382 relations: Abydos (Hellespont), Achaemenid Empire, Adem Ayral, Adnan Kahveci, Aegean Sea, Akçaabat, Al-Khazini, Alexander the Great, Alexios II of Trebizond, Alexios III of Trebizond, Altan Öymen, Amasya, American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, Ammianus Marcellinus, Anahit, Anatolia, Anatolia Eyalet, Anatolian Tigers, Anchovy, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Ancient history, Andrea Santoro, Ani, Anna Komnene, Aphrodite, Armenia, Armenian Genocide, Armenian language, Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia, Armenians, Association football, Aston Villa F.C., Astrolabe, Astrology, Athanasius the Athonite, Çaykara, Ömer Asan, Özhan Öztürk, İskender Pasha Mosque, Trabzon, Şalpazarı, Şenol Güneş, Bafra, Bahriye Üçok, Balkan Wars, Basilios Bessarion, Bath, Somerset, Battle of Manzikert, Battle of Sarikamish, Batumi, ..., Bayburt, Bayezid II, Beşiktaş J.K., Bedri Rahmi Eyüboğlu, Belisarius, Bey, Beylerbey, Black Death, Black Sea, Black Sea Games, Black Sea Region, Bob Dylan, Bosniaks, Boztepe hill, Trabzon, Breakwater (structure), British Museum, Byzantine Empire, Byzantine silk, Camel train, Catholic Church in Turkey, Caucasus, Caucasus Campaign, Cemal Azmi, Central Asia, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey, Central Macedonia, Cereal, Cevdet Sunay, Chaldia, Chalybes, Chepni people, Cherry, Chicago, Christianity, Circa, Circassian genocide, Clarke Chapman, Classical antiquity, Claude Aubriet, Colchis, Colonies in antiquity, Constantinople, Copper, Coppersmith, Cossacks, Cotton, Crypto-Christianity, Cyrus the Great, Cyzicus, Dardanelles, David of Trebizond, Defter, Dimitris Psathas, Diocletian, Dmitri Ivanovich Yermakov, Dortmund, Dumanlı, Eastern Anatolia Region, Empire, Empire of Nicaea, Empire of Trebizond, Engin Ardıç, Erol Günaydın, Ertem Eğilmez, Erzurum Congress, Erzurum Eyalet, Eugenios of Trebizond, Euphrates, European anchovy, Eyalet, Fall of Constantinople, Faruk Nafız Özak, Fatih Mosque, Trabzon, Fatih Tekke, FC Barcelona, Fenerbahçe S.K., Feodosia, Filigree, Fourth Crusade, François Rabelais, Free city (classical antiquity), French language, Fuat Saka, Further-eastern European Time, Galata, Galatasaray S.K. 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Lowry, Hellenization, Hemshin peoples, Hermes, Hittites, Horon (dance), Humid continental climate, Humid subtropical climate, Indonesia, Inter Milan, Ioannis Passalidis, Iran, Iron, Islamization, Istanbul, Italian language, Ivan Aivazovsky, Jean-Baptiste Henri Durand-Brager, John VIII of Constantinople, Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, Justice and Development Party (Turkey), Justinian I, Kalepark, Karadeniz Technical University, Katerini, Kaunas, Kaymaklı Monastery, Köppen climate classification, Kızlar Monastery, Kelkit, Kemençe of the Black Sea, Kingdom of Georgia, Kingdom of Pontus, Kofta, Kolbastı, Kuştul Monastery, Kuopio, Lars Olsen, Latin, Latin Empire, Latinisation of names, Laz language, Laz people, Lazistan Sanjak, Leon Surmelian, Limes, Linen, List of ancient Milesians, List of sovereign states, List of Turkic dynasties and countries, Lithuania, Liverpool F.C., Macrones, Manganese, Marco Polo, Medieval Greek, Mediterranean climate, Mehmed the Conqueror, Melting pot, Mesopotamia, Metropolitan municipalities in Turkey, Meydan (park), Michael Panaretos, Michael VIII Palaiologos, Microclimate, Miguel de Cervantes, Mithra, Mithraeum, Mithraism, Mithridates VI of Pontus, Mole (architecture), Mosque, Mossynoeci, Mosul, Mualla Eyüboğlu, Musée des beaux-arts de Marseille, Muslim, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Nakip Mosque, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, Navigation, Nea Trapezounta, Pieria, New Friday Mosque, Niccolò and Maffeo Polo, Nikolai Yudenich, Nuray Mert, Oceanic climate, Oghuz Turks, Olive oil, Olympique Lyonnais, Opera, Osman Şirin, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Turkish language, Ottoman wars in Europe, Painting, Pazar, Rize, Periklis Christoforidis, Persian Empire, Persian language, Pescennius Niger, Pharnaces I of Pontus, Phrontisterion of Trapezous, Piloting (navigation), Pita, Play (theatre), Pontic Greek, Pontic Greeks, Pontic Mountains, Population exchange between Greece and Turkey, Postal code, Poultry farming, Provinces of Turkey, Prunus laurocerasus, Purwakarta, Quadrivium, Rasht, Rûm Eyalet, Religion, Renaissance, Republic of Genoa, Republic of Venice, Rize, Rize Province, Rizhao, Roman Empire, Rose Macaulay, Russian Caucasus Army (World War I), Russian Empire, Russian Revolution, Sack of Constantinople (1204), Saint Anne Church, Trabzon, Sancak Beyi, Satrap, Süper Lig, Sürmene, Second Group (Turkey), Selim I, Seljuq dynasty, Septimius Severus, Sericulture, Shota Arveladze, Siege of Baghdad (1258), Siege of Trebizond (1461), Silk, Silk Road, Silver, Sinop, Turkey, Sister city, Sochi, Solar eclipse, Spanish language, Sublime Porte, Suez Canal, Suleiman the Magnificent, Sumela Monastery, Sunay Akın, Szigetvár, Tabriz, Tamar of Georgia, Tanning (leather), Tea, Ten Thousand, The Sphere (newspaper), The Towers of Trebizond, Theodore Gabras, Tobacco, Tonya, Turkey, Topal Osman, Trabzon Airport, Trabzon during the Armenian Genocide, Trabzon Museum, Trabzon Province, Trabzonspor, Trapezuntine Civil War, Treaty of Lausanne, Treaty of Sèvres, Trebizond Campaign, Trebizond Eyalet, Trebizond Vilayet, Tugay Kerimoğlu, Turkey, Turkification, Turkish language, Turkish people, Turkish War of Independence, UEFA, United Kingdom, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United States, University of Oslo, Uzungöl, Vartan Makhokhian, Vazelon Monastery, Vehicle registration plates of Turkey, Venice, Vespasian, Volkan Konak, Walls of Trabzon, William Miller (historian), Wool, Woolen, World Trade Center Trabzon, Xenophon, Zanjan, Iran, Zeytinlik, Artvin, Zigana Pass, Zinc, 1975–76 1.Lig, 2009–10 Süper Lig, 2011 European Youth Summer Olympic Festival. 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Abydos (Ἄβυδος) or Abydus, was an ancient city in Mysia in northwestern Asia Minor, near the modern city of Çanakkale (Turkey).
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Adem Ayral (born 1940 in Trabzon) is a Turkish actor.
Adnan Kahveci (20 February 1949 in Sürmene, Trabzon Province – 5 February 1993 in Gerede) was a noted Turkish politician who served as a key advisor to Prime Minister Turgut Özal throughout the 1980s.
The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
Akçaabat is a town and district of Trabzon Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey.
Abū al-Fath Abd al-Rahman Mansūr al-Khāzini or simply al-Khāzini (flourished 1115–1130) was an astronomer of Byzantine origin from Seljuk Persia.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Alexios II Megas Komnenos or Alexius II (translit, Sept./Dec. 1282 – 3 May 1330), was Emperor of Trebizond from 1297 to 1330.
Alexios III Megas Komnenos (translit, 5 October 1338 – 20 March 1390), or Alexius III, was Emperor of Trebizond from December 1349 until his death.
Altan Öymen (born 20 June 1932 Trabzon, Turkey) is a Turkish journalist, author and former politician.
Amasya (Ἀμάσεια) is a city in northern Turkey and is the capital of Amasya Province, in the Black Sea Region.
The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM) was among the first American Christian missionary organizations.
Ammianus Marcellinus (born, died 400) was a Roman soldier and historian who wrote the penultimate major historical account surviving from Antiquity (preceding Procopius).
Anahit (Անահիտ) was the goddess of fertility and healing, wisdom and water in Armenian mythology.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
The Eyalet of Anatolia (ایالت آناطولی; Eyālet-i Anaṭolı) was one of the two core provinces (Rumelia being the other) in the early years of the Ottoman Empire.
Anatolian Tigers (Anadolu Kaplanları) is a term internationally used in the context of the Turkish economy to refer to and to explain the phenomenon of a number of cities in Turkey which have displayed impressive growth records since the 1980s, as well as to a defined new breed of entrepreneurs rising in prominence and who can often be traced back to the cities in question and who generally rose from the status of SMEs.
An anchovy is a small, common forage fish of the family Engraulidae.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
Andrea Santoro (7 September 1945, in Priverno, Italy – 5 February 2006, in Trabzon, Turkey) was a Roman Catholic priest in Turkey, murdered in the Santa Maria Church in Trabzon where he served as a member of the Catholic Church's Fidei donum missionary program.
Ani (Անի; Ἄνιον, Ánion; Abnicum; ანი, Ani, or ანისი, Anisi; Ani) is a ruined medieval Armenian city now situated in Turkey's province of Kars, next to the closed border with Armenia.
Anna Komnene (Ἄννα Κομνηνή, Ánna Komnēnḗ; 1 December 1083 – 1153), commonly latinized as Anna Comnena, was a Byzantine princess, scholar, physician, hospital administrator, and historian.
Aphrodite is the ancient Greek goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and procreation.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Armenian Genocide (Հայոց ցեղասպանություն, Hayots tseghaspanutyun), also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
The Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia (Հայկական սովետական հանրագիտարան, Haykakan sovetakan hanragitaran; ASE) publishing house was established in 1967 as a department of the Institute of History of the Armenian Academy of Sciences under the presidency of Viktor Hambardzumyan (1908–1996), co-edited by Abel Simonyan (1922–1994) and Makich Arzumanyan (1919–1988).
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Aston Villa Football Club (nicknamed Villa, The Villa, The Villans and The Lions) is a professional football club based in Aston, Birmingham, England.
An astrolabe (ἀστρολάβος astrolabos; ٱلأَسْطُرلاب al-Asturlāb; اَختِرِیاب Akhteriab) is an elaborate inclinometer, historically used by astronomers and navigators to measure the inclined position in the sky of a celestial body, day or night.
Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events.
Athanasius the Athonite (Αθανάσιος ο Αθωνίτης), also called Athanasios of Trebizond (c. 920 – c. 1003), was a Byzantine monk who founded the monastic community on Mount Athos, which has since evolved into the greatest centre of Eastern Orthodox monasticism.
Çaykara (Romeyika: Kadahor) is a town and district of Trabzon Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey.
Ömer Şükrü Asan (born May 28, 1961 in Trabzon, Turkey), is a Turkish folklorist, photographer and writer.
Özhan Öztürk (born 1968) is a Turkish writer and researcher.
İskender Pasha Mosque is a 16th-century built Ottoman mosque in Trabzon, Turkey.
Şalpazarı is a town and district of Trabzon Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey.
Şenol Güneş, T.C., (born 1 June 1952) is a Turkish football manager and former player.
Bafra is a district in the Samsun Province of Turkey.
Bahriye Üçok (1919 – October 6, 1990) was a Turkish academic of theology, left-wing politician, writer, columnist, and women's rights activist whose assassination in 1990 remains unresolved.
The Balkan Wars (Balkan Savaşları, literally "the Balkan Wars" or Balkan Faciası, meaning "the Balkan Tragedy") consisted of two conflicts that took place in the Balkan Peninsula in 1912 and 1913.
Basilios (or Basilius) Bessarion (Greek: Βασίλειος Βησσαρίων; 2 January 1403 – 18 November 1472), a Roman Catholic Cardinal Bishop and the titular Latin Patriarch of Constantinople, was one of the illustrious Greek scholars who contributed to the great revival of letters in the 15th century.
Bath is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Somerset, England, known for its Roman-built baths.
The Battle of Manzikert was fought between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuk Empire on August 26, 1071 near Manzikert, theme of Iberia (modern Malazgirt in Muş Province, Turkey).
The Battle of Sarikamish (Սարիղամիշի ճակատամարտ (Sarighamishi chakatamart), Сражение при Сарыкамыше; Sarıkamış Harekatı) was an engagement between the Russian and Ottoman empires during World War I. It took place from December 22, 1914, to January 17, 1915, as part of the Caucasus Campaign.
Batumi (ბათუმი) is the second-largest city of Georgia, located on the coast of the Black Sea in the country's southwest.
Bayburt (Armenian: Baydbert) is a city in northeast Turkey lying on the Çoruh River and is the provincial capital of Bayburt Province.
Bayezid II (3 December 1447 – 26 May 1512) (Ottoman Turkish: بايزيد ثانى Bāyezīd-i s̱ānī, Turkish: II. Bayezid or II. Beyazıt) was the eldest son and successor of Mehmed II, ruling as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512.
Beşiktaş Jimnastik Kulübü (Beşiktaş Gymnastics Club), also known simply as Beşiktaş, is a Turkish sports club founded in 1903, and based in the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul, Turkey.
Bedri Rahmi Eyüboğlu (1911 in Görele – September 21, 1975 in İstanbul) was a Turkish painter and poet.
Flavius Belisarius (Φλάβιος Βελισάριος, c. 505 – 565) was a general of the Byzantine Empire.
“Bey” (بك “Beik”, bej, beg, بيه “Beyeh”, بیگ “Beyg” or بگ “Beg”) is a Turkish title for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders or rulers of various sized areas in the Ottoman Empire.
Beylerbey or Beylerbeyi (بكلربكی; "Bey of Beys", meaning "the Commander of Commanders" or "the Lord of Lords"; originally Beglerbeg in older Turkic) was a high rank in the western Islamic world in the late Middle Ages and early modern period, from the Seljuks of Rum and the Ilkhanids to Safavid Persia and the Ottoman Empire.
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
The Black Sea Games was a multi-sport event intended to be held every four years, mainly for nations bordering the Black Sea.
The Black Sea Region (Karadeniz Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.
Bob Dylan (born Robert Allen Zimmerman, May 24, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter, author, and painter who has been an influential figure in popular music and culture for more than five decades.
The Bosniaks (Bošnjaci,; singular masculine: Bošnjak, feminine: Bošnjakinja) are a South Slavic nation and ethnic group inhabiting mainly the area of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Boztepe or Mount Minthrion is a hill near Trabzon in Turkey.
Breakwaters are structures constructed on coasts as part of coastal management or to protect an anchorage from the effects of both weather and longshore drift.
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Byzantine silk is silk woven in the Byzantine Empire (Byzantium) from about the fourth century until the Fall of Constantinople in 1453.
A camel train or caravan is a series of camels carrying passengers and/or goods on a regular or semi-regular service between points.
The Catholic Church in Turkey is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and the canonical leadership of the curia in Rome.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
The Caucasus Campaign comprised armed conflicts between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire, later including Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, the German Empire, the Central Caspian Dictatorship and the British Empire as part of the Middle Eastern theatre during World War I. The Caucasus Campaign extended from the South Caucasus to the Armenian Highlands region, reaching as far as Trabzon, Bitlis, Mush and Van.
Cemal Azmi (1868 – April 17, 1922), also spelled Jemal Azmi, was an Ottoman politician and governor of the Trabzon Vilayet during World War I and the final years of the Ottoman Empire.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
The Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey, CBRT (Türkiye Cumhuriyet Merkez Bankası, TCMB) is the central bank of Turkey and is founded as a joint stock company on 11 June 1930.
Central Macedonia (Κεντρική Μακεδονία, Kentrikí Makedonía) is one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece, consisting of the central part of the geographical and historical region of Macedonia.
A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.
Cevdet Sunay (10 February 1899 – 22 May 1982) was a Turkish army officer, political leader and the fifth President of Turkey.
Chaldia (Χαλδία, Khaldia) was a historical region located in mountainous interior of the eastern Black Sea, northeast Anatolia (modern Turkey).
The Chalybes (Χάλυβες, Χάλυβοι) or Chaldoi (Χάλδοι) were a people mentioned by Classical authors as living in Pontus and Cappadocia in northern Anatolia during Classical Antiquity.
The Chepni were an ancient Turkic boy or oymak (clan).
A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit).
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Circa, usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.
The Circassian genocide was the Russian Empire's ethnic cleansing, killing, forced migration, and expulsion of the majority of the Circassians from their historical homeland Circassia, which roughly encompassed the major part of the North Caucasus and the northeast shore of the Black Sea.
Clarke Chapman is a British engineering firm based in Gateshead, which was formerly listed on the London Stock Exchange.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Claude Aubriet (ca. 1665 or 1651 – 3 December 1742) was a French illustrator and botanical artist.
Colchis (კოლხეთი K'olkheti; Greek Κολχίς Kolkhís) was an ancient Georgian kingdom and region on the coast of the Black Sea, centred in present-day western Georgia.
Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city (its "metropolis"), not from a territory-at-large.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
A coppersmith, also known as a brazier, is a person who makes artifacts from copper and brass.
Cossacks (козаки́, translit, kozaky, казакi, kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok Pronunciations.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
Crypto-Christianity is the secret practice of Christianity, usually while attempting to camouflage it as another faith or observing the rituals of another religion publicly.
Cyrus II of Persia (𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 Kūruš; New Persian: کوروش Kuruš;; c. 600 – 530 BC), commonly known as Cyrus the Great  and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire.
Cyzicus (Κύζικος Kyzikos; آیدینجق, Aydıncıḳ) was an ancient town of Mysia in Anatolia in the current Balıkesir Province of Turkey.
The Dardanelles (Çanakkale Boğazı, translit), also known from Classical Antiquity as the Hellespont (Ἑλλήσποντος, Hellespontos, literally "Sea of Helle"), is a narrow, natural strait and internationally-significant waterway in northwestern Turkey that forms part of the continental boundary between Europe and Asia, and separates Asian Turkey from European Turkey.
David Megas Komnenos (Δαβίδ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Dabid Megas Komnēnos) (1408 – 1 November 1463) was the last Emperor of Trebizond from 1459 to 1461.
A defter (plural: defterler) was a type of tax register and land cadastre in the Ottoman Empire.
Dimitris Psathas (Δημήτρης Ψαθάς; 1907-13 November 1979) was a famous modern Greek satirist and playwright.
Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244–3 December 311), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305.
Dmitri Ivanovich Yermakov (Дмитрий Иванович Ермаков) (1846 – November 10, 1916) was a Russian photographer known for his series of the Caucasian photographs.
Dortmund (Düörpm:; Tremonia) is an independent city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Dumanlı (Σάντα, Santa) was formerly a mid-size community in Gümüşhane Province of Turkey, close to its border with Trabzon Province.
The Eastern Anatolia Region (Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.
An empire is defined as "an aggregate of nations or people ruled over by an emperor or other powerful sovereign or government, usually a territory of greater extent than a kingdom, as the former British Empire, Spanish Empire, Portuguese Empire, French Empire, Persian Empire, Russian Empire, German Empire, Abbasid Empire, Umayyad Empire, Byzantine Empire, Ottoman Empire, or Roman Empire".
The Empire of Nicaea or the Nicene Empire was the largest of the three Byzantine GreekA Short history of Greece from early times to 1964 by W. A. Heurtley, H. C. Darby, C. W. Crawley, C. M. Woodhouse (1967), page 55: "There in the prosperous city of Nicaea, Theodoros Laskaris, the son in law of a former Byzantine Emperor, establish a court that soon become the Small but reviving Greek empire." rump states founded by the aristocracy of the Byzantine Empire that fled after Constantinople was occupied by Western European and Venetian forces during the Fourth Crusade.
The Empire of Trebizond or the Trapezuntine Empire was a monarchy that flourished during the 13th through 15th centuries, consisting of the far northeastern corner of Anatolia and the southern Crimea.
Engin Ardıç (born 1 February 1952) is a Turkish writer and a newspaper columnist for the Sabah newspaper.
Erol Günaydın (April 16, 1933 – October 15, 2012) was a Turkish theater and film actor, as well as a renowned showman famous particularly for his portrayal of Nasreddin Hoca and his performances in the traditional Turkish meddah (one man shows).
Ertem Eğilmez (18 February 1929, Trabzon – 21 September 1989, Istanbul, Turkey) was a Turkish film director, producer and screenwriter.
Erzurum Congress (Erzurum Kongresi) was an assembly of Turkish Revolutionaries held from 23 July to 4 August 1919 in the city of Erzurum, in eastern Turkey, in accordance with the previously issued Amasya Circular.
The Erzurum Eyalet (ایالت ارضروم; Eyālet-i Erżurūm) was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire.
Saint Eugenios or Eugene was martyred under Diocletian and a cult devoted to him developed in Trebizond.
The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
The European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) is a forage fish somewhat related to the herring.
Eyalets (ایالت,, English: State), also known as beylerbeyliks or pashaliks, were a primary administrative division of the Ottoman Empire.
The Fall of Constantinople (Ἅλωσις τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Halōsis tēs Kōnstantinoupoleōs; İstanbul'un Fethi Conquest of Istanbul) was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading Ottoman army on 29 May 1453.
Faruk Nafız Özak (born 19 April 1946) is a Turkish politician and a former Minister of Public Works and Housing (2005–2009) and Minister of State (for Youth and Sports) (2009–2011) under Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan.
The Fatih Mosque is a mosque in Ortahisar district of Trabzon Province, Turkey.
Fatih Tekke (born 9 September 1977 in Köprübaşı) is a Turkish former international footballer who played as a striker.
Futbol Club Barcelona, commonly known as Barcelona and familiarly as Barça, is a professional football club based in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
Fenerbahçe Spor Kulübü (Fenerbahçe Sports Club), commonly known as Fenerbahçe, are a major Turkish multi-sport club based in the Kadıköy district of Istanbul, Turkey.
Feodosia (Феодо́сия, Feodosiya; Феодо́сія, Feodosiia; Crimean Tatar and Turkish: Kefe), also called Theodosia (from), is a port and resort, a town of regional significance in Crimea on the Black Sea coast.
Filigree (also less commonly spelled filagree, and formerly written filigrann or filigrene) is a delicate kind of jewellery metalwork, usually of gold and silver, made with tiny beads or twisted threads, or both in combination, soldered together or to the surface of an object of the same metal and arranged in artistic motifs.
The Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) was a Latin Christian armed expedition called by Pope Innocent III.
François Rabelais (between 1483 and 1494 – 9 April 1553) was a French Renaissance writer, physician, Renaissance humanist, monk and Greek scholar.
A free city (civitas libera, urbs liberae condicionis; ἐλευθέρα καὶ αὐτόνομος πόλις) was a self-governed city during the Hellenistic and Roman Imperial eras.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Fuat Saka (born 1952 in Trabzon, Turkey), is a Turkish singer, songwriter, arranger, and guitarist (although he may be more precisely called a multi-instrumentalist).
Further-eastern European Time (FET) is a time zone defined as three hours ahead of UTC (UTC+03:00) without daylight saving time.
Galata (in Greek was known as Galatas (Γαλατᾶς, Galatás)) was a neighbourhood opposite Constantinople (today's Istanbul, Turkey), located at the northern shore of the Golden Horn, the inlet which separates it from the historic peninsula of old Constantinople.
Galatasaray Spor Kulübü, also known simply as Galatasaray, is a Turkish football club based on the European side of the city of Istanbul.
Ancient Galatia (Γαλατία, Galatía) was an area in the highlands of central Anatolia (Ankara, Çorum, Yozgat Province) in modern Turkey.
Gümüşhane or Gyumushkhana (Argyròpolis or Arghyropolis, Αργυρόπολις in Greek) is a city and the capital district of Gümüşhane Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey.
Gümüşhane Province (Gümüşhane ili) is a province in northern Turkey, bordering Bayburt to the east, Trabzon to the north, Giresun and Erzincan to the west.
The geographical regions of Turkey comprise seven regions (bölge) which were originally defined at the country's First Geography Congress in 1941.
George of Trebizond (Γεώργιος Τραπεζούντιος; 1395–1486) was a Greek philosopher, scholar and humanist.
George Warren Wood (known professionally as George W. Wood) (1814-1901) was a Presbyterian Minister and missionary who became the secretary of the Congregationalist American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Georgian (ქართული ენა, translit.) is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians.
The Georgians or Kartvelians (tr) are a nation and Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Giresun, formerly Cerasus (Κερασοῦς), is the provincial capital of Giresun Province in the Black Sea Region of northeastern Turkey, about west of the city of Trabzon.
Giresun Province (Giresun ili) is a province of Turkey on the Black Sea coast. Its adjacent provinces are Trabzon to the east, Gümüşhane to the southeast, Erzincan to the south, Sivas to the southwest, and Ordu to the west. The provincial capital is Giresun.
Godfrey Thomas Vigne (born 1 September 1801; died 12 July 1863 at Woodford Wells, Essex) was an English amateur cricketer and traveller.
The Goths (Gut-þiuda; Gothi) were an East Germanic people, two of whose branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire through the long series of Gothic Wars and in the emergence of Medieval Europe.
Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia (Russian: Николай Николаевич Романов (младший – the younger); 18 November 1856 – 5 January 1929) was a Russian general in World War I. A grandson of Nicholas I of Russia, he was commander in chief of the Russian armies on the main front in the first year of the war, and was later a successful commander-in-chief in the Caucasus.
Drachma (δραχμή,; pl. drachmae or drachmas) was the currency used in Greece during several periods in its history.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Greek Muslims, also known as Greek-speaking Muslims, are Muslims of Greek ethnic origin whose adoption of Islam (and often the Turkish language and identity) dates to the period of Ottoman rule in the southern Balkans.
The name Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἑκκλησία, Ellinorthódoxi Ekklisía), or Greek Orthodoxy, is a term referring to the body of several Churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, whose liturgy is or was traditionally conducted in Koine Greek, the original language of the Septuagint and New Testament, and whose history, traditions, and theology are rooted in the early Church Fathers and the culture of the Byzantine Empire.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Green beans are the unripe, young fruit and protective pods of various cultivars of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).
Gregory Choniades (also Choniates, Chioniades; Γρηγόριος Χιονιάδης; c. 1240 – 1320) was a Byzantine Greek astronomer.
Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138 AD) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138.
Hagia Sophia (Ἁγία Σοφία, meaning "Holy Wisdom" Ayasofya) is a museum, formerly Greek Orthodox church which was converted into a mosque in 1584, and located in Trabzon, in the north-eastern part of Turkey.
Halil İnalcık (26 May 1916 – 25 July 2016) was a Turkish historian of the Ottoman Empire.
Hami Mandıralı (born 20 July 1968 in Arsin, Trabzon, Turkey) is a Turkish football manager and former footballer.
The Hamidian massacres (Համիդյան ջարդեր, Hamidiye Katliamı), also referred to as the Armenian Massacres of 1892–1896.
A harbor or harbour (see spelling differences; synonyms: wharves, haven) is a sheltered body of water where ships, boats, and barges can be docked.
Harvesting is the process of gathering a ripe crop from the fields.
Hasan Saka (1885, Akçaabat – 29 July 1960) was a Turkish politician, Minister of Foreign Affairs, and Prime Minister of Turkey.
Hayasa-Azzi or Azzi-Hayasa (Հայասա) was a Late Bronze Age confederation formed between two kingdoms of Armenian Highlands, Hayasa located South of Trabzon and Azzi, located north of the Euphrates and to the south of Hayasa.
Hayati Hamzaoğlu (5 March 1933 – 15 April 2000) was a Turkish actor.
The hazelnut is the nut of the hazel and therefore includes any of the nuts deriving from species of the genus Corylus, especially the nuts of the species Corylus avellana.
The Hürriyet Daily News, formerly Hürriyet Daily News and Economic Review and Turkish Daily News, is the oldest current English-language daily in Turkey, founded in 1961.
Heath Ward Lowry (born December 23, 1942) was the Atatürk Professor of Ottoman and Modern Turkish Studies at Princeton University and Boğaziçi University.
Hellenization or Hellenisation is the historical spread of ancient Greek culture, religion and, to a lesser extent, language, over foreign peoples conquered by Greeks or brought into their sphere of influence, particularly during the Hellenistic period following the campaigns of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC.
The Hemshin people (Համշենցիներ, Hamshentsiner; Hemşinliler), also known as Hemshinli or Hamshenis or Homshetsi, are a diverse group of peoples who in the past or present have been affiliated with the Hemşin district in the province of Rize, Turkey.
Hermes (Ἑρμῆς) is an Olympian god in Greek religion and mythology, the son of Zeus and the Pleiad Maia, and the second youngest of the Olympian gods (Dionysus being the youngest).
The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC.
Horon (Greek) or khoron (horon), which is related to Modern Greek χορός (chorós), refers to a group of a circle folk dances from the Black Sea region of Turkey.
A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.
A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and mild to cool winters.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Football Club Internazionale Milano S.p.A., commonly referred to as Internazionale or simply Inter and colloquially known as Inter Milan outside Italy, is a professional Italian football club based in Milan, Italy.
Ioannis Passalidis (Ιωάννης Πασαλίδης; 1886–1968) was a prominent member of the Greek Left and founder of the United Democratic Left party.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Islamization (also spelled Islamisation, see spelling differences; أسلمة), Islamicization or Islamification is the process of a society's shift towards Islam, such as found in Sudan, Pakistan, Iran, Malaysia, or Algeria.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky (Ива́н Константи́нович Айвазо́вский; 29 July 18172 May 1900) was an Armenian-Russian Romantic painter who is considered one of the greatest masters of marine art.
Jean-Baptiste Henri Durand-Brager (1814 – 1879) was a French painter, noted for his marine scenes and Orientalist works.
John VIII Xiphilinos (Ἰωάννης Ηʹ Ξιφιλῖνος; c. 1010 – 2 August 1075), a native of Trebizond, was a Byzantine intellectual and Patriarch of Constantinople from 1064–1075.
Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (5 June 1656 – 28 December 1708) was a French botanist, notable as the first to make a clear definition of the concept of genus for plants.
The Justice and Development Party (Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi), abbreviated officially AK Parti in Turkish, is a conservative political party in Turkey.
Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.
Kalepark (originally called Leonkastron; and later Güzelhisar, meaning "Beautiful Castle" in Turkish) was built by the Genoese and Venetian merchants as a medieval fortress on the east side of Trabzon, Turkey.
Karadeniz Technical University (Karadeniz Teknik Üniversitesi; Karadeniz.
Katerini (Κατερίνη, Kateríni) is a city in Central Macedonia, Greece, the capital of Pieria regional unit.
Kaunas (also see other names) is the second-largest city in Lithuania and the historical centre of Lithuanian economic, academic, and cultural life.
Kaymaklı Monastery (hye: Ամենափրկիչ Վանք Amenaprgič Vank, meaning Monastery of the All-Saviour; Kaymaklı Manastırı, Amenapırgiç Manastırı) is a ruined Armenian Apostolic monastery near Trabzon, Turkey.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Kızlar Monastery or Panagia Monastery at the foot of Boztepe mountain over looking the Trabzon city.
Kelkit is a town and district of Gümüşhane Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey.
The Kemençe of the Black Sea (Turkish: Karadeniz kemençesi, Greek Pontic kemenche or Pontiaki lyra (Ποντιακή λύρα), Laz Çilili (ჭილილი), or Armenian Qamani (Քամանի) is a bottle-shaped bowed lute found in the Black Sea region of Turkey (Pontus), adjacent Armenian and Georgian peopled lands, as well as in Greece. It is also known as the "kementche of Laz". The name kemençe comes from Iranian Music Instrument Kamancheh.
The Kingdom of Georgia (საქართველოს სამეფო), also known as the Georgian Empire, was a medieval Eurasian monarchy which emerged circa 1008 AD.
The Kingdom of Pontus or Pontic Empire was a state founded by the Persian Mithridatic dynasty,http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/pontus which may have been directly related to Darius the Great and the Achaemenid dynasty.
Kofta is a family of meatball or meatloaf dishes found in South Asian, Middle Eastern, Balkan, and Central Asian cuisines.
Kolbastı is a popular Turkish dance.
Kuştul Monastery (Kuştul Manastırı, Greek: Ιερά Μονή του Αγίου Γεωργίου Περιστερεώτα) is located near Şimşirli village, Maçka district, Trabzon Province, Turkey.
Kuopio is a city and municipality located in Northern Savonia, Finland.
Lars Christian Olsen (born 2 February 1961), a former Danish footballer and manager, is coach of the Faroe Islands national football team.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Empire of Romania (Imperium Romaniae), more commonly known in historiography as the Latin Empire or Latin Empire of Constantinople, and known to the Byzantines as the Frankokratia or the Latin Occupation, was a feudal Crusader state founded by the leaders of the Fourth Crusade on lands captured from the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire.
Latinisation or Latinization is the practice of rendering a non-Latin name (or word) in a Latin style.
The Laz language (ლაზური ნენა, lazuri nena; ლაზური ენა, lazuri ena, or ჭანური ენა, ç̌anuri ena / chanuri ena) is a Kartvelian language spoken by the Laz people on the southeastern shore of the Black Sea.
The Laz people or Lazi (ლაზი, lazi; or ჭანი, ch'ani; Laz) are an indigenous Kartvelian-speaking ethnic group inhabiting the Black Sea coastal regions of Turkey and Georgia.
Lazistan (ლაზონა / Lazona, ლაზეთი / Lazeti, ჭანეთი / Ç'aneti; لازستان, Lazistān) was the Ottoman administrative name for the sanjak, under Trebizond Vilayet, comprising the Laz or Lazuri-speaking population on the southeastern shore of the Black Sea.
Leon Zaven Surmelian (Լեւոն Զաւէն Սիւրմէլեան November 24, 1905 – October 3, 1995) was an Armenian-American author.
Originally the Latin noun līmes (Latin līmitēs) had a number of different meanings: a path or balk delimiting fields, a boundary line or marker, any road or path, any channel, such as a stream channel, or any distinction or difference.
Linen is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant.
The Milesians were the inhabitants of Miletus, an ancient Greek city in Anatolia, modern-day Turkey, near the coast of the Mediterranean Sea and at the mouth of the Meander River.
This list of sovereign states provides an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.
The following is a list of dynasties, states or empires which are Turkic-speaking, of Turkic origins, or both.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Liverpool Football Club is a professional football club in Liverpool, England, that competes in the Premier League, the top tier of English football.
The Macrones (მაკრონები) (Μάκρωνες, Makrōnes) were an ancient Colchian tribe in the east of Pontus, about the Moschici Mountains (modern Yalnizçam Dağlari, TurkeyKavtaradze, Giorgi L. (2002),, pp. 63-83. Sprache und Kultur #3. Staatliche Ilia Tschawtschawadse Universität Tbilisi für Sprache und Kultur. Institut zur Erforschung des westlichen Denkens, Tbilissi.). The Macrones are first mentioned by Herodotus (c. 450 BC), who relates that they, along with Moschi, Tabal, Mossynoeci, and Marres, formed the nineteenth satrapy within the Achaemenid Persian Empire and fought under Xerxes I. There are many other subsequent references to them in the Classical accounts.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
Marco Polo (1254January 8–9, 1324) was an Italian merchant, explorer, and writer, born in the Republic of Venice.
Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th–6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453.
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.
Mehmed II (محمد ثانى, Meḥmed-i sānī; Modern II.; 30 March 1432 – 3 May 1481), commonly known as Mehmed the Conqueror (Fatih Sultan Mehmet), was an Ottoman Sultan who ruled first for a short time from August 1444 to September 1446, and later from February 1451 to May 1481.
The melting pot is a monocultural metaphor for a heterogeneous society becoming more homogeneous, the different elements "melting together" into a harmonious whole with a common culture or vice versa, for a homogeneous society becoming more heterogeneous through the influx of foreign elements with different cultural background with a potential creation of disharmony with the previous culture.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
There are 81 provinces in Turkey (il).
The meydan is an urban public park or open space.
Michael Panaretos (Μιχαήλ Πανάρετος) (c. 1320 – c. 1390) was an official of the Trapezuntine empire and a Greek historian.
Michael VIII Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Μιχαὴλ Η΄ Παλαιολόγος, Mikhaēl VIII Palaiologos; 1223 – 11 December 1282) reigned as Byzantine Emperor 1259–1282.
A microclimate is a local set of atmospheric conditions that differ from those in the surrounding areas, often with a slight difference but sometimes with a substantial one.
Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (29 September 1547 (assumed)23 April 1616 NS) was a Spanish writer who is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the Spanish language and one of the world's pre-eminent novelists.
Mithra (𐬀𐬭𐬚𐬌𐬨 Miθra, 𐎷𐎰𐎼 Miça, New Persian: Mehr) is the Zoroastrian angelic divinity (yazata) of Covenant, Light, and Oath.
A Mithraeum, sometimes spelled Mithreum, is a large or small Mithraic temple, erected in classical antiquity by the worshippers of Mithras.
Mithraism, also known as the Mithraic mysteries, was a mystery religion centered around the god Mithras that was practised in the Roman Empire from about the 1st to the 4th century CE.
Mithridates VI or Mithradates VI (Μιθραδάτης, Μιθριδάτης), from Old Persian Miθradāta, "gift of Mithra"; 135–63 BC, also known as Mithradates the Great (Megas) and Eupator Dionysius, was king of Pontus and Armenia Minor in northern Anatolia (now Turkey) from about 120–63 BC.
A mole is a massive structure, usually of stone, used as a pier, breakwater, or a causeway between places separated by water.
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
Mossynoeci (მოსინიკები, Μοσσύνοικοι, Mossynoikoi "dwellers in wooden towers") is a name that the Greeks of the Euxine Sea (Black Sea) applied to the peoples of Pontus, the northern Anatolian coast west of Trebizond.
Mosul (الموصل, مووسڵ, Māwṣil) is a major city in northern Iraq. Located some north of Baghdad, Mosul stands on the west bank of the Tigris, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank. The metropolitan area has grown to encompass substantial areas on both the "Left Bank" (east side) and the "Right Bank" (west side), as the two banks are described by the locals compared to the flow direction of Tigris. At the start of the 21st century, Mosul and its surrounds had an ethnically and religiously diverse population; the majority of Mosul's population were Arabs, with Assyrians, Armenians, Turkmens, Kurds, Yazidis, Shabakis, Mandaeans, Kawliya, Circassians in addition to other, smaller ethnic minorities. In religious terms, mainstream Sunni Islam was the largest religion, but with a significant number of followers of the Salafi movement and Christianity (the latter followed by the Assyrians and Armenians), as well as Shia Islam, Sufism, Yazidism, Shabakism, Yarsanism and Mandaeism. Mosul's population grew rapidly around the turn of the millennium and by 2004 was estimated to be 1,846,500. In 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant seized control of the city. The Iraqi government recaptured it in the 2016–2017 Battle of Mosul. Historically, important products of the area include Mosul marble and oil. The city of Mosul is home to the University of Mosul and its renowned Medical College, which together was one of the largest educational and research centers in Iraq and the Middle East. Mosul, together with the nearby Nineveh plains, is one of the historic centers for the Assyrians and their churches; the Assyrian Church of the East; its offshoot, the Chaldean Catholic Church; and the Syriac Orthodox Church, containing the tombs of several Old Testament prophets such as Jonah, some of which were destroyed by ISIL in July 2014.
Mualla Eyüboğlu Anhegger (March 13, 1919; – August 16, 2009) was one of the first female Turkish architects.
The Musée des beaux-arts de Marseille is one of the main museums in the city of Marseille, in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 (conventional) – 10 November 1938) was a Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and founder of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938.
The Molla Nakip Mosque is a mosque in Pazarkapi district of Trabzon, Turkey.
Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Tūsī (محمد بن محمد بن حسن طوسی‎ 18 February 1201 – 26 June 1274), better known as Nasir al-Din Tusi (نصیر الدین طوسی; or simply Tusi in the West), was a Persian polymath, architect, philosopher, physician, scientist, and theologian.
Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.
Nea Trapezounta (Νέα Τραπεζούντα, Nea Trapezunda) is a village and a community of the Katerini municipality.
The Yeni Cuma Mosque is a mosque in Trabzon, Turkey.
Niccolò Polo (c. 1230 – c. 1294Died before 1300.) and Maffeo Polo (or Matteo; c. 1230 – c. 1309Died before 1318.) were Italian traveling merchants best known as the father and uncle, respectively, of the explorer Marco Polo.
Nikolai Nikolayevich Yudenich (Никола́й Никола́евич Юде́нич) (5 October 1933) was a commander of the Russian Imperial Army during World War I. He was a leader of the anti-communist White movement in Northwestern Russia during the Civil War.
Nuray Mert, born in Trabzon, Turkey (1960), is a Turkish coulumnist and political scientist.
An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
The Oghuz, Oguz or Ghuzz Turks were a western Turkic people who spoke the Oghuz languages from the Common branch of Turkic language family.
Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.
Olympique Lyonnais, commonly referred to as simply Lyon or OL, is a French football club based in Lyon.
Opera (English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere) is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers.
Osman Şirin (born November 5, 1943 in Vakfıkebir, Trabzon Province), is a high-ranked Turkish judge.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Ottoman Turkish (Osmanlı Türkçesi), or the Ottoman language (Ottoman Turkish:, lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as, Türkçe or, Türkî, "Turkish"; Osmanlıca), is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire.
The Ottoman wars in Europe were a series of military conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and various European states dating from the Late Middle Ages up through the early 20th century.
Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface (support base).
Pazar (Laz and Georgian: ათინა, Atina; Greek: Αθήνα, Athína) is a town and district of Rize Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey, 37 km east of the city of Rize.
Periklis Christoforides (1907 – 30 September 1983) was an Ottoman-born Greek film actor.
The Persian Empire (شاهنشاهی ایران, translit., lit. 'Imperial Iran') refers to any of a series of imperial dynasties that were centred in Persia/Iran from the 6th-century-BC Achaemenid Empire era to the 20th century AD in the Qajar dynasty era.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Pescennius Niger (Gaius Pescennius Niger Augustus; c. 135/140 – 194) was Roman Emperor from 193 to 194 during the Year of the Five Emperors.
Pharnaces I (Φαρνάκης; lived 2nd century BC), fifth king of Pontus, was of Persian and Greek ancestry.
The Phrontisterion of Trapezous (Φροντιστήριο Τραπεζούντος, "Trapezous College") was a Greek educational institution that operated from 1682/3 to 1921 in Trabzon (Gr. Τραπεζούς, Trapezous), in the Ottoman Empire, now Turkey.
Piloting (on water) or pilotage (in the air also British English) or land navigation is navigating, using fixed points of reference on the sea or on land, usually with reference to a nautical chart, aeronautical chart or topographic map, to obtain a fix of the position of the vessel, aircraft or land traveler with respect to a desired course or location.
Pita in Greek, sometimes spelled pitta (mainly UK), also known as Arabic bread, Lebanese bread, or Syrian bread, is a soft, slightly leavened flatbread baked from wheat flour, which originated in Western Asia, most probably Mesopotamia around 2500 BC.
A play is a form of literature written by a playwright, usually consisting of dialogue between characters, intended for theatrical performance rather than just reading.
Pontic Greek (ποντιακά, pontiaká) is a Greek language originally spoken in the Pontus area on the southern shores of the Black Sea, northeastern Anatolia, the Eastern Turkish/Caucasus province of Kars, southern Georgia and today mainly in northern Greece.
The Pontic Greeks, also known as Pontian Greeks (Πόντιοι, Ελληνοπόντιοι, Póntioi, Ellinopóntioi; Pontus Rumları, Karadeniz Rumları, პონტოელი ბერძნები, P’ont’oeli Berdznebi), are an ethnically Greek group who traditionally lived in the region of Pontus, on the shores of the Black Sea and in the Pontic Mountains of northeastern Anatolia.
The Pontic Mountains or Pontic Alps (Turkish: Kuzey Anadolu Dağları, meaning North Anatolian Mountains) form a mountain range in northern Anatolia, Turkey.
The 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey (Ἡ Ἀνταλλαγή, Mübâdele) stemmed from the "Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations" signed at Lausanne, Switzerland, on 30 January 1923, by the governments of Greece and Turkey.
A postal code (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a postcode, post code, Eircode, PIN Code or ZIP Code) is a series of letters or digits or both, sometimes including spaces or punctuation, included in a postal address for the purpose of sorting mail.
Poultry farming is the process of raising domesticated birds such as chickens, ducks, turkeys and geese for the purpose of farming meat or eggs for food.
Turkey is divided into 81 provinces (il).
Prunus laurocerasus, also known as cherry laurel, common laurel and sometimes English laurel in North America, is an evergreen species of cherry (Prunus), native to regions bordering the Black Sea in southwestern Asia and southeastern Europe, from Albania and Bulgaria east through Turkey to the Caucasus Mountains and northern Iran.
Purwakarta (Dutch: Poerwakarta) is a city in the West Java province of Indonesia and the capital of the Purwakarta Regency.
The quadrivium (plural: quadrivia) is the four subjects, or arts, taught after teaching the trivium.
Rasht (رشت; Rəsht; also Romanized as Resht and Rast, and often spelt Recht in French and older German manuscripts) is the capital city of Gilan Province, Iran.
Eyalet of Rûm (ایالت روم; Eyālet-i Rūm; originally Arabic for Eastern Roman Empire), later named as the Eyalet of Sivas (ایالت سیواس; Eyālet-i Sīvās), was an Ottoman eyalet in northern Anatolia, founded following Bayezid I's conquest of the area in the 1390s.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
Rize is the capital city of Rize Province in the eastern part of the Black Sea Region of Turkey.
Rize Province (Rize ili) is a province of north-east Turkey, on the eastern Black Sea coast between Trabzon and Artvin. The province of Erzurum is to the south. it was formerly known as Lazistan, the designation of the term of Lazistan was officially banned in 1926, by Kemalists. Its capital is the city of Rize. The province is home to Laz, Hemshin, Turkish people and Georgian communities. Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan spent his early childhood in Rize, where his father was a member of the Turkish Coast Guard.
Rizhao is a prefecture-level city in southeastern Shandong province, China.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Dame Emilie Rose Macaulay, (1 August 1881 – 30 October 1958) was an English writer, most noted for her award-winning novel The Towers of Trebizond, about a small Anglo-Catholic group crossing Turkey by camel.
The Russian Caucasus Army (Кавказскaя армия) of World War I was the Russian field army that fought in the Caucasus Campaign and Persian Campaign of World War I. It was renowned for inflicting heavy casualties on the opposing forces of the Ottoman Empire, particularly at the Battle of Sarikamish.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
The siege and sack of Constantinople occurred in April 1204 and marked the culmination of the Fourth Crusade.
The Church of Saint Anne is one of the oldest churches in Trabzon, Turkey.
Sancakbeyi is an out-of-print collectible card game for two players.
Satraps were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic empires.
The Süper Lig (Super League) is a Turkish professional league for association football clubs.
Sürmene (Greek: Σούρμενα, Sourmena; Ottoman Turkish: ﺳﻮرﻣﻨﻪ, romanized as Sürmena) is a town and a district of Trabzon Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey.
Second Group (İkinci Grup) was a short-term opposition in Turkish parliament in 1922-23 term.
Selim I (Ottoman Turkish: سليم اول, Modern Turkish: Birinci Selim; 1470/1 – September 1520), known as Selim the Grim or Selim the Resolute (Yavuz Sultan Selim), was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520.
The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs (آل سلجوق Al-e Saljuq), was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia.
Septimius Severus (Lucius Septimius Severus Augustus; 11 April 145 – 4 February 211), also known as Severus, was Roman emperor from 193 to 211.
Sericulture, or silk farming, is the cultivation of silkworms to produce silk.
Shota Arveladze (შოთა არველაძე; born 22 February 1973) is a Georgian former professional footballer and current manager of Pakhtakor Tashkent.
The Siege of Baghdad, which lasted from January 29 until February 10, 1258, entailed the investment, capture, and sack of Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, by Ilkhanate Mongol forces and allied troops.
The Siege of Trebizond was the successful siege of the city of Trebizond, capital of the Empire of Trebizond, by the Ottomans under Sultan Mehmed II, which ended on 15 August 1461.
Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Sinop (Σινώπη, Sinōpē, historically known as Sinope) is a city with a population of 36,734 on the isthmus of İnce Burun (İnceburun, Cape Ince), near Cape Sinope (Sinop Burnu, Boztepe Cape, Boztepe Burnu) which is situated on the most northern edge of the Turkish side of the Black Sea coast, in the ancient region of Paphlagonia, in modern-day northern Turkey.
Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
Sochi (a) is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Black Sea coast near the border between Georgia/Abkhazia and Russia.
A solar eclipse (as seen from the planet Earth) is a type of eclipse that occurs when the Moon passes between the Sun and Earth, and when the Moon fully or partially blocks ("occults") the Sun.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The Sublime Porte, also known as the Ottoman Porte or High Porte (باب عالی Bāb-ı Ālī or Babıali, from باب, bāb "gate" and عالي, alī "high"), is a synecdochic metonym for the central government of the Ottoman Empire.
thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.
Sumela Monastery (Μονή Παναγίας Σουμελά, Moní Panagías Soumelá; Sümela Manastırı) is a Greek Orthodox monastery dedicated to the Virgin Mary (Panagia, meaning "All Holy" in Greek) at Melá Mountain (Turkish: Karadağ, which is a direct translation of the Greek name Sou Melá, "Black Mountain") within the Pontic Mountains (Turkish: Kuzey Anadolu Dağları) range, in the Maçka district of Trabzon Province in modern Turkey.
Sunay Akın (born September 12, 1962) is a Turkish poet, writer, TV host, journalist, and a philanthropist.
Szigetvár (Siget; Zigetvar; Inselburg) is a town in Baranya County in southern Hungary.
Tabriz (تبریز; تبریز) is the most populated city in Iranian Azerbaijan, one of the historical capitals of Iran and the present capital of East Azerbaijan province.
Tamar the Great (თამარი) (1160 – 18 January 1213) reigned as the Queen of Georgia from 1184 to 1213, presiding over the apex of the Georgian Golden Age.
Tanned leather in Marrakesh Tanning is the process of treating skins and hides of animals to produce leather.
Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub (bush) native to Asia.
The Ten Thousand (οἱ Μύριοι, oi Myrioi) was a force of mercenary units, mainly Greek, employed by Cyrus the Younger to attempt to wrest the throne of the Persian Empire from his brother, Artaxerxes II.
The Sphere: An Illustrated Newspaper for the Home and, later, The Sphere: The Empire's Illustrated Weekly, was a British newspaper, published by London Illustrated Newspapers Ltd.
The Towers of Trebizond is a novel by Rose Macaulay (1881–1958).
Theodore Gabras (Θεόδωρος Γαβρᾶς) was a Byzantine governor in the Pontus who was involved in a minor unsuccessful rebellion against the Emperor Alexios I Komnenos around the year 1091.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
Tonya (Ancient Greek: Thoania, Θωανία; Ottoman Turkish: طﻮﻧﻴﻪ, romanized as Tonya) is a town and district of Trabzon Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey.
Topal Osman Agha (1883, Giresun, Trebizond Vilayet – 2 April 1923, Ankara) was a Turkish militia leader of the late Ottoman and early Republican periods.
Trabzon Airport is an airport near the city of Trabzon in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey.
Trabzon was a city in the Ottoman Empire where the Armenian Genocide occurred.
The Trabzon Museum (Trabzon Müzesi), also known as Kostaki Mansion (Kostaki Konağı), is a historic house museum with archeological and ethnographic exhibitions located in Trabzon, Turkey.
Trabzon Province (Trabzon ili) is a province of Turkey on the Black Sea coast. Located in a strategically important region, Trabzon is one of the oldest trade port cities in Anatolia. Neighbouring provinces are Giresun to the west, Gümüşhane to the southwest, Bayburt to the southeast and Rize to the east. The provincial capital is Trabzon city, and the traffic code is 61. The major ethnic groups are Turks, but the province is also home to a minority of Muslim Romeika-speakers, though younger speakers are not always fluent in this language.
Trabzonspor is a professional Turkish football club located in the city of Trabzon, Turkey.
The Trapezuntine Civil War was a series of conflicts fought in the 1340s for the succession of the throne of the Empire of Trebizond.
The Treaty of Lausanne (Traité de Lausanne) was a peace treaty signed in the Palais de Rumine, Lausanne, Switzerland, on 24 July 1923.
The Treaty of Sèvres (Traité de Sèvres) was one of a series of treaties that the Central Powers signed after their defeat in World War I. Hostilities had already ended with the Armistice of Mudros.
The Trebizond Campaign, also known as the Battle of Trebizond, was a series of successful Russian naval and land operations that resulted in the capture of Trabzon.
Trebizond Eyalet (ایالت طربزون; Eyālet-i Ṭrabzōn) or Trabzon Beylerbeyliği was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire.
The Vilayet of Trebizond or Trabzon was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) in the north-eastern part of the Ottoman Empire and corresponding to the area along the eastern Black Sea coastline and the interior highland region of the Pontic Alps.
Tugay Kerimoğlu (born 24 August 1970) is a Turkish former footballer who is a current manager of Şanlıurfaspor and played the majority of his career for Galatasaray and Blackburn Rovers.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Turkification, or Turkicization (Türkleştirme), is a cultural shift whereby populations or states adopted a historical Turkic culture, such as in the Ottoman Empire.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.
The Turkish War of Independence (Kurtuluş Savaşı "War of Liberation", also known figuratively as İstiklâl Harbi "Independence War" or Millî Mücadele "National Campaign"; 19 May 1919 – 24 July 1923) was fought between the Turkish National Movement and the proxies of the Allies – namely Greece on the Western front, Armenia on the Eastern, France on the Southern and with them, the United Kingdom and Italy in Constantinople (now Istanbul) – after parts of the Ottoman Empire were occupied and partitioned following the Ottomans' defeat in World War I. Few of the occupying British, French, and Italian troops had been deployed or engaged in combat.
The Union of European Football Associations (UEFA; Union des Associations Européennes de Football; Vereinigung Europäischer Fußballverbände) is the administrative body for association football in Europe, although several member states are primarily or entirely located in Asia.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Oslo (Universitetet i Oslo), until 1939 named the Royal Frederick University (Det Kongelige Frederiks Universitet), is the oldest university in Norway, located in the Norwegian capital of Oslo.
Uzungöl (Long Lake), or in the local Romeyka language: Şeraho, is a lake situated to the south of the city of Trabzon, in the Çaykara district of Trabzon Province, Turkey.
Vartan Makhokhian (Վարդան Մախոխեան; 31 May 1869 – 10 February 1937) was an Armenian painter who lived in the Ottoman Empire and France and was known for his marine paintings.
Vazelon Monastery is located in Maçka district, Trabzon Province, Turkey.
Turkish car number plates are license plates found on Turkish vehicles.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Vespasian (Titus Flavius Vespasianus;Classical Latin spelling and reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation: Vespasian was from an equestrian family that rose into the senatorial rank under the Julio–Claudian emperors. Although he fulfilled the standard succession of public offices and held the consulship in AD 51, Vespasian's renown came from his military success; he was legate of Legio II ''Augusta'' during the Roman invasion of Britain in 43 and subjugated Judaea during the Jewish rebellion of 66. While Vespasian besieged Jerusalem during the Jewish rebellion, emperor Nero committed suicide and plunged Rome into a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. After Galba and Otho perished in quick succession, Vitellius became emperor in April 69. The Roman legions of Roman Egypt and Judaea reacted by declaring Vespasian, their commander, emperor on 1 July 69. In his bid for imperial power, Vespasian joined forces with Mucianus, the governor of Syria, and Primus, a general in Pannonia, leaving his son Titus to command the besieging forces at Jerusalem. Primus and Mucianus led the Flavian forces against Vitellius, while Vespasian took control of Egypt. On 20 December 69, Vitellius was defeated, and the following day Vespasian was declared emperor by the Senate. Vespasian dated his tribunician years from 1 July, substituting the acts of Rome's Senate and people as the legal basis for his appointment with the declaration of his legions, and transforming his legions into an electoral college. Little information survives about the government during Vespasian's ten-year rule. He reformed the financial system of Rome after the campaign against Judaea ended successfully, and initiated several ambitious construction projects, including the building of the Flavian Amphitheatre, better known today as the Roman Colosseum. In reaction to the events of 68–69, Vespasian forced through an improvement in army discipline. Through his general Agricola, Vespasian increased imperial expansion in Britain. After his death in 79, he was succeeded by his eldest son Titus, thus becoming the first Roman emperor to be directly succeeded by his own natural son and establishing the Flavian dynasty.
Volkan Konak (born 27 February 1967, in Maçka) is a Turkish folk singer.
The Walls of Trabzon (or the "Walls of Trebizond") are a series of defensive walls surrounding the old town of the city of Trabzon, northeastern Turkey.
William Miller (8 December 1864, Wigton, England – 23 October 1945, Durban, South Africa) was a British-born medievalist and journalist.
Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids.
Woolen (American English) or woollen (Commonwealth English) is a type of yarn made from carded wool.
World Trade Center Trabzon (AWTCT) (Trabzon Dünya Ticaret Merkezi, AWTCT) is under development by Armada Holding Sti (part of Armada Group) by Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) agreement with Trabzon Dünya Ticaret Merkezi A.Ş..
Xenophon of Athens (Ξενοφῶν,, Xenophōn; – 354 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, historian, soldier, mercenary, and student of Socrates.
Zanjan (Persian: زنجان,; Azerbaijani: زنگان) is the capital of Zanjan Province in Iranian Azerbaijan.
Zeytinlik is a village in the central (Artvin) district of Artvin Province, Turkey.
The Zigana Pass (Zigana Geçidi) is a mountain pass situated on the Pontic Mountains in Gümüşhane Province close to its border with Trabzon Province in northeastern Turkey.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Statistics of the Turkish First Football League in season 1975/1976.
The 2009–10 Süper Lig (known as the Turkcell Süper Lig for sponsorship reasons) was the 52nd season since its establishment.
The 2011 European Youth Summer Olympic Festival was held in Trabzon, Turkey, between 23 and 29 July 2011.