcz Ignacy Jan Paderewski Airport, Bydgoszcz–Toruń, Casimir IV Jagiellon, Central European Summer Time, Central European Time, Chełmno, China, Christoph Hartknoch, Church bell, Cinema City Poland, City of Angels, Counter-Reformation, Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, Defensive wall, Dominican Order, Duchy of Warsaw, Effelsberg 100-m Radio Telescope, Ekstraklasa, Ekstraliga (speedway), Elana Toruń, Elżbieta Dzikowska, Elżbieta Zawacka, European route E75, Filippo Buonaccorsi, Finland, Franciscans, Gazeta Wyborcza, Göttingen, Gdańsk, German Empire, Germany, Gingerbread, Gothic architecture, Great Northern War, Grudziądz, Guilin, Gymnasium (school), Hanseatic League, ..., Hämeenlinna, Hermann Balk, Hermann von Salza, Highway, Jagiellonian University, Józef Piłsudski, John I Albert, Kaliningrad, Kingdom of Poland (1385–1569), Kingdom of Prussia, Kraków, KS Toruń, Kulm law, Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, Leaning Tower of Toruń, Leiden, List of World Heritage Sites of Poland, Lists of World Heritage Sites in Europe, Lower Saxony, Lusatian culture, Lutsk, Malbork, Mannerism, Medieval Town of Toruń, Metro International, Middle Ages, Millennium, Motorcycle speedway, Muzeum Piernika, Nasz Dziennik, Netherlands, Nicolaus Copernicus, Nicolaus Copernicus Monument, Toruń, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Novo Mesto, Olsztyn, Order of Polonia Restituta, Orders, decorations, and medals of Poland, Partitions of Poland, Peace of Thorn (1411), Pennsylvania, Peter the Great, Philadelphia, Planetarium, Poland, Polish American Football League, Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War, Polskie Radio, Pomeranian Voivodeship, Pomeranian Voivodeship (1919–1939), Powiat, Protestantism, Prussia, Prussian Confederation, Prussian Partition, Radio Maryja, Radio telescope, Reformation, Ring road, RMF FM, Royal city in Poland, Royal elections in Poland, Royal Prussia, Russia, Rzeczpospolita, Second Partition of Poland, Second Peace of Thorn (1466), Second Polish Republic, Sejm of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Seven Wonders of Poland, Sierpc, Sister city, Slovakia, Slovenia, Society of Jesus, Solec Kujawski, South Holland, State of the Teutonic Order, Swindon, Team Speedway Polish Championship, Telewizja Toruń, Telewizja Trwam, Tenement, Teutonic Order, Thirteen Years' War (1454–66), Tony Halik, Toruń Castle, Toruń Cathedral, Toruń Centre for Astronomy, Toruń Fortress, Toruń Główny railway station, Toruń gingerbread, Toruń Voivodeship, Toruński KS, Tourism in Poland, Treaty of Thorn (1709), Tuba Dei, Tumult of Thorn (Toruń), TVN (Poland), TVN24, TVP Info, Ukraine, UNESCO, United Kingdom, United States, University of Gdańsk, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Vehicle registration plates of Poland, Vilnius University, Vistula, Voivodeships of Poland, Warsaw, Włocławek, Wiltshire, World Heritage site, World War I, World War II, Wrocław, WSB Universities. Expand index (119 more) »

A1 autostrada (Poland)

The autostrada A1, officially named Amber Highway (pol. Autostrada Bursztynowa) in Poland is a north-south motorway, partly under construction, that runs through central Poland, from Gdańsk on the Baltic Sea through Łódź and the Upper Silesian Industry Area (to the west of Katowice) to the Polish-Czech border in Gorzyczki (Wodzisław County) /Věřňovice (Karviná District), where it is connected with the Czech motorway D1.

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Angels Toruń

Angels Toruń is an American football team based in Toruń, Poland.

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Anno Domini

The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.

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Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.

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Augustus II the Strong

Augustus II the Strong (August II.; August II Mocny; Augustas II; 12 May 16701 February 1733) of the Albertine line of the House of Wettin was Elector of Saxony (as Frederick Augustus I), Imperial Vicar and elected King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania.

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Čadca (until 1918 Čatca, Czača, Csaca, Czadca) is a district town in northern Slovakia, near the border with Poland and the Czech Republic.

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Łysomice, Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship

Łysomice is a village in Toruń County, Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, in north-central Poland.

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Baj Pomorski Theatre

The Baj Pomorski Theatre is a puppet theatre, located in Toruń in Poland.

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Baroque architecture

Baroque architecture is the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late 16th-century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church.

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A brick is building material used to make walls, pavements and other elements in masonry construction.

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Brick Gothic

Brick Gothic (Backsteingotik, Gotyk ceglany, Baksteengotiek) is a specific style of Gothic architecture common in Northwest and Central Europe especially in the regions in and around the Baltic Sea, which do not have resources of standing rock, but in many places a lot of glacial boulders.

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Bydgoszcz (Bromberg; Bydgostia) is a city in northern Poland, on the Brda and Vistula rivers.

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Bydgoszcz Ignacy Jan Paderewski Airport

Bydgoszcz Ignacy Jan Paderewski Airport (Port lotniczy im.) is a Polish regional airport in the city of Bydgoszcz, Poland.

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Bydgoszcz–Toruń metropolitan area (Polish: aglomeracja bydgosko-toruńska) is the name of the bi-polar agglomeration in the middle of the Vistula river created by 2 cities: Bydgoszcz and Toruń.

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Casimir IV Jagiellon

Casimir IV KG (Kazimierz IV Andrzej Jagiellończyk; Kazimieras Jogailaitis; 30 November 1427 – 7 June 1492) of the Jagiellonian dynasty was Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1440 and King of Poland from 1447, until his death.

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Central European Summer Time

Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+1) during the other part of the year.

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Central European Time

Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).

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Chełmno (older Culm) is a town in northern Poland near the Vistula river with 20,000 inhabitants and the historical capital of Chełmno Land.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Christoph Hartknoch

Christoph Hartknoch (1644–1687) was a Prussian historian and educator.

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Church bell

A church bell in the Christian tradition is a bell which is rung in a church for a variety of church purposes, and can be heard outside the building.

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Cinema City Poland

Cinema City is a brand of multiplex cinemas in eastern and central Europe, run by the Israeli company Cinema City International (CCI).

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City of Angels

City of Angels may refer to.

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The Counter-Reformation, also called the Catholic Reformation or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648).

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Crown of the Kingdom of Poland

The Crown of the Kingdom of Poland (Korona Królestwa Polskiego, Latin: Corona Regni Poloniae), commonly known as the Polish Crown or simply the Crown, is the common name for the historic (but unconsolidated) Late Middle Ages territorial possessions of the King of Poland, including Poland proper.

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Defensive wall

A defensive wall is a fortification usually used to protect a city, town or other settlement from potential aggressors.

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Dominican Order

The Order of Preachers (Ordo Praedicatorum, postnominal abbreviation OP), also known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216.

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Duchy of Warsaw

The Duchy of Warsaw (Księstwo Warszawskie, Duché de Varsovie, Herzogtum Warschau) was a Polish state established by Napoleon I in 1807 from the Polish lands ceded by the Kingdom of Prussia under the terms of the Treaties of Tilsit.

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Effelsberg 100-m Radio Telescope

The Effelsberg 100-m Radio Telescope is a radio telescope in the Ahr Hills (part of the Eifel) in Bad Münstereifel, Germany.

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The Ekstraklasa is the top Polish professional league for men's association football clubs (it is the country's primary football competition).

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Ekstraliga (speedway)

The Speedway Ekstraliga (Polish Extraleague, Ekstraliga żużlowa) is the top division of motorcycle speedway in Poland.

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Elana Toruń

Elana Toruń is a Polish football club based in Toruń.

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Elżbieta Dzikowska

Elżbieta Dzikowska (Międzyrzec Podlaski, 19 March 1937 as Józefa Górska) is a Polish art historian, sinologist, explorer, director and operator of documentary films, the author of many books, television programs, radio broadcasts, articles and exhibitions of contemporary art.

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Elżbieta Zawacka

Elżbieta Zawacka (19 March 1909 – 10 January 2009), known also by her war-time nom de guerre Zo, was a Polish university professor, scouting instructor, SOE agent and a freedom fighter during World War II.

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European route E75

European route E 75 is part of the International E-road network, which is a series of main roads in Europe.

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Filippo Buonaccorsi

Filippo Buonaccorsi, called "Callimachus" (Latin: Philippus Callimachus Experiens, Bonacursius;; 2 May 1437 – 1 November 1496) was an Italian humanist and writer.

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Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.

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The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.

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Gazeta Wyborcza

Gazeta Wyborcza (meaning Electoral Newspaper in English) is a newspaper published in Warsaw, Poland.

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Göttingen (Low German: Chöttingen) is a university city in Lower Saxony, Germany.

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Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.

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German Empire

The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Gingerbread refers to a broad category of baked goods, typically flavored with ginger, cloves, nutmeg or cinnamon and sweetened with honey, sugar or molasses.

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Gothic architecture

Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages.

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Great Northern War

The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.

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Grudziądz (Graudenz, Graudentum or Graudentium or Grudentia); the form Grudentia is used by, e.g., A. Lentz, Philologus 23 (1866), p. 175.

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Guilin, formerly romanized as Kweilin, is a prefecture-level city in the northeast of China's Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.

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Gymnasium (school)

A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools.

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Hanseatic League

The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.

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Hämeenlinna (Tavastehus) is a city and municipality of about inhabitants in the heart of the historical province of Häme in the south of Finland.

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Hermann Balk

Hermann Balk (died March 5, 1239, Würzburg), also known as Hermann von Balk or Hermann Balke, was a Knight-Brother of the Teutonic Order and its first Landmeister, or Provincial Master, in both Prussia and Livonia.

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Hermann von Salza

Hermann von Salza (or Hermann of Salza; c. 1165 – March 20, 1239) was the fourth Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from 1210 to 1239.

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A highway is any public or private road or other public way on land.

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Jagiellonian University

The Jagiellonian University (Polish: Uniwersytet Jagielloński; Latin: Universitas Iagellonica Cracoviensis, also known as the University of Kraków) is a research university in Kraków, Poland.

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Józef Piłsudski

Józef Klemens Piłsudski (5 December 1867 – 12 May 1935) was a Polish statesman; he was Chief of State (1918–22), "First Marshal of Poland" (from 1920), and de facto leader (1926–35) of the Second Polish Republic as the Minister of Military Affairs.

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John I Albert

John I Albert (Jan I Olbracht) (27 December 1459 – 17 June 1501) was King of Poland (1492–1501) and Duke of Głogów (1491–1498).

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Kaliningrad (p; former German name: Königsberg; Yiddish: קעניגסבערג, Kenigsberg; r; Old Prussian: Twangste, Kunnegsgarbs, Knigsberg; Polish: Królewiec) is a city in the administrative centre of Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea.

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Kingdom of Poland (1385–1569)

The Kingdom of Poland (Polish: Królestwo Polskie; Latin: Regnum Poloniae) and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania joined in a personal union established by the Union of Krewo (1385).

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Kingdom of Prussia

The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.

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Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.

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KS Toruń

KS Toruń is a Polish speedway team from Toruń, Poland.

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Kulm law

Kulm law, Culm law or Chełmno Law (Kulmer Recht; Jus Culmense vetus; Prawo chełmińskie) was a legal constitution for a municipal form of government used in several Central European cities during the Middle Ages.

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Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship

Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, also known as Cuiavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship or simply Kujawsko-Pomorskie, or Kujawy-Pomerania Province (in Polish, województwo kujawsko-pomorskie.

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Leaning Tower of Toruń

The Leaning Tower of Toruń is a medieval tower in Toruń, Poland.

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Leiden (in English and archaic Dutch also Leyden) is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands.

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List of World Heritage Sites of Poland

A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed as site of outstanding cultural or natural importance to the common heritage of humanity.

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Lists of World Heritage Sites in Europe

The following are lists of World Heritage Sites in Europe.

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Lower Saxony

Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen, Neddersassen) is a German state (Land) situated in northwestern Germany.

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Lusatian culture

The Lusatian culture existed in the later Bronze Age and early Iron Age (1300 BC – 500 BC) in most of today's Poland and parts of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, eastern Germany, and western Ukraine.

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Lutsk (Luc'k,, Łuck, Luck) is a city on the Styr River in northwestern Ukraine.

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Malbork (Marienburg; Civitas Beatae Virginis) is a town in northern Poland in the Żuławy region (Vistula delta), with 38,478 inhabitants (2006).

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Mannerism, also known as Late Renaissance, is a style in European art that emerged in the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520 and lasted until about the end of the 16th century in Italy, when the Baroque style began to replace it.

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Medieval Town of Toruń

Medieval Town of Toruń (zespół staromiejski Torunia) is the oldest historic district of the city of Toruń.

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Metro International

Metro International is a Swedish global media company based in Luxembourg that publishes the Metro newspapers. Metro International's advertising sales have grown at a compound annual growth rate of 41 percent since launch of the first newspaper edition in 1995.http://hugin.info/132142/R/1125327/208539.pdf It is a freesheet, meaning that distribution is free, with revenues thus generated entirely through advertising. This newspaper is primarily intended for commuters who move daily in and out of big cities' business areas, mainly during rush hours. The company was founded by Per Andersson and started as a subsidiary of the Modern Times Group along with Viasat Broadcasting. It is now controlled through the Mats Qviberg owned investment company Custos. The first edition of the newspaper was published as Metro Stockholm and distributed in the Stockholm metro., all European editions (except for the Hungarian one) have been sold, reportedly so that Metro International can focus on Latin America, considered the last growth market for free newspapers.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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A millennium (plural millennia or, rarely, millenniums) is a period equal to 1000 years, also called kiloyears.

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Motorcycle speedway

Motorcycle speedway, usually referred to as speedway, is a motorcycle sport involving four and sometimes up to six riders competing over four anti-clockwise laps of an oval circuit.

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Muzeum Piernika

Muzeum Piernika (Museum of Gingerbread) is a museum located in medieval old town of Toruń, Poland, that is famous for its gingerbread.

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Nasz Dziennik

Nasz Dziennik ("Our Daily") is a Polish-language daily newspaper published six times a week in Warsaw, Poland.

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The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.

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Nicolaus Copernicus

Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.

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Nicolaus Copernicus Monument, Toruń

The Nicolaus Copernicus Monument in the home town of astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543) was erected in 1853 by a "monument committee" of the city's residents.

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Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń

Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu, UMK) is located in Toruń, Poland.

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Novo Mesto

Novo Mesto (Novo mesto; also known by other alternative names) is the city on a bend of the Krka River in the City Municipality of Novo Mesto in southeastern Slovenia, close to the border with Croatia.

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Olsztyn (Allenstein; Old Polish: Holstin; Old Prussian: Alnāsteini or Alnestabs; Alnaštynas, Alnštynas, Alštynas (historical) and Olštynas (modern)) is a city on the Łyna River in northeastern Poland.

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Order of Polonia Restituta

The Order of Polonia Restituta (Order Odrodzenia Polski, Order of the Rebirth of Poland) is a Polish state order established 4 February 1921.

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Orders, decorations, and medals of Poland

The following is a list of medals, awards and decorations in use in Poland.

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Partitions of Poland

The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.

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Peace of Thorn (1411)

The (First) Peace of Thorn was a peace treaty formally ending the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War between allied Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania on one side, and the Teutonic Knights on the other.

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Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.

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Peter the Great

Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.

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Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.

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A planetarium (plural planetaria or planetariums) is a theatre built primarily for presenting educational and entertaining shows about astronomy and the night sky, or for training in celestial navigation.

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Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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Polish American Football League

The Polish American Football League or shortly PLFA (Polska Liga Futbolu Amerykańskiego) is a structured system for the American football competitions in Poland founded in 2006 by the Polish federation PZFA.

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Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War

The Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War or Great War occurred between 1409 and 1411, pitting the allied Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania against the Teutonic Knights.

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Polskie Radio

Polskie Radio Spółka Akcyjna (PR S.A.; English: Polish Radio) is Poland's state-owned national publicly funded radio broadcasting organization.

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Pomeranian Voivodeship

Pomeranian Voivodeship, Pomorskie Region, or Pomerania Province (in Polish województwo pomorskie, in Kashubian Pòmòrsczé wòjewództwò), is a voivodeship, or province, in north-western Poland.

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Pomeranian Voivodeship (1919–1939)

The Pomeranian Voivodeship or Pomorskie Voivodeship (Województwo Pomorskie) was an administrative unit of interwar Poland (from 1919–1939).

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A powiat (pronounced; Polish plural: powiaty) is the second-level unit of local government and administration in Poland, equivalent to a county, district or prefecture (LAU-1, formerly NUTS-4) in other countries.

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Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.

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Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.

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Prussian Confederation

The Prussian Confederation (Preußischer Bund, Związek Pruski) was an organization formed on 21 February 1440 at Marienwerder by a group of 53 nobles and clergy and 19 cities in Prussia, to oppose the arbitrariness of the Teutonic Knights.

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Prussian Partition

The Prussian Partition (Zabór pruski), or Prussian Poland, refers to the former territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth acquired during the Partitions of Poland, in the late 18th century by the Kingdom of Prussia.

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Radio Maryja

Radio Maryja is a religious and political socially conservative Polish radio station.

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Radio telescope

A radio telescope is a specialized antenna and radio receiver used to receive radio waves from astronomical radio sources in the sky in radio astronomy.

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The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.

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Ring road

A ring road (also known as beltline, beltway, circumferential (high)way, loop or orbital) is a road or a series of connected roads encircling a town, city, or country.

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RMF FM (Radio Muzyka Fakty FM, previously: Radio Małopolska Fun) is the first commercial radio station in Poland.

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Royal city in Poland

In the history of Poland, a royal city or royal town (miasto królewskie) was an urban settlement within the crown lands (królewszczyzna).

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Royal elections in Poland

Royal elections in Poland (wolna elekcja, lit. free election) was the election of individual kings, rather than of dynasties, to the Polish throne.

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Royal Prussia

Royal Prussia (Prusy Królewskie; Königlich-Preußen or Preußen Königlichen Anteils, Królewsczé Prësë) or Polish PrussiaAnton Friedrich Büsching, Patrick Murdoch.

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Rzeczpospolita Polska is a traditional and official name of the Polish State – Rzeczpospolita Polska (Res Publica Poloniae, Republic of Poland).

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Second Partition of Poland

The 1793 Second Partition of Poland was the second of three partitions (or partial annexations) that ended the existence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth by 1795.

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Second Peace of Thorn (1466)

The Peace of Thorn of 1466 (Zweiter Friede von Thorn; drugi pokój toruński) was a peace treaty signed in the Hanseatic city of Thorn (Toruń) on 19 October 1466 between the Polish king Casimir IV Jagiellon on one side, and the Teutonic Knights on the other.

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Second Polish Republic

The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).

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Sejm of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

The general sejm (sejm walny, also translated as the full or ordinary sejm) was the bicameral parliament of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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Seven Wonders of Poland

The Seven Wonders of Poland (Siedem cudów Polski) was a short list of cultural wonders located in Poland.

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Sierpc (Sichelberg) is a town in Poland, in the north-west part of the Masovian Voivodeship, about 125 km northwest of Warsaw.

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Sister city

Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.

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Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.

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Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.

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Society of Jesus

The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.

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Solec Kujawski

Solec Kujawski (Schulitz) is a town with 15,505 inhabitants and an area of 176 km², situated 14 kilometres southeast of Bydgoszcz in Poland at.

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South Holland

South Holland (Zuid-Holland) is a province of the Netherlands with a population of just over 3.6 million as of 2015 and a population density of about, making it the country's most populous province and one of the world's most densely populated areas.

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State of the Teutonic Order

The State of the Teutonic Order (Staat des Deutschen Ordens; Civitas Ordinis Theutonici), also called Deutschordensstaat or Ordensstaat in German, was a crusader state formed by the Teutonic Knights or Teutonic Order during the 13th century Northern Crusades along the Baltic Sea.

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Swindon is a large town in Wiltshire, South West England, between Bristol, to the west, and Reading, the same distance east.

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Team Speedway Polish Championship

The Team Speedway Polish Championship (Polish: Drużynowe Mistrzostwa Polski, DMP) is an annual speedway event held each year in different Polish clubs organized by the Polish Motor Union (PZM) since 1948.

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Telewizja Toruń

Telewizja Toruń (cable TV of Toruń) is a local Polish TV station that was founded in 1992.

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Telewizja Trwam

TV Trwam is a Polish TV channel in Toruń, Poland, belonging to the Lux Veritatis Foundation.

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A tenement is a multi-occupancy building of any sort.

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Teutonic Order

The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.

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Thirteen Years' War (1454–66)

The Thirteen Years' War (Dreizehnjähriger Krieg; wojna trzynastoletnia), also called the War of the Cities, was a conflict fought in 1454–66 between the Prussian Confederation, allied with the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, and the State of the Teutonic Order.

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Tony Halik

Tony Halik, born Mieczysław Antoni Sędzimir Halik (January 24, 1921 – May 23, 1998) was a Polish-Argentinian film operator, documentary film-maker, author of travel books, traveller, explorer, and polyglot (speaking Spanish, English, French, Portuguese, Italian, German, Guarani and Xavante).

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Toruń Castle

Toruń Castle or Thorn Castle is a 13th- or 14th-century castle of the Teutonic Order located in Toruń (Thorn), Poland.

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Toruń Cathedral

Church of St.

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Toruń Centre for Astronomy

The Toruń Centre for Astronomy is an optical and radio observatory located at in Piwnice, about 15 km north of Toruń, Poland.

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Toruń Fortress

Toruń Fortress (Festung Thorn), built from 1872–1894 by the Kingdom of Prussia and located in Thorn (Toruń, now Poland), is one of the largest fortresses in Central and Eastern Europe.

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Toruń Główny railway station

Toruń Główny railway station (Toruń Main Station) is the most important railway station serving the city of Toruń, in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland.

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Toruń gingerbread

Toruń gingerbread (pierniki toruńskie, Thorner Lebkuchen) is a traditional Polish gingerbread that has been produced since the Middle Ages in the city of Toruń.

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Toruń Voivodeship

Toruń Voivodeship was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in the years 1975–1998, superseded by the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship.

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Toruński KS

Toruński KS is a defunct Polish sports club from Toruń, which in the late 1920s played in the Polish Soccer League for two years (1927, 1928).

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Tourism in Poland

Poland is a part of the global tourism market with constantly increasing number of visitors.

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Treaty of Thorn (1709)

The Treaty of Thorn was concluded on 9 October 1709 between Augustus the Strong of Poland-Lithuania and Peter the Great of Russia in Thorn (Toruń), during the Great Northern War.

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Tuba Dei

Tuba Dei (Latin for "God's Trumpet"), is the largest medieval bell in Poland and one of the largest medieval bells in Europe, hanging in the tower of Ss. Johns Cathedral in Toruń.

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Tumult of Thorn (Toruń)

The Tumult of Thorn (Toruń), or Blood-Bath of Thorn (Tumult toruński, Thorner Blutgericht, literally Bloody court of Thorn) refers to executions ordered in 1724 by the Polish supreme court under Augustus II the Strong of Saxony.

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TVN (Poland)

TVN is a Polish commercial television station.

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TVN24 is a Polish 24-hour commercial infotainment channel, launched on 9 August 2001.

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TVP Info

TVP Info is a Polish news channel, run by the public broadcaster TVP.

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Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.

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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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University of Gdańsk

The University of Gdańsk (Uniwersytet Gdański) is a public research university located in Gdańsk, Poland.

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University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn

The University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn was established on 1 September 1999, in accordance with the new Statute of Sejm signed by the President of the Republic of Poland, Aleksander Kwaśniewski, as well as the Minister of National Education, Mirosław Handke, in August of the same year.

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Vehicle registration plates of Poland

Vehicle registration plates of Poland indicate the region of registration of the vehicle encoded in the number plate.

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Vilnius University

Vilnius University (Vilniaus universitetas; former names exist) is the oldest university in the Baltic states and one of the oldest in Northern Europe.

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The Vistula (Wisła, Weichsel,, ווייסל), Висла) is the longest and largest river in Poland, at in length. The drainage basin area of the Vistula is, of which lies within Poland (54% of its land area). The remainder is in Belarus, Ukraine and Slovakia. The Vistula rises at Barania Góra in the south of Poland, above sea level in the Silesian Beskids (western part of Carpathian Mountains), where it begins with the White Little Vistula (Biała Wisełka) and the Black Little Vistula (Czarna Wisełka). It then continues to flow over the vast Polish plains, passing several large Polish cities along its way, including Kraków, Sandomierz, Warsaw, Płock, Włocławek, Toruń, Bydgoszcz, Świecie, Grudziądz, Tczew and Gdańsk. It empties into the Vistula Lagoon (Zalew Wiślany) or directly into the Gdańsk Bay of the Baltic Sea with a delta and several branches (Leniwka, Przekop, Śmiała Wisła, Martwa Wisła, Nogat and Szkarpawa).

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Voivodeships of Poland

A województwo (plural: województwa) is the highest-level administrative subdivision of Poland, corresponding to a "province" in many other countries.

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Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.

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Włocławek (Leslau) is a city located in central Poland along the Vistula (Wisła) River and is bordered by the Gostynińsko-Włocławski Park Krajobrazowy.

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Wiltshire is a county in South West England with an area of.

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World Heritage site

A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Wrocław (Breslau; Vratislav; Vratislavia) is the largest city in western Poland.

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WSB Universities

WSB Universities (Wyższe Szkoły Bankowe, Wyższa Szkoła Bankowa) is group of private universities in Poland.

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Redirects here:

Thorn (Polish City), Thorun, Thorun (Torun), Thorun (Toruń), Torun, Torun (AEG, Org. Todt), Torun, Poland, Torun, poland, Toruñ, Toruń City.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toruń

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