133 relations: Algae, Alternative medicine, American Chemical Society, Amnesic shellfish poisoning, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry (journal), Animal, Ant, Apitoxin, ArachnoServer, Arrow poison, Aspartame, Bacteria, Bee, Biocide, Biological agent, Biological Weapons Convention, Bitis arietans, Blue-ringed octopus, Botulinum toxin, Box jellyfish, Brevetoxin, Brown recluse spider, Cangitoxin, Chemical weapon, Chromatographia, Colon cleansing, Cone snail, Coral, Cyanobacteria, Cyanotoxin, Cytotoxicity, Detoxification (alternative medicine), Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, Dinoflagellate, Dinotoxin, Eastern bearded dragon, Elapidae, Elsevier, Enzyme, Excitotoxicity, Exotoxin, Food chain, Frog, Fungus, Gajendra Pal Singh Raghava, Hemolysis, Hemotoxin, Honey bee, Immune response, ..., Insect toxin, International Committee of the Red Cross, Jellyfish, Latrodectus, Lipopolysaccharide, List of fictional toxins, List of highly toxic gases, Lizard, Lysis, Macromolecule, Microbial toxin, Microorganism, Molecule, Monosodium glutamate, Muscle, Mushroom, Mycotoxin, Myotoxin, NATO, Necrosis, Necrotizing fasciitis, Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin, Palythoa, Paralytic shellfish poisoning, Pathogen, Peptide, Pesticide, Phospholipase, Phototoxin, Phytotoxin, Plant, Poison, Poison dart frog, Pollutant, Pore-forming toxin, Predation, Protein, Protozoa, Quackery, Quackwatch, Rattlesnake, Receptor (biochemistry), Recombinant DNA, Red blood cell, Ricin, Ricinus, Rickettsia, Science of the Total Environment, Scorpion, Serine protease, Skin, Small molecule, Snake, Spider, Springer Science+Business Media, Springer Vieweg Verlag, Stinger, Streptococcus pyogenes, Sucrose, Superfund Research Program, T-2 mycotoxin, Termite, Tetrahedron Letters, Tissue (biology), Title 18 of the United States Code, Toxalbumin, Toxicity, Toxicon, Toxicophore, Toxics Release Inventory, Toxin-antitoxin system, TOXMAP, Trypsin, United States Environmental Protection Agency, United States National Library of Medicine, Venom, Venomous fish, Viperidae, Virulence, Virus, Warsaw Pact, Wasp. Expand index (83 more) » « Shrink index
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
Alternative medicine, fringe medicine, pseudomedicine or simply questionable medicine is the use and promotion of practices which are unproven, disproven, impossible to prove, or excessively harmful in relation to their effect — in the attempt to achieve the healing effects of medicine.--> --> --> They differ from experimental medicine in that the latter employs responsible investigation, and accepts results that show it to be ineffective. The scientific consensus is that alternative therapies either do not, or cannot, work. In some cases laws of nature are violated by their basic claims; in some the treatment is so much worse that its use is unethical. Alternative practices, products, and therapies range from only ineffective to having known harmful and toxic effects.--> Alternative therapies may be credited for perceived improvement through placebo effects, decreased use or effect of medical treatment (and therefore either decreased side effects; or nocebo effects towards standard treatment),--> or the natural course of the condition or disease. Alternative treatment is not the same as experimental treatment or traditional medicine, although both can be misused in ways that are alternative. Alternative or complementary medicine is dangerous because it may discourage people from getting the best possible treatment, and may lead to a false understanding of the body and of science.-->---> Alternative medicine is used by a significant number of people, though its popularity is often overstated.--> Large amounts of funding go to testing alternative medicine, with more than US$2.5 billion spent by the United States government alone.--> Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment,--> and most studies showing any effect have been statistical flukes. Alternative medicine is a highly profitable industry, with a strong lobby. This fact is often overlooked by media or intentionally kept hidden, with alternative practice being portrayed positively when compared to "big pharma". --> The lobby has successfully pushed for alternative therapies to be subject to far less regulation than conventional medicine.--> Alternative therapies may even be allowed to promote use when there is demonstrably no effect, only a tradition of use. Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine and health care providers varies between and within countries. Despite laws making it illegal to market or promote alternative therapies for use in cancer treatment, many practitioners promote them.--> Alternative medicine is criticized for taking advantage of the weakest members of society.--! Terminology has shifted over time, reflecting the preferred branding of practitioners.. Science Based Medicine--> For example, the United States National Institutes of Health department studying alternative medicine, currently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, was established as the Office of Alternative Medicine and was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine before obtaining its current name. Therapies are often framed as "natural" or "holistic", in apparent opposition to conventional medicine which is "artificial" and "narrow in scope", statements which are intentionally misleading. --> When used together with functional medical treatment, alternative therapies do not "complement" (improve the effect of, or mitigate the side effects of) treatment.--> Significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively impact functional treatment, making it less effective, notably in cancer.--> Alternative diagnoses and treatments are not part of medicine, or of science-based curricula in medical schools, nor are they used in any practice based on scientific knowledge or experience.--> Alternative therapies are often based on religious belief, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural energies, pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, or lies.--> Alternative medicine is based on misleading statements, quackery, pseudoscience, antiscience, fraud, and poor scientific methodology. Promoting alternative medicine has been called dangerous and unethical.--> Testing alternative medicine that has no scientific basis has been called a waste of scarce research resources.--> Critics state that "there is really no such thing as alternative medicine, just medicine that works and medicine that doesn't",--> that the very idea of "alternative" treatments is paradoxical, as any treatment proven to work is by definition "medicine".-->.
The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a scientific society based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry.
Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) is an illness caused by consumption of the marine biotoxin called domoic acid.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing research articles in the broad field of analytical and bioanalytical chemistry.
Analytical Chemistry is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published since 1929 by the American Chemical Society.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Ants are eusocial insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera.
Apitoxin, or honey bee venom, is a bitter colorless liquid containing proteins, which may produce local inflammation.
ArachnoServer is a database storing information on the protein toxins from spider venoms.
Arrow poisons are used to poison arrow heads or darts for the purposes of hunting and warfare.
Aspartame (APM) is an artificial non-saccharide sweetener used as a sugar substitute in some foods and beverages.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax.
A biocide is defined in the European legislation as a chemical substance or microorganism intended to destroy, deter, render harmless, or exert a controlling effect on any harmful organism by chemical or biological means.
A biological agent—also called bio-agent, biological threat agent, biological warfare agent, biological weapon, or bioweapon—is a bacterium, virus, protozoan, parasite, or fungus that can be used purposefully as a weapon in bioterrorism or biological warfare (BW).
The Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction (usually referred to as the Biological Weapons Convention, abbreviation: BWC, or Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, abbreviation: BTWC) was the first multilateral disarmament treaty banning the production of an entire category of weapons.
Bitis arietans is a venomous viper species found in savannah and grasslands from Morocco and western Arabia throughout Africa except for the Sahara and rain forest regions.
Blue-ringed octopuses, comprising the genus Hapalochlaena, are four highly venomous species of octopus that are found in tide pools and coral reefs in the Pacific and Indian oceans, from Japan to Australia.
Botulinum toxin (BTX) or Botox is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species.
Box jellyfish (class Cubozoa) are cnidarian invertebrates distinguished by their cube-shaped medusae.
Brevetoxin (PbTx), or brevetoxins, are a suite of cyclic polyether compounds produced naturally by a species of dinoflagellate known as Karenia brevis.
The brown recluse, Loxosceles reclusa, Sicariidae (formerly placed in a family "Loxoscelidae") is a recluse spider with a necrotic venom.
Cangitoxin, also known as CGTX or CGX, is a toxin purified from the venom of the sea anemone Bunodosoma cangicum, which most likely acts by prolonging the inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV channels).
A chemical weapon (CW) is a specialized munition that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on humans.
Chromatographia is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Springer Verlag, covering liquid and gas chromatography, as well as electrophoresis and TLC.
Colon cleansing (also known as colon therapy) encompasses a number of alternative medical therapies claimed to remove nonspecific toxins from the colon and intestinal tract by removing any accumulations of feces.
Cone snails, cone shells, or cones are common names for a large group of small to large-sized extremely venomous predatory sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs.
Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria.
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
Cyanotoxins are toxins produced by bacteria called cyanobacteria (also known as blue-green algae).
Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxic to cells.
Detoxification (often shortened to detox and sometimes called body cleansing) is a type of alternative medicine treatment which aims to rid the body of unspecified "toxins" – substances that proponents claim have accumulated in the body and have undesirable short-term or long-term effects on individual health.
Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) is one of the four recognized symptom types of shellfish poisoning, the others being paralytic shellfish poisoning, neurotoxic shellfish poisoning and amnesic shellfish poisoning.
The dinoflagellates (Greek δῖνος dinos "whirling" and Latin flagellum "whip, scourge") are a large group of flagellate eukaryotes that constitute the phylum Dinoflagellata.
Dinotoxins are a group of toxins which are produced by flagellate, aquatic, unicellular protists called dinoflagellates.
The eastern bearded dragon (Pogona barbata), also known as common bearded dragon or simply bearded lizard, is an agamid lizard found in wooded parts of Australia.
The Elapidae (ἔλλοψ éllops, "sea-fish") are a family of venomous snakes found in the tropics and subtropics around the world, with terrestrial forms in Asia, Australia, Africa, North America, and South America as well as marine forms in the Pacific and Indian oceans.
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Excitotoxicity is the pathological process by which nerve cells are damaged or killed by excessive stimulation by neurotransmitters such as glutamate and similar substances.
An exotoxin is a toxin secreted by bacteria.
A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).
A frog is any member of a diverse and largely carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura (Ancient Greek ἀν-, without + οὐρά, tail).
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Gajendra Pal Singh Raghava is an Indian bio-informatician and head of Comutational Biology at the Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology (IIIT), Delhi.
Hemolysis or haemolysis, also known by several other names, is the rupturing (lysis) of red blood cells (erythrocytes) and the release of their contents (cytoplasm) into surrounding fluid (e.g. blood plasma).
Hemotoxins, haemotoxins or hematotoxins are toxins that destroy red blood cells (that is, cause haemotoxin), disrupt blood clotting, and/or cause organ degeneration and generalized tissue damage.
A honey bee (or honeybee) is any member of the genus Apis, primarily distinguished by the production and storage of honey and the construction of perennial, colonial nests from wax.
The Immune response is the body's response caused by its immune system being activated by antigens.
Insect toxins are various protein toxins produced by insect species.
The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland, and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate.
Jellyfish or sea jelly is the informal common name given to the medusa-phase of certain gelatinous members of the subphylum Medusozoa, a major part of the phylum Cnidaria.
Latrodectus is a genus of spiders in the family Theridiidae, most of which are commonly known as widow spiders.
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans and endotoxins, are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide composed of O-antigen, outer core and inner core joined by a covalent bond; they are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
This is a list of toxins, poisons, chemical weapons, and biological weapons from works of fiction (usually in fantasy and science fiction).
Many gases have toxic properties, which are often assessed using the LC50 (median lethal dose) measure.
Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains.
Lysis (Greek λύσις lýsis, "a loosing" from λύειν lýein, "to unbind") refers to the breaking down of the membrane of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic (that is, "lytic") mechanisms that compromise its integrity.
A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).
Microbial toxins are toxins produced by micro-organisms, including bacteria and fungi.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Monosodium glutamate (MSG, also known as sodium glutamate) is the sodium salt of glutamic acid, one of the most abundant naturally occurring non-essential amino acids.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
A mushroom, or toadstool, is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source.
A mycotoxin (from the Greek μύκης mykes, "fungus" and τοξικόν toxikon, "poison") is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by organisms of the fungus kingdom and is capable of causing disease and death in both humans and other animals.
Myotoxins are small, basic peptides found in snake venoms, (e.g. rattlesnakes), and lizard venoms (e.g. mexican beaded lizard).
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.
Necrotizing fasciitis (NF), commonly known as flesh-eating disease, is an infection that results in the death of the body's soft tissue.
Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) is caused by the consumption of shellfish contaminated by breve-toxins or brevetoxin analogs.
Neurotoxins are toxins that are poisonous or destructive to nerve tissue (causing neurotoxicity).
Palythoa is a genus of anthozoans in the order Zoantharia.
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is one of the four recognized syndromes of shellfish poisoning, which share some common features and are primarily associated with bivalve mollusks (such as mussels, clams, oysters and scallops).
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
A phospholipase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes phospholipids into fatty acids and other lipophilic substances.
Phototoxins are toxins that can cause allergic reactions in particularly susceptible individuals and which can cause dangerous photosensitivity in a much broader range of subjects.
Phytotoxins are toxic chemicals produced by plants, which function as defensive agents against their predators.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.
Poison dart frog (also known as dart-poison frog, poison frog or formerly known as poison arrow frog) is the common name of a group of frogs in the family Dendrobatidae which are native to tropical Central and South America.
A pollutant is a substance or energy introduced into the environment that has undesired effects, or adversely affects the usefulness of a resource.
Pore-forming proteins (PFTs, also known as pore-forming toxins) are protein exotoxins, usually produced by bacteria, such as C. septicum and S. aureus.
Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.
Quackery or health fraud is the promotion of fraudulent or ignorant medical practices.
Quackwatch is a United States-based network of people founded by Stephen Barrett, which aims to "combat health-related frauds, myths, fads, fallacies, and misconduct" and to focus on "quackery-related information that is difficult or impossible to get elsewhere".
Rattlesnakes are a group of venomous snakes of the genera Crotalus and Sistrurus of the subfamily Crotalinae (the pit vipers).
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
Ricin, a lectin (a carbohydrate-binding protein) produced in the seeds of the castor oil plant, Ricinus communis, is a highly potent toxin.
Ricinus communis, the castor bean or castor oil plant, is a species of perennial flowering plant in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.
Rickettsia is a genus of nonmotile, Gram-negative, nonspore-forming, highly pleomorphic bacteria that can be present as cocci (0.1 μm in diameter), rods (1–4 μm long), or thread-like (10 μm long).
Science of the Total Environment is a leading international peer-reviewed scientific journal covering environmental science.
Scorpions are predatory arachnids of the order Scorpiones.
Serine proteases (or serine endopeptidases) are enzymes that cleave peptide bonds in proteins, in which serine serves as the nucleophilic amino acid at the (enzyme's) active site.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
Within the fields of molecular biology and pharmacology, a small molecule is a low molecular weight (< 900 daltons) organic compound that may regulate a biological process, with a size on the order of 1 nm.
Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.
Spiders (order Araneae) are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
Springer Vieweg Verlag (formerly known as Vieweg+Teubner Verlag) is a German publishing company that specializes in books on technical subjects.
A stinger, or sting, is a sharp organ found in various animals (typically arthropods) capable of injecting venom, usually by piercing the epidermis of another animal.
Streptococcus pyogenes is a species of Gram-positive bacteria.
Sucrose is common table sugar.
The Superfund Research Program (SRP) was created within the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences in 1986 under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA).
T-2 Mycotoxin (pronounced as 'Tee-Two') is a trichothecene mycotoxin.
Termites are eusocial insects that are classified at the taxonomic rank of infraorder Isoptera, or as epifamily Termitoidae within the cockroach order Blattodea.
Tetrahedron Letters is a weekly international journal for rapid publication of full original research papers in the field of organic chemistry.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Title 18 of the United States Code is the main criminal code of the federal government of the United States.
Toxalbumins are toxic plant proteins that disable ribosomes and thereby inhibit protein synthesis, producing severe cytotoxic effects in multiple organ systems.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
Toxicon is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of toxinology and the official journal of the International Society on Toxinology.
A toxicophore is a chemical structure or a portion of a structure (e.g., a functional group) that is related to the toxic properties of a chemical.
The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is a publicly available database containing information on toxic chemical releases and other waste management activities in the United States.
A toxin-antitoxin system is a set of two or more closely linked genes that together encode both a protein 'poison' and a corresponding 'antidote'.
TOXMAP is a geographic information system (GIS) from the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) that uses maps of the United States to help users explore data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) and Superfund programs with visual projections and maps.
Trypsin is a serine protease from the PA clan superfamily, found in the digestive system of many vertebrates, where it hydrolyzes proteins.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the United States federal government, is the world's largest medical library.
Venomous Animals Venom is a form of toxin secreted by an animal for the purpose of causing harm to another.
Venomous fish produce a strong toxin harmful to humans (called venom) which they deliver by means of a bite, sting, or stab.
The Viperidae (vipers) is a family of venomous snakes found in most parts of the world, excluding Antarctica, Australia, New Zealand, Madagascar, Hawaii, various other isolated islands, and north of the Arctic Circle.
Virulence is a pathogen's or microbe's ability to infect or damage a host.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
A wasp is any insect of the order Hymenoptera and suborder Apocrita that is neither a bee nor an ant.