231 relations: Agence France-Presse, Air conditioning, Airbag, All-Trac, All-wheel drive, Allen & Unwin, Altona, Victoria, Anglicisation, Anti-lock braking system, Anti-roll bar, Armrest, Australian Labor Party, Australian Motor Industries, Autocar (magazine), Automatic transmission fluid, Automobile Club d'Italia, Automobile drag coefficient, Automobile safety, Automotive aerodynamics, Automotive industry, Automotive News, Autoweek, Beam axle, Bidadi, Bob Hawke, Boca Raton, Florida, Botswana, Brake pad, Bumper (car), Button car plan, Cambridge, Car alarm, Car and Driver, Car door, Car platform, Carburetor, Cardiff, Cars.com, Cartel, CD player, Center console (automobile), Chachoengsao, Chichester, Compact car, Compact Cassette, Consumer Reports, Continuously variable transmission, Coupé, CRC Press, Crossover (automobile), ..., Crows Nest, New South Wales, Cruise control, Daihatsu, Dashboard, Defogger, Design brief, Diesel fuel, Disc brake, Drum brake, Durban, East Asia, Edmunds (company), Electronic instrument cluster, Engine displacement, Equalization (audio), Exhaust system, Fender (vehicle), Ford Falcon (Australia), Ford Motor Company, Ford Tempo, Four-wheel drive, Front-engine, four-wheel-drive layout, Front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout, Front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout, Front-wheel drive, Fuel economy in automobiles, Fuel injection, Gasoline, General Motors, Georgetown, Kentucky, Glovebox, GM X platform (1980), Greenhouse (car), Grille, Grille (car), Guangzhou, Hardtop, Hatchback, Headlamp, Hebrew language, Hemmings Motor News, Herald Sun, Holden, Holden Apollo, Holden Camira, Holden Commodore, Honda, Honda Accord, Hood (car), Hornsby, New South Wales, HowStuffWorks, Hubcap, Hybrid Synergy Drive, Hybrid vehicle, Hyderabad, Hydraulic circuit, Independent suspension, Inline-four engine, Institute of Public Enterprise, Japanese domestic market, Jefferson, North Carolina, John Button, John Wiley & Sons, Kuala Lumpur, Kuozui Motors, Latin, Lexus, Lexus ES, Linux, List of Toyota manufacturing facilities, Luxury vehicle, MacPherson strut, McFarland & Company, Mid-size car, Middle Park, Victoria, Minister for Industry, Innovation and Science, Minivan, Monash University, Motor (magazine), Motor Trend, Namibia, Nansha District, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, National Roads and Motorists' Association, NGK, Nissan, North American International Auto Show, North Branch, Minnesota, Notchback, NUMMI, Oceania, Odometer, One-upmanship, Overdrive (mechanics), Overhead camshaft, Pelham, New York, Phonetic transcription, Pillar (car), Popular Mechanics, Port Melbourne, Victoria, Poundbury, Proportioning valve, Quarter glass, Rack and pinion, Rebadging, Regulation (magazine), Reuters, Road & Track, Saint Petersburg, Sash window, Sceptre, Sedan (automobile), Shah Alam, Shock absorber, Spoiler (car), Station wagon, Steering, Steering column, Strut bar, Subframe, Sunroof, Suspension (vehicle), Sydney central business district, Tachometer, Tariff, The Canberra Times, The Christian Science Monitor, The New York Times, The Truth About Cars, Tiara, Torque, Torsion bar suspension, Toyota, Toyota Aurion, Toyota Aurion (XV40), Toyota Australia, Toyota Avalon, Toyota C engine, Toyota C-HR, Toyota Camry, Toyota Camry Solara, Toyota Carina, Toyota Corolla, Toyota Corolla (E80), Toyota Corona, Toyota Crown, Toyota Electronic Modulated Suspension, Toyota Entune, Toyota K platform, Toyota Kirloskar Motor, Toyota Land Cruiser, Toyota MC platform, Toyota Motor Manufacturing Kentucky, Toyota New Global Architecture, Toyota Prius, Toyota Racing Development, Toyota S engine, Toyota, Aichi, Trailing-arm suspension, Transaxle, Transportation Research Board, Transverse engine, Trunk (car), Turbo-diesel, Turbocharger, United Australian Automobile Industries, V6 engine, Vacuum servo, Veloce Publishing, Velour, Wheelbase, Wheels (magazine), Wind tunnel, Window film, Windscreen wiper, Wing mirror, Wood grain, Woodhead Publishing, Zimbabwe, 1973 oil crisis, 1979 energy crisis. Expand index (181 more) » « Shrink index
Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.
Air conditioning (often referred to as AC, A/C, or air con) is the process of removing heat and moisture from the interior of an occupied space, to improve the comfort of occupants.
An airbag is a type of vehicle safety device and is an occupant restraint system.
All-Trac was a proprietary full-time symmetric four wheel drive system used on a variety of Toyota badged models from 1988 to 2000.
An all-wheel drive vehicle (AWD vehicle) is one with a powertrain capable of providing power to all its wheels, whether full-time or on-demand.
Allen & Unwin is an Australian independent publishing company, established in Australia in 1976 as a subsidiary of the British firm George Allen & Unwin Ltd., which was founded by Sir Stanley Unwin in August 1914 and went on to become one of the leading publishers of the twentieth century.
Altona is a suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 13 km south-west of Melbourne's Central Business District, located within the City of Hobsons Bay local government area.
Anglicisation (or anglicization, see English spelling differences), occasionally anglification, anglifying, englishing, refers to modifications made to foreign words, names and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English.
An anti-lock braking system (ABS) is a safety anti-skid braking system used on aircraft and on land vehicles, such as cars, motorcycles, trucks and buses.
An anti-roll bar (roll bar, anti-sway bar, sway bar, stabilizer bar) is a part of many automobile suspensions that helps reduce the body roll of a vehicle during fast cornering or over road irregularities.
In an automotive context, an armrest (or arm rest) is a feature found in many modern vehicles on which occupants can rest their arms.
The Australian Labor Party (ALP, also Labor, was Labour before 1912) is a political party in Australia.
Australian Motor Industries (AMI) was an automobile assembly firm that was significant in the early history of the automotive industry in Australia.
Autocar is a weekly British automobile magazine published by Haymarket Motoring Publications Ltd.
Automatic transmission fluid (ATF), also known as transmission fluid or tranny fluid for short, is the fluid used in vehicles with self-shifting or automatic transmissions.
The Automobile Club d'Italia (usually known by its acronym ACI) is a non-economic, self-financed statutory corporation of the Italian Republic.
The drag coefficient is a common measure in automotive design as it pertains to aerodynamics.
Automobile safety is the study and practice of design, construction, equipment and regulation to minimize the occurrence and consequences of traffic collisions.
Automotive aerodynamics is the study of the aerodynamics of road vehicles.
The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing, and selling of motor vehicles, some of them are called automakers.
Automotive News is a weekly print newspaper written for the automotive industry, primarily individuals associated with automobile manufacturers and suppliers.
Autoweek is a car culture publication based in Detroit, Michigan.
A beam axle, rigid axle or solid axle is a dependent suspension design, in which a set of wheels is connected laterally by a single beam or shaft.
Bidadi is a town situated on the Bengaluru – Mysuru expressway and is part of the Ramanagara district in the state of Karnataka.
Robert James Lee Hawke, (born 9 December 1929) is a former Australian politician who was the 23rd Prime Minister of Australia, serving from 1983 to 1991.
Boca Raton (lit) is the southernmost city in Palm Beach County, Florida, United States, first incorporated on August 2, 1924 as "Bocaratone," and then incorporated as "Boca Raton" in 1925.
Botswana, officially the Republic of Botswana (Lefatshe la Botswana), is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa.
Brake pads are a component of disc brakes used in automotive and other applications.
A bumper is a structure attached to or integrated with the front and rear ends of a motor vehicle, to absorb impact in a minor collision, ideally minimizing repair costs.
The Button car plan, also known as the Button plan was the informal name given to the Motor Industry Development Plan, an Australian federal (Labor) government initiative intended to rationalise the Australian motor vehicle industry and transition it to lower levels of protection.
Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.
A car alarm is an electronic device installed in a vehicle in an attempt to discourage theft of the vehicle itself, its contents, or both.
Car and Driver (CD or C/D) is an American automotive enthusiast magazine.
A car door is a type of door, typically hinged, but sometimes attached by other mechanisms such as tracks, in front of an opening which is used for entering and exiting a vehicle.
A car platform is a shared set of common design, engineering, and production efforts, as well as major components over a number of outwardly distinct models and even types of cars, often from different, but related marques.
A carburetor (American English) or carburettor (British English; see spelling differences) is a device that mixes air and fuel for internal combustion engines in the proper ratio for combustion.
Cardiff (Caerdydd) is the capital of, and largest city in, Wales, and the eleventh-largest city in the United Kingdom.
Cars.com is a website which was launched in June 1998.
A cartel is a group of apparently independent producers whose goal is to increase their collective profits by means of price fixing, limiting supply, or other restrictive practices.
A CD player is an electronic device that plays audio compact discs, which are a digital optical disc data storage format.
The center console (British English: centre console) in an automobile refers to the control-bearing surfaces in the center of the front of the vehicle interior.
Chachoengsao (ฉะเชิงเทรา) is a town (thesaban mueang) in central Thailand, capital of Chachoengsao Province.
Chichester is a cathedral city in West Sussex, in South-East England.
A compact car (North America), or small family car in British acceptation, is a classification of cars that are larger than a subcompact car but smaller than a mid-size car, roughly equivalent to the C-segment in Europe.
The Compact Audio Cassette (CAC) or Musicassette (MC), also commonly called the cassette tape or simply tape or cassette, is an analog magnetic tape recording format for audio recording and playback.
Consumer Reports is an American magazine published since 1930 by Consumers Union, a nonprofit organization dedicated to unbiased product testing, consumer-oriented research, public education, and advocacy.
A continuously variable transmission (CVT), also known as a single-speed transmission, stepless transmission, pulley transmission, or, in case of motorcycles, a twist-and-go, is an automatic transmission that can change seamlessly through a continuous range of effective gear ratios.
A coupé — also known as coupe — is a car with a fixed-roof body style usually with two doors, however some four-door cars have been marketed as four door coupés or quad coupés due to their coupé-like roofline at the rear.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
A crossover or crossover utility vehicle (CUV) is a vehicle built on a unibody car platform combining in highly variable degrees features of a sport utility vehicle (SUV) with those of a passenger vehicle, especially a station wagon or hatchback.
Crows Nest is a suburb on the lower North Shore of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
Cruise control (sometimes known as speed control or autocruise, or tempomat in some countries) is a system that automatically controls the speed of a motor vehicle.
is one of the oldest surviving Japanese internal combustion engine manufacturers, later known for its range of smaller kei models and off-road vehicles.
A dashboard (also called dash, instrument panel (IP), or fascia) is a control panel located directly ahead of a vehicle's driver, displaying instrumentation and controls for the vehicle's operation.
A defogger, demister, or defroster is a system to clear condensation and thaw frost from the windshield, backglass, or side windows of a motor vehicle.
A Design brief is a document for a design project developed by a person or team (the 'designer' or 'design team') in consultation with the 'client'.
Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.
A disc brake is a type of brake that uses calipers to squeeze pairs of pads against a disc or "rotor" to create friction.
A drum brake is a brake that uses friction caused by a set of shoes or pads that press outward against a rotating cylinder-shaped part called a brake drum.
Durban (eThekwini, from itheku meaning "bay/lagoon") is the largest city in the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal and the third most populous in South Africa after Johannesburg and Cape Town.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
Edmunds.com Inc. (stylized as Edmunds) is an American online resource for automotive information.
In an automobile, an electronic instrument cluster, digital instrument panel or digital dash for short, is a set of instrumentation, including the speedometer, that is displayed with a digital readout rather than with the traditional analog gauges.
Engine displacement is the swept volume of all the pistons inside the cylinders of a reciprocating engine in a single movement from top dead centre (TDC) to bottom dead centre (BDC).
Equalization or equalisation is the process of adjusting the balance between frequency components within an electronic signal.
An exhaust system is usually piping used to guide reaction exhaust gases away from a controlled combustion inside an engine or stove.
Fender is the American English term for the part of an automobile, motorcycle or other vehicle body that frames a wheel well (the fender underside).
The Ford Falcon was a full-sized car manufactured by Ford Australia from 1960 to 2016.
Ford Motor Company (commonly referred to simply as "Ford") is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit.
The Ford Tempo and its twin, the Mercury Topaz, are compact cars that were produced by Ford for model years 1984 to 1994.
Four-wheel drive, also called 4×4 ("four by four") or 4WD, refers to a two-axled vehicle drivetrain capable of providing torque to all of its wheels simultaneously.
In automotive design, an F4, or Front-engine, Four-wheel drive layout places the internal combustion engine at the front of the vehicle and drives all four roadwheels.
In automotive design, an FF, or front-engine, front-wheel-drive (FWD) layout places both the internal combustion engine and driven roadwheels at the front of the vehicle.
In automotive design, an FR, or front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is one where the engine is located at the front of the vehicle and driven wheels are located at the rear.
Front-wheel drive (FWD) is a form of engine and transmission layout used in motor vehicles, where the engine drives the front wheels only.
The fuel economy of an automobile is the relationship between the distance traveled and the amount of fuel consumed by the vehicle.
Fuel injection is the introduction of fuel in an internal combustion engine, most commonly automotive engines, by the means of an injector.
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
General Motors Company, commonly referred to as General Motors (GM), is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Detroit that designs, manufactures, markets, and distributes vehicles and vehicle parts, and sells financial services.
Georgetown is a home rule-class city in Scott County, Kentucky, in the United States.
A glovebox (or glove box) is a sealed container that is designed to allow one to manipulate objects where a separate atmosphere is desired.
The front-wheel drive X-body was used by General Motors for compact cars from 1980 to 1985.
The greenhouse (or glasshouse) of a car comprises the windshield, rear and side windows, the pillars separating them (designated A-pillar, B-pillar and so on, starting from the car's front), and the car's roof.
A grille or grill (French word from Latin craticula, small grill) is an opening of several slits side by side in a wall or metal sheet or other barrier, usually to let air or water enter and/or leave but keep larger objects including animals in or out.
In automotive engineering, a grille covers an opening in the body of a vehicle to allow air to enter.
Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.
A hardtop is a rigid form of automobile roof, which for modern cars is typically constructed from metal.
A hatchback is a car with a hatch-type rear door that opens upwards and often a shared volume for the passenger and cargo areas.
A headlamp is a lamp attached to the front of a vehicle to light the road ahead.
Hemmings Motor News is a monthly magazine catering to traders and collectors of antique, classic, and exotic sports cars.
The Herald Sun is a morning newspaper based in Melbourne, Australia published by The Herald and Weekly Times, a subsidiary of News Corp Australia, itself a subsidiary of News Corp. The Herald Sun primarily serves Victoria and shares many articles with other News Corporation daily newspapers, especially those from Australia. It is also available for purchase in Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and border regions of South Australia and southern New South Wales such as the Riverina and NSW South Coast, and is available digitally through its website and apps. In March 2009, the paper had a daily circulation of 530,000 from Monday to Friday.
Holden, formally known as General Motors Holden, is an Australian automobile importer and a former automobile manufacturer with its headquarters in Port Melbourne, Victoria.
The Holden Apollo is a compact and later mid-size car that was distributed from 1989 to 1997 in Australia by Holden.
The Holden Camira is a mid-size car which was produced by Holden between 1982 and 1989.
The Holden Commodore is a medium to large sedan sold by Holden since 1978.
is a Japanese public multinational conglomerate corporation primarily known as a manufacturer of automobiles, aircraft, motorcycles, and power equipment.
The is a series of automobiles manufactured by Honda since 1976, best known for its four-door sedan variant, which has been one of the best-selling cars in the United States since 1989.
The hood (North American English) or bonnet (Commonwealth English excluding Canada) is the hinged cover over the engine of motor vehicles that allows access to the engine compartment (or trunk on rear-engine and some mid-engine vehicles) for maintenance and repair.
Hornsby is a suburb on the Upper North Shore of Sydney in the Australian state of New South Wales north-west of the Sydney central business district.
HowStuffWorks is an American commercial educational website founded by Marshall Brain to provide its target audience an insight into the way many things work.
A hubcap, wheel cover or wheel trim is a decorative disk on an automobile wheel that covers at least a central portion of the wheel, called the hub.
Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD) is the brand name of Toyota Motor Corporation for the hybrid car drive train technology used in vehicles with the Toyota and Lexus marques.
A hybrid vehicle uses two or more distinct types of power, such as internal combustion engine to drive an electric generator that powers an electric motor, e.g. in diesel-electric trains using diesel engines to drive an electric generator that powers an electric motor, and submarines that use diesels when surfaced and batteries when submerged.
Hyderabad is the capital of the Indian state of Telangana and de jure capital of Andhra Pradesh.
A hydraulic circuit is a system comprising an interconnected set of discrete components that transport liquid.
Independent suspension is a broad term for any automobile suspension system that allows each wheel on the same axle to move vertically (i.e. reacting to a bump in the road) independently of the others.
The inline-four engine or straight-four engine is a type of inline internal combustion four-cylinder engine with all four cylinders mounted in a straight line, or plane along the crankcase.
The Institute of Public Enterprise (IPE) was established in 1964 for the study of issues and policies relating to public enterprises (PEs).
The term "Japanese domestic market" refers to Japan's home market for vehicles.
Jefferson is a town in Ashe County, North Carolina, United States.
John Norman Button (30 June 19338 April 2008) was an Australian politician, who served as a senior minister in the Hawke and Keating Labor governments.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
Kuala Lumpur, officially the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur (Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur), or commonly known as KL, is the national capital of Malaysia as well as its largest city in the country.
Kuozui Motors is a Taiwanese manufacturing company that builds Toyotas under license for the domestic market.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
is the luxury vehicle division of Japanese car maker Toyota.
The Lexus ES (Japanese: レクサス・ES, Rekusasu ES) is a series of compact, then mid-size car sold by Lexus since 1989.
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.
This list comprises Toyota's manufacturing facilities worldwide, as well as others that are jointly owned by the company or run under a contract.
Luxury vehicle is a marketing term for a vehicle that provides luxury—pleasant or desirable features beyond strict necessity—at increased expense.
The MacPherson strut is a type of automotive suspension system that uses the top of a telescopic damper as the upper steering pivot.
McFarland & Company, Inc. is an independent book publisher based in Jefferson, North Carolina that specializes in academic and reference works, as well as general interest adult nonfiction.
A mid-size car (occasionally referred to as an intermediate) is the North American/Australian standard for an automobile with a size equal to or greater than that of a compact.
Middle Park is an inner suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 4 km south of Melbourne's Central Business District.
The Australian Minister for Industry, Innovation and Science was a portfolio in the Government of Australia between 1928, when the post was held by John Latham as the Minister for Industry, and 20 December 2017, when the last incumbent of the office was Senator The Hon. Arthur Sinodinos, since 24 January 2017.
A minivan (American English), people carrier (British English),, MPV (multi-purpose vehicle) or MUV (multi-utility vehicle) is a vehicle size classification describing a high-roof vehicle with a flexible interior layout.
Monash University is a public research university based in Melbourne, Australia.
MOTOR is an Australian automobile magazine published monthly by Bauer Media Group and was started in 1954.
Motor Trend is an American automobile magazine.
Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.
Nansha District, is a district of Guangzhou, China.
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA, pronounced "NITS-uh") is an agency of the Executive Branch of the U.S. government, part of the Department of Transportation.
The National Roads and Motorists' Association (NRMA) is an Australian organisation offering roadside assistance, motoring advice, car servicing, International Driving Permits, travel, and other services in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory.
is a public company established in 1936 and based in Nagoya, Japan.
, usually shortened to Nissan (or; Japanese), is a Japanese multinational automobile manufacturer headquartered in Nishi-ku, Yokohama.
The North American International Auto Show (NAIAS) is an annual auto show held in Detroit, Michigan at Cobo Center, usually in January.
North Branch is a city in Chisago County, Minnesota, United States, located at the junction of Interstate 35 and Minnesota State Highway 95.
Notchback is a marketing term used to describe cars with a three-box design, generally where the trunk/boot volume is less pronounced than the other two volumes (ie the engine and passenger compartments).
New United Motor Manufacturing, Inc. (NUMMI) was an automobile manufacturing company in Fremont, California, jointly owned by General Motors and Toyota that opened in 1984 and closed in 2010.
Oceania is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia.
An odometer or odograph is an instrument used for measuring the distance travelled by a vehicle, such as a bicycle or car.
One-upmanship is the art or practice of successively outdoing a competitor.
Overdrive is a term used to describe the operation of an automobile cruising at sustained speed with reduced engine revolutions per minute (RPM), leading to better fuel consumption, lower noise, and lower wear.
Overhead camshaft, commonly abbreviated to OHC, is a valvetrain configuration which places the camshaft of an internal combustion engine of the reciprocating type within the cylinder heads ("above" the pistons and combustion chambers) and drives the valves or lifters in a more direct manner compared with overhead valves (OHV) and pushrods.
Pelham is a suburban town in Westchester County, New York, approximately 14 miles northeast of Midtown Manhattan.
Phonetic transcription (also known as phonetic script or phonetic notation) is the visual representation of speech sounds (or phones).
Pillars are the vertical or near vertical supports of a car's window area or greenhouse—designated respectively as the A, B, C or (in larger cars) D-pillar, moving from the front to rear, in profile view.
Popular Mechanics is a classic magazine of popular science and technology.
Port Melbourne is an inner suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 5 km south-west from Melbourne's Melbourne central business district.
Poundbury is an experimental new town or urban extension on the outskirts of Dorchester in the county of Dorset, England.
A proportioning valve is a valve that relies on the statics to supply a reduced pressure to an output line.
Quarter glass (or quarter light) on automobiles and closed carriages may be a side window in the front door or located on each side of the car just forward of the rear window of the vehicle.
A rack and pinion is a type of linear actuator that comprises a pair of gears which convert rotational motion into linear motion.
Badge engineering, sometimes called rebadging, is the practice of applying a different badge or trademark (brand, logo or manufacturer's name/make/marque) to an existing product (e.g., an automobile) and subsequently marketing the variant as a distinct product.
Regulation is a quarterly periodical about policy published by the Cato Institute.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Road & Track (R&T) is an American automotive enthusiast magazine.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
A sash window or hung sash window is made of one or more movable panels, or "sashes", that form a frame to hold panes of glass, which are often separated from other panes (or "lights") by glazing bars, also known as muntins in the US (moulded strips of wood).
A sceptre (British English) or scepter (American English; see spelling differences) is a symbolic ornamental staff or wand held in the hand by a ruling monarch as an item of royal or imperial insignia.
A sedan (American, Canadian, Australian, and New Zealand English) or saloon (British, Irish and Indian English) is a passenger car in a three-box configuration with A, B & C-pillars and principal volumes articulated in separate compartments for engine, passenger and cargo.
Shah Alam is a city and the state capital of Selangor, Malaysia and situated within the Petaling District and a small portion of the neighbouring Klang District.
A shock absorber (in reality, a shock "damper") is a mechanical or hydraulic device designed to absorb and damp shock impulses.
A spoiler is an automotive aerodynamic device whose intended design function is to 'spoil' unfavorable air movement across a body of a vehicle in motion, usually described as turbulence or drag.
A station wagon, also called an estate car, estate wagon, or simply wagon or estate, is an automotive body-style variant of a sedan/saloon with its roof extended rearward over a shared passenger/cargo volume with access at the back via a third or fifth door (the liftgate or tailgate), instead of a trunk/boot lid.
Steering is the collection of components, linkages, etc.
The automotive steering column is a device intended primarily for connecting the steering wheel to the steering mechanism.
A strut bar, strut brace, or strut tower brace (STB) is an automotive suspension accessory usually used in conjunction with MacPherson struts on monocoque or unibody chassis to provide extra stiffness between the strut towers.
A subframe is a structural component of a vehicle, such as an automobile or an aircraft, that uses a discrete, separate structure within a larger body-on-frame or unit body to carry certain components, such as the engine, drivetrain, or suspension.
An automotive sunroof is a movable (typically glass) panel that is operable to uncover an opening in an automobile roof, which allows light and/or fresh air to enter the passenger compartment.
Suspension is the system of tires, tire air, springs, shock absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to its wheels and allows relative motion between the two.
The Sydney central business district (also Sydney CBD, and often referred to simply as "the Town" or "the City") is the main commercial centre of Sydney, the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia.
A tachometer (revolution-counter, tach, rev-counter, RPM gauge) is an instrument measuring the rotation speed of a shaft or disk, as in a motor or other machine.
A tariff is a tax on imports or exports between sovereign states.
The Canberra Times is a daily newspaper, published by Fairfax Media in Canberra.
The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is a nonprofit news organization that publishes daily articles in electronic format as well as a weekly print edition.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Truth About Cars (TTAC) is a website covering automobiles, automotive products and the auto industry.
A tiara (from tiara, from τιάρα) is a jeweled, ornamental crown traditionally worn by women.
Torque, moment, or moment of force is rotational force.
A front VW Beetle suspension cross-section A torsion bar suspension, also known as a torsion spring suspension (not to be confused with a torsion beam rear suspension), is a general term for any vehicle suspension that uses a torsion bar as its main weight-bearing spring.
, usually shortened to Toyota, is a Japanese multinational automotive manufacturer headquartered in Toyota, Aichi, Japan.
The Toyota Aurion was a mid-size car produced by Toyota in Australia and parts of Asia from 2006 to 2017.
The Toyota Aurion (XV40) is the original series of the Toyota Aurion, a mid-size car produced by Toyota in Australia and parts of Asia.
Toyota Australia is a subsidiary of Toyota Motor Corporation, which is based in Japan.
The Toyota Avalon is a mid-size (formerly full-size) car produced by Toyota in the United States and Japan, and is Toyota's largest front-wheel-drive sedan in the United States, Canada, Puerto Rico, and the Middle East.
The Toyota C engine family was a series of inline-4 diesel engines.
The is a subcompact crossover SUV produced by Toyota.
The Toyota Camry (Japanese: トヨタ・カムリ Toyota Kamuri) is an automobile sold internationally by the Japanese manufacturer Toyota since 1982, spanning multiple generations.
The Toyota Camry Solara, popularly known as the Toyota Solara, is a mid-size coupe/convertible built by Toyota.
The Toyota Carina is an automobile which was manufactured by Toyota from December 1970 to 2001.
The Toyota Corolla is a line of subcompact and compact cars manufactured by Toyota.
The Toyota Corolla E80 is an automobile that was produced by Japanese manufacturer Toyota from 1983 to 1987.
The Toyota Corona (トヨタ・コロナ) was an automobile manufactured by the Japanese automaker Toyota between 1957 and 2002.
The Toyota Crown (Japanese: トヨタクラウン Toyota Kuraun) is an automobile which has been produced by Toyota in Japan since 1955.
TEMS (Toyota Electronic Modulated Suspension) is a shock absorber that is electronically controlled (Continuous Damping Control) based on multiple factors, and was built and exclusively used by Toyota for selected products during the 1980s and 1990s (first introduced on the Toyota Soarer in 1983).
Toyota Entune is an integrated multimedia navigation and telematics system, providing satellite-based information on traffic, weather, sports scores, stocks, and fuel prices via subscription through SiriusXM, and was built on the existing Toyota G-Book architecture.
The Toyota K platform, informally known as the Toyota Camry platform, is a front-wheel drive automobile platform (also adaptable to four-wheel drive) that has underpinned various Toyota and Lexus models from the mid-size category upwards since November 2000, starting with the Highlander (XU20).
Toyota Kirloskar Motor Pvt Ltd is a subsidiary of Toyota Motor Corporation of Japan (with Kirloskar Group as a minority owner), for the manufacture and sales of Toyota cars in India.
The is a series of four-wheel drive vehicles produced by the Japanese car maker Toyota.
The Toyota MC platform is a front-wheel drive automobile platform (also adaptable to four-wheel drive) that has underpinned various Toyota and Lexus models from the compact and mid-size categories.
Toyota Motor Manufacturing Kentucky, Inc. (TMMK) is an automobile manufacturing factory in Georgetown, Kentucky, USA.
The Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA) are modular unibody automobile platforms that underpin various Toyota and Lexus models starting with the fourth generation Toyota Prius in late 2015.
The Toyota Prius (Japanese:トヨタプリウス)() is a full hybrid electric automobile developed by Toyota and manufactured by the company since 1997.
Toyota Racing Development (also known by its abbreviation TRD) is the in-house tuning shop for all Toyota, Lexus and formerly Scion cars.
The Toyota S Series engines are a family of straight-4 engines with displacement from 1.8 L to 2.2 L produced by Toyota Motor Corporation from January 1980 to August 2007.
is a city in Aichi Prefecture, Japan.
A trailing-arm suspension, sometimes referred as trailing-link is a vehicle suspension design in which one or more arms (or "links") are connected between (and perpendicular to and forward of) the axle and a pivot point (located on the chassis of a motor vehicle).
A transaxle is a major automotive mechanical component that combines the functionality of the transmission, axle, and differential into one integrated assembly.
The Transportation Research Board (TRB) is a division of the National Research Council of the United States which serves as an independent adviser to the President of the United States, the Congress and federal agencies on scientific and technical questions of national importance.
A transverse engine is an engine mounted in a vehicle so that the engine's crankshaft axis is perpendicular to the direction of travel.
The trunk (North American English), boot (British English) or compartment (South-East Asia) of a car is the vehicle's main storage compartment.
Turbo-diesel, also written as turbodiesel and turbo diesel, refers to any diesel engine equipped with a turbocharger.
A turbocharger, or colloquially turbo, is a turbine-driven forced induction device that increases an internal combustion engine's efficiency and power output by forcing extra air into the combustion chamber.
United Australian Automobile Industries (UAAI) was an automobile model sharing firm that operated in Australia between 1987 and 1996 as the result of an agreement between Holden (the Australian subsidiary of General Motors) and Toyota Australia.
A V6 engine is a V engine with six cylinders mounted on the crankshaft in two banks of three cylinders, usually set at either a 60 or 90 degree angle to each other.
A vacuum servo is a component used on motor vehicles in their braking system, to provide assistance to the driver by decreasing the braking effort.
Veloce Publishing is primarily an automotive book publisher based in Poundbury, Dorset.
Velour or velours is a plush, knitted fabric or textile similar to velvet or velveteen.
In both road and rail vehicles, the wheelbase is the distance between the centers of the front and rear wheels.
Wheels is an Australian automotive magazine owned by Bauer Media Group.
A wind tunnel is a tool used in aerodynamic research to study the effects of air moving past solid objects.
Window film is a thin laminate film that can be installed to the interior or exterior of glass surfaces in automobiles and boats and also to the interior or exterior of glass in homes and buildings.
A windscreen wiper or windshield wiper (American English) is a device used to remove rain, snow, ice and debris from a windscreen or windshield.
A wing mirror, also known as the fender mirror, door mirror, outside rear-view mirror or side view mirror, is a mirror found on the exterior of motor vehicles for the purposes of helping the driver see areas behind and to the sides of the vehicle, outside the driver's peripheral vision (in the 'blind spot').
Wood grain is the longitudinal arrangement of wood fibers or the pattern resulting from this.
Woodhead Publishing Limited was established in 1989 as an independent international publishing company of science and technical books.
Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.
The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo.
The 1979 (or second) oil crisis or oil shock occurred in the world due to decreased oil output in the wake of the Iranian Revolution.
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