349 relations: AAA Championships, Aerobic exercise, African Championships in Athletics, African Games, Aleksandr Baryshnikov, Algeria, Alice Milliat, All-comers track meet, All-weather running track, Amateur, Amateur Athletic Association of England, Amateur Athletic Union, Amateur sports, Amateur wrestling, Anabolic steroid, Anaerobic exercise, Ancient Olympic Games, Ancient Olympic pentathlon, Arne Andersson, Asian Athletics Championships, Asian Games, Asian Indoor Athletics Championships, Asthma, Athlete, Athletics at the 1904 Summer Olympics – Men's all-around, Athletics at the 1906 Intercalated Games, Athletics at the 1912 Summer Olympics, Athletics at the 1920 Summer Olympics, Athletics at the 1928 Summer Olympics, Athletics at the 1932 Summer Olympics, Athletics at the 1960 Summer Paralympics, Athletics at the 1968 Summer Olympics, Athletics at the 1988 Summer Olympics – Men's 100 metres, Athletics at the Summer Olympics, Athletics pentathlon, Australian Institute of Sport, 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Illustrated, Sports science, Sports venue, Sprint (running), Sprint medley relay, Stadion (running race), Stadium, Standing high jump, Standing long jump, Standing triple jump, Starting blocks, Starting pistol, Steeplechase (athletics), Steeplechase (horse racing), Steinstossen, Steve Cram, Steve Ovett, Stimulant, Stone put, Straddle technique, Straight (racing), Strength athletics, Summer Olympic Games, Swedish relay, Synthetic fiber, Tailteann Games (ancient), Tartan track, The Crystal Palace, The Guardian, The Herald (Glasgow), The Independent, The Times, Throwing, Throwing sports, Tim Montgomery, Track & Field News, Triple jump, Union des Sociétés Françaises de Sports Athlétiques, United States Olympic Trials (track and field), Universiade, USA Outdoor Track and Field Championships, USA Track & Field, Usain Bolt, Weight throw, Weltklasse Zürich, Wenlock Olympian Games, Western roll, William Penny Brookes, Women's pentathlon, Women's sports, Women's World Games, Wood, World 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The AAA Championships was an annual track and field competition organised by the Amateur Athletic Association of England.
Aerobic exercise (also known as cardio) is physical exercise of low to high intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process.
The African Championships in Athletics is a continental athletics event organized by the Confederation of African Athletics (CAA), the continental association for the sport in Africa.
The African Games, formally known as the All-Africa Games or the Pan African Games, are a continental multi-sport event held every four years, organized by the African Union (AU) with the Association of National Olympic Committees of Africa (ANOCA) and the Association of African Sports Confederations (AASC).
Aleksandr Georgievich Baryshnikov (Александр Георгиевич Барышников, born November 11, 1948) is a former Soviet athlete who competed mainly in the Shot Put.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Alice Milliat (1884 in Nantes – 1957) was a pioneer of women's sport in France and around the world.
All Comers Track Meets are usually small local events, considered the grassroots of the sport of Track and field athletics.
An all-weather running track is a rubberized artificial running surface for track and field athletics.
An amateur (French amateur "lover of", from Old French and ultimately from Latin amatorem nom. amator, "lover") is generally considered a person who pursues a particular activity or field of study independently from their source of income.
The Amateur Athletic Association of England or AAA (pronounced 'three As') is the oldest national governing body for athletics in the world, having been established on 24 April 1880.
The Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) is an amateur sports organization based in the United States.
Amateur sports are sports in which participants engage largely or entirely without remuneration.
Amateur wrestling is the most widespread form of sport wrestling.
Anabolic steroids, also known more properly as anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS), are steroidal androgens that include natural androgens like testosterone as well as synthetic androgens that are structurally related and have similar effects to testosterone.
Anaerobic exercise is a physical exercise intense enough to cause lactate to form.
The ancient Olympic Games were originally a festival, or celebration of and for Zeus; later, events such as a footrace, a javelin contest, and wrestling matches were added.
The Ancient Olympic pentathlon (πένταθλον) was an athletic contest at the Ancient Olympic Games, and other Panhellenic Games of Ancient Greece.
Arne Anderson (27 October 1917 – 1 April 2009) was a Swedish middle distance runner who became famous for his rivalry with his compatriot Gunder Hägg in the 1940s.
The Asian Athletics Championships is an event organized by the Asian Athletics Association.
The Asian Games, also known as Asiad, is a continental multi-sport event held every four years among athletes from all over Asia.
The Asian Indoor Athletics Championships were held for the first time in 2004.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
An athlete (also sportsman or sportswoman) is a person who competes in one or more sports that involve physical strength, speed or endurance.
The men's all-around championship event was held at Francis Field in St. Louis, Missouri on July 4, 1904.
At the 1906 Summer Olympics in Athens, 21 competitive events in athletics were held.
These are the results of athletics competition at the 1912 Summer Olympics.
At the 1920 Summer Olympics held in Antwerp, 29 athletics events were contested, all for men only.
At the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam, 27 athletics events were contested.
At the 1932 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, 29 athletics events were contested, 23 for men and 6 for women.
Athletics at the 1960 Summer Paralympics consisted of 25 events, 13 for men and 12 for women.
At the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City, 36 athletics events were contested, 24 for men and 12 for women.
The Men's 100 Meters at the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul, South Korea – frequently dubbed "the dirtiest race in history" – ended in controversy after Canada's Ben Johnson defeated defending champion Carl Lewis of the United States in a world record time of 9.79s, breaking his own record of 9.83s that he had set at the 1987 World Championship in Rome.
Athletics has been contested at every Summer Olympics since the birth of the modern Olympic movement at the 1896 Summer Olympics.
In the sport of athletics, pentathlons have taken various forms over the history of the sport, typically incorporating five track and field events.
The Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) is a sports training institution in Australia.
Authorised Neutral Athletes (ANA) is the category under which Russian athletes can compete at international competitions after the doping scandal which first came to light in December 2014.
An axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear.
The Bailey–Johnson 150-metre race was a track and field event that occurred in Toronto, Ontario on Sunday, 1 June 1997.
The BALCO scandal was a scandal involving the use of banned, performance-enhancing substances by professional athletes.
The bamboos are evergreen perennial flowering plants in the subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family Poaceae.
In basketball, the basketball court is the playing surface, consisting of a rectangular floor with baskets at either end.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC Sport is a department of the BBC North division providing national sports coverage for BBC Television, radio and online.
Benjamin Sinclair Johnson, (born December 30, 1961) is a Jamaican-born Canadian former sprinter, who won two Olympic bronze medals and an Olympic gold medal, which was later rescinded.
The Bislett Games is an annual track and field meeting at the Bislett Stadium in Oslo, Norway.
A blacksmith is a metalsmith who creates objects from wrought iron or steel by forging the metal, using tools to hammer, bend, and cut (cf. whitesmith).
Blood doping is the practice of boosting the number of red blood cells in the bloodstream in order to enhance athletic performance.
The Book of Leinster (Irish Lebor Laignech), is a medieval Irish manuscript compiled ca.
Brian Oldfield (June 1, 1945 – March 26, 2017) was an American athlete and personality of the 1970s and early 1980s.
The British Olympic Association (BOA) is the National Olympic Committee for the United Kingdom.
The broadcasting of sports events (also known as a sportscast) is the live coverage of sports as a television program, on radio, and other broadcasting media.
Franklin Wesley "Bud" Held (born October 25, 1927) is an American athlete primarily notable for his performance throwing the javelin.
The caber toss is a traditional Scottish athletic event in which competitors toss a large tapered pole called a "caber".
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, carbon fiber reinforced plastic or carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic (CFRP, CRP, CFRTP or often simply carbon fiber, carbon composite or even carbon), is an extremely strong and light fiber-reinforced plastic which contains carbon fibers.
Frederick Carlton "Carl" Lewis (born July 1, 1961) is an American former track and field athlete who won nine Olympic gold medals, one Olympic silver medal, and 10 World Championships medals, including eight gold.
Celebrity refers to the fame and public attention accorded by the mass media to individuals or groups or, occasionally, animals, but is usually applied to the persons or groups of people (celebrity couples, families, etc.) themselves who receive such a status of fame and attention.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
The Central American and Caribbean (CAC) Championships is an international track and field athletics event organised by the Central American and Caribbean Athletic Confederation (CACAC).
A chariot is a type of carriage driven by a charioteer using primarily horses to provide rapid motive power.
A cinder is a pyroclastic material.
A circular sector or circle sector (symbol: ⌔), is the portion of a disk enclosed by two radii and an arc, where the smaller area is known as the minor sector and the larger being the major sector.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity.
Clinical Chemistry is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering the field of clinical chemistry.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
A college (Latin: collegium) is an educational institution or a constituent part of one.
College athletics or college sports encompasses non-professional, collegiate and university-level competitive sports and games requiring physical skill, and the systems of training that prepare athletes for competition performance.
The Commonwealth Games are an international multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations.
Competition is, in general, a contest or rivalry between two or more entities, organisms, animals, individuals, economic groups or social groups, etc., for territory, a niche, for scarce resources, goods, for mates, for prestige, recognition, for awards, for group or social status, or for leadership and profit.
Cross country running is a sport in which teams and individuals run a race on open-air courses over natural terrain such as dirt or grass.
Cumbria is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in North West England.
The decathlon is a combined event in athletics consisting of ten track and field events.
The scoring tables for the decathlon have undergone continual evolution since their inception about a century ago, with several changes to both the character of the equations and the indices on which the equations are based.
Richard Douglas Fosbury (born March 6, 1947) is an American retired high jumper, who is considered one of the most influential and inspirational athletes in the history of track and field.
Disabled sports, also adaptive sports or parasports, are sports played by persons with a disability, including physical and intellectual disabilities.
The discus throw is a track and field event in which an athlete throws a heavy disc—called a discus—in an attempt to mark a farther distance than their competitors.
In geometry, a disk (also spelled disc).
The distance medley relay (DMR) is an athletic event in which four athletes compete as part of a relay.
A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, the increased production of urine.
Donovan Bailey, O.Ont (born December 16, 1967) is a retired Jamaican-Canadian sprinter, who once held the world record for the 100 metres.
The German Democratic Republic (GDR), commonly known as East Germany (German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik or DDR) conducted a decades-long program of coercive administration and distribution of performance-enhancing drugs, such as testosterone and other anabolic steroids to its elite athletes for the purpose of bolstering the state's image and prestige by winning medals in international championships (such as the Olympics), known officially as State Plan 14.25.
Doping in Russian sports has a systemic nature.
In competitive sports, doping is the use of banned athletic performance-enhancing drugs by athletic competitors.
Dotdash (formerly About.com) is an American Internet-based network of content that publishes articles and videos about various subjects on its "topic sites", of which there are nearly 1,000.
A drug test is a technical analysis of a biological specimen, for example urine, hair, blood, breath, sweat, and/or oral fluid/saliva — to determine the presence or absence of specified parent drugs or their metabolites.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
The eastern cut-off is a variant of the "scissors" high jump style involving a layout.
An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education.
Emil Zátopek (19 September 1922 – 22 November 2000) was a Czechoslovak long-distance runner best known for winning three gold medals at the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Endurance (also related to sufferance, resilience, constitution, fortitude, and hardiness) is the ability of an organism to exert itself and remain active for a long period of time, as well as its ability to resist, withstand, recover from, and have immunity to trauma, wounds, or fatigue.
ESPN (originally an acronym for Entertainment and Sports Programming Network) is a U.S.-based global cable and satellite sports television channel owned by ESPN Inc., a joint venture owned by The Walt Disney Company (80%) and Hearst Communications (20%).
The European Athletic Association (more commonly known as European Athletics) is the governing body for athletics in Europe.
The European Athletics Championships is a biennial (from 2010) athletics event organised by the European Athletics Association.
The European Athletics Indoor Championships is a biennial indoor track and field competition for European athletes that is organised by the European Athletic Association.
In sports, a false start is a movement by a participant before (or in some cases after) being signaled or otherwise permitted by the rules to start.
Fiberglass (US) or fibreglass (UK) is a common type of fiber-reinforced plastic using glass fiber.
Fierljeppen (West-Frisian compound of fier—"far" and ljeppen—"leaping") or polsstokverspringen is a traditional sport of the West Frisian people in the Dutch province of Friesland.
A firefighter is a rescuer extensively trained in firefighting, primarily to extinguish hazardous fires that threaten life, property and the environment as well as to rescue people and animals from dangerous situations.
Florence Delorez Griffith–Joyner (born Florence Delorez Griffith; December 21, 1959 – September 21, 1998), also known as Flo-Jo, was an American track and field athlete.
"The Flying Finn" (Lentävä suomalainen) is a nickname given to several Finnish athletes who were noted for their speed.
The foot (feet; abbreviation: ft; symbol: ′, the prime symbol) is a unit of length in the imperial and US customary systems of measurement.
Football is a family of team sports that involve, to varying degrees, kicking a ball with a foot to score a goal.
The Fosbury Flop is a style used in the athletics event of high jump.
In the sport of athletics, a four-minute mile means completing a mile run (1,760 yards, or 1,609.344 metres) in less than four minutes.
Fox hunting is an activity involving the tracking, chase and, if caught, the killing of a fox, traditionally a red fox, by trained foxhounds or other scent hounds, and a group of unarmed followers led by a "master of foxhounds" ("master of hounds"), who follow the hounds on foot or on horseback.
Francis Field is a stadium at Washington University in St. Louis that was used as the main stadium for the 1904 Summer Olympics.
Frisia (Fryslân, Dutch and Friesland) is a coastal region along the southeastern corner of the North Sea in what today is mostly a large part of the Netherlands, including modern Friesland, and smaller parts of northern Germany.
Fully automatic time (abbreviated FAT) is a form of race timing in which the clock is automatically activated by the starting device, and the finish time is either automatically recorded, or timed by analysis of a photo finish.
A furlong is a measure of distance in imperial units and U.S. customary units equal to one eighth of a mile, equivalent to 660 feet, 220 yards, 40 rods, or 10 chains.
The Gleaner Company Ltd. is a newspaper publishing enterprise in Jamaica.
Goldman's dilemma, or the Goldman dilemma, is a question that was posed to elite athletes by physician, osteopath and publicist Robert Goldman, asking whether they would take a drug that would guarantee them overwhelming success in sport, but cause them to die after five years.
Gunder Hägg (31 December 1918 – 27 November 2004) was a Swedish runner and multiple world record breaker of the 1940s.
A gymnasium, also known as a gym, is a covered location for gymnastics, athletics, and gymnastic services.
Gymnastics is a sport that requires balance, strength, flexibility, agility, coordination, and endurance.
Halteres (ἁλτῆρες, from "ἅλλομαι" - hallomai, "leap, spring"; cf. "ἅλμα" - halma, "leaping") were a type of dumbbells used in Ancient Greece.
The hammer throw is one of the four throwing events in regular track and field competitions, along with the discus throw, shot put and javelin.
Hare coursing is the pursuit of hares with greyhounds and other sighthounds, which chase the hare by sight, not by scent.
A heptathlon is a track and field combined events contest made up of seven events.
Hicham El Guerrouj (Moroccan Arabic: هشام الݣروج, Hishāmu l-Karrūj; Berber: Hicam El Gerruj, ⵀⵉⵛⴰⵎ ⴻⵍ ⴳⴻⵔⵔⵓⵊ; born 14 September 1974) is a retired Moroccan middle-distance runner.
The high jump is a track and field event in which competitors must jump unaided over a horizontal bar placed at measured heights without dislodging it.
Highland games are events held in spring and summer in Scotland and other countries as a way of celebrating Scottish and Celtic culture, especially that of the Scottish Highlands.
Horse racing is an equestrian performance sport, typically involving two or more horses ridden by jockeys (or sometimes driven without riders) over a set distance for competition.
The human body is the entire structure of a human being.
A hurdle (UK English, limited US English) is a moveable section of light fence.
Hurdling is the act of running and jumping over an obstacle at speed.
The IAAF Diamond League is an annual series of elite track and field athletic competitions.
The IAAF Golden League was an annual series of track and field meetings organised by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF).
The IAAF World Athletics Tour was an annual global circuit of one day athletics competitions organized by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF).
The IAAF World Championships, commonly referred to as the World Championships in Athletics, is a biennial athletics event organized by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF).
The IAAF World Indoor Championships is a biennial indoor track and field competition served as the global championship for the sport.
The IAAF World Indoor Tour is an annual series of track and field indoor meeting, held since 2016.
The IAAF World Youth Championships in Athletics was a global athletics event comprising track and field events for competitors who were 17 or younger (youth).
The system of imperial units or the imperial system (also known as British Imperial or Exchequer Standards of 1825) is the system of units first defined in the British Weights and Measures Act of 1824, which was later refined and reduced.
An individual sport is a sport in which participants compete as individuals.
The ISSA Grace Kennedy Boys and Girls Championships (better known as Champs) is an annual Jamaican multi-sport high school athletics meet held by Jamaica’s Inter-Secondary Schools Sports Association.
The Intercalated Olympic Games were to be a series of International Olympic Games halfway between what is now known as the Games of the Olympiad.
The International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) is the international governing body for the sport of athletics.
The International Society of Olympic Historians (ISOH) is a non-profit organization founded in 1991 with the purpose of promoting and studying the Olympic Movement and the Olympic Games.
The International Tennis Federation (ITF) is the governing body of world tennis, wheelchair tennis, and beach tennis.
The Fédération Sportive Féminine Internationale (FSFI) – or, in English, the International Women's Sports Federation – was founded in October 1921 by Alice Milliat because of the unwillingness of existing sports organisations, such as the International Olympic Committee and the International Amateur Athletics Federation, to let women compete in sports, particularly at an international level.
Interval training is a type of training that involves a series of low- to high-intensity workouts interspersed with rest or relief periods.
The Internationales Stadionfest (ISTAF) is an annual track and field athletics meet at the Olympiastadion in Berlin, Germany.
A javelin is a light spear designed primarily to be thrown, historically as a ranged weapon, but today predominantly for sport.
The javelin throw is a track and field event where the javelin, a spear about in length, is thrown.
James Ronald Ryun (born April 29, 1947) is a former American politician and track and field athlete.
James Francis Thorpe (Sac and Fox (Sauk): Wa-Tho-Huk, translated as "Bright Path"; May 22 or 28, 1887March 28, 1953) was an American athlete and Olympic gold medalist.
Jumping or leaping is a form of locomotion or movement in which an organism or non-living (e.g., robotic) mechanical system propels itself through the air along a ballistic trajectory.
Keg-tossing (or keg toss) is a sport that involves the heaving of a standard 15.5 gallon beer keg.
Kim Collins (born 16 January 1976) is a track and field sprinter from Saint Kitts and Nevis.
was a Japanese athlete.
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
A lawn is an area of soil-covered land planted with grasses and other durable plants such as clover which are maintained at a short height with a lawnmower and used for aesthetic and recreational purposes.
This is a list of international sports federations, each of which serves as a non-governmental governing body for a given sport and administers its sport at a world level, most often crafting rules, promoting the sport to prospective spectators and fans, developing prospective players, and organizing world or continental championships.
The modern Summer Olympic Games have been held every four years since the first Games in 1896 (except 1916 due to the First World War, and 1940 and 1944 due to the Second World War) and Olympic records are recognised by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in each event.
This is a list of stadiums over 50,000 seats that include facilities for track and field events.
World records in athletics are ratified by the International Association of Athletics Federations.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The long jump (historically called the broad jump in the USA) is a track and field event in which athletes combine speed, strength and agility in an attempt to leap as far as possible from a take off point.
Long-distance running, or endurance running, is a form of continuous running over distances of at least eight kilometres (5 miles).
The Los Angeles Invitational was an elite level indoor track meet, held in the Los Angeles Sports Arena in Los Angeles, California.
The Los Angeles Memorial Sports Arena was a multi-purpose arena at Exposition Park, in the University Park neighborhood of Los Angeles.
The Maccabiah Games (a.k.a. the World Maccabiah Games; משחקי המכביה, or משחקי המכביה העולמית; often referred to as the "Jewish Olympics"), first held in 1932, are an international Jewish and Israeli multi-sport event now held quadrennially in Israel.
Madison Square Garden, often called "MSG" or simply "The Garden", is a multi-purpose indoor arena in the New York City borough of Manhattan.
The marathon is a long-distance race, completed by running, walking, or a run/walk strategy.
Marion Lois Jones (born October 12, 1975), also known as Marion Jones-Thompson, is an American former world champion track and field athlete and a former professional basketball player for Tulsa Shock in the WNBA.
Marita Koch (born 18 February 1957), married name Marita Koch Meier, is a German former sprint track and field athlete.
Mats are used for safety in gymnastics, and in training new skills.
Memorial Van Damme is an annual athletics event at the King Baudouin Stadium in Brussels, Belgium that takes place in late August or early September.
The metric system is an internationally adopted decimal system of measurement.
Michael Duane Johnson (born September 13, 1967) is a retired American sprinter.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Middle-distance running events are track races longer than sprints, up to 3000 metres.
Miklós Németh (born 23 October 1946) is a Hungarian Olympic champion and former World Record holder in the javelin throw.
The mile is an English unit of length of linear measure equal to 5,280 feet, or 1,760 yards, and standardised as exactly 1,609.344 metres by international agreement in 1959.
The mile run (1,760 yards or exactly 1,609.344 metres) is a middle-distance foot race.
Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of a state so as to offer military capability required by the national defense policy.
The Millrose Games is an annual indoor athletics meet (track and field) held each February in New York City.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Much Wenlock is a small town and parish in Shropshire, England, situated on the A458 road between Shrewsbury and Bridgnorth.
Multi-purpose stadiums are a type of stadium designed to be easily used by multiple types of events.
A multi-sport event is an organized sporting event, often held over multiple days, featuring competition in many different sports among organized teams of athletes from (mostly) nation-states.
The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) is a non-profit organization which regulates athletes of 1,281 institutions and conferences.
The National Games of the People's Republic of China, sometimes known as the All China Games (though not to be confused with the All-China Games), is the premier sports event in China at national level.
National records in athletics are the marks achieved by a nation's best athlete in a particular athletics event.
The NCAA Men's Outdoor Track and Field Championship refers to one of three annual collegiate outdoor track and field competitions for men organised by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) for athletes from institutions that make up its three divisions: Division I, II, and III.
NCAA Track and Field Championship may refer to: In the United States.
The New York Athletic Club is a private social club and athletic club in New York City.
The North European Plain (Norddeutsches Tiefland or Norddeutsche Tiefebene, North German Plain; Nizina Środkowoeuropejska, Middle European Plain) is a geomorphological region in Europe, mostly in Poland, Denmark, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands (Low Countries), and a small part of northern France and Czech republic.
Noureddine Morceli (نور الدين مرسلي, Nūr ud-Dīn Mursilī; born February 28, 1970) is a retired Algerian middle-distance runner.
The Oceania Area Championships in Athletics is an athletics event run by the Oceania Athletics Association and is held every year.
Olympia (Greek: Ὀλυμπία;; Olymbía), a sanctuary of ancient Greece in Elis on the Peloponnese peninsula, is known for having been the site of the Olympic Games in classical times.
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Paavo Johannes Nurmi (13 June 1897 – 2 October 1973) was a Finnish middle-distance and long-distance runner.
A pacemaker or pacesetter, sometimes informally called a rabbit, is a runner who leads a middle- or long distance running event for the first section to ensure a fast time and avoid excessive tactical racing.
The Pan American Games (also known colloquially as the Pan Am Games) is a major sporting event in the Americas featuring summer sports, in which thousands of athletes participate in a variety of competitions.
The Panathenaic Stadium (Παναθηναϊκό Στάδιο, Panathinaïkó Stádio) or Kallimarmaro (Καλλιμάρμαρο, lit. "beautiful marble") is a multi-purpose stadium in Athens, Greece.
"Panhellenic Games" is the collective term for four separate sports festivals held in ancient Greece.
Paper Chase (also known as Hare and Hounds or Chalk Chase) is a racing game played outdoors (best played within a wood or even a shrubbery maze) with any number of players.
Paralympic athletics is a disabled sport practiced by athletes with a physical disability who have competed at separate international events since 1952.
William Patrick "Parry" O'Brien (January 28, 1932 – April 21, 2007) was an American shot put champion.
A pedestal (from French piédestal, Italian piedistallo, "foot of a stall") or plinth is the support of a statue or a vase.
A pennant is a commemorative flag typically used to show support for a particular athletic team.
Peptide hormones or protein hormones are hormones whose molecules are peptides or proteins, respectively.
The Philippine Athletics Track and Field Association (PATAFA), formerly the Philippine Amateur Track and Field Association, is the national governing body for athletics sports such as track and field, road running, cross country running, and race walking in the Philippines.
Pietro Paolo Mennea (28 June 1952 – 21 March 2013) was an Italian sprinter and politician.
A pitch or a sports ground is an outdoor playing area for various sports.
In aerodynamics, the pitching moment on an airfoil is the moment (or torque) produced by the aerodynamic force on the airfoil if that aerodynamic force is considered to be applied, not at the center of pressure, but at the aerodynamic center of the airfoil.
Plasticine, a brand of modelling clay, is a putty-like modelling material made from calcium salts, petroleum jelly and aliphatic acids.
Pole vaulting is a track and field event in which a person uses a long flexible pole (which today is usually made either of fiberglass or carbon fiber) as an aid to jump over a bar.
Politics and sports or sports diplomacy describes the use of sport as a means to influence diplomatic, social, and political relations.
Polyurethane (PUR and PU) is a polymer composed of organic units joined by carbamate (urethane) links.
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.
Prize money has a distinct meaning in warfare, especially naval warfare, where it was a monetary reward paid out under prize law to the crew of a ship for capturing or sinking an enemy vessel.
Professional sports, as opposed to amateur sports, are sports in which athletes receive payment for their performance.
An entertainment promoter in industries like music, wrestling, and sports is an individual or organization in the business of marketing and promoting live events such as concerts/gigs, sports events, professional wrestling (wrestling events), festivals, raves, and nightclubs.
A public school in England and Wales is a long-established, student-selective, fee-charging independent secondary school that caters primarily for children aged between 11 or 13 and 18, and whose head teacher is a member of the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference (HMC).
Racewalking, or race walking, is a long-distance discipline within the sport of athletics.
A relay race is a racing competition where members of a team take turns completing parts of racecourse or performing a certain action.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Road running is the sport of running on a measured course over an established road (as opposed to track and field and cross country running).
Sir Roger Gilbert Bannister (23 March 1929 – 3 March 2018) was a British middle-distance athlete, doctor and academic who ran the first sub-4-minute mile.
Ronald William "Ron" Clarke, AO, MBE (21 February 1937 – 17 June 2015) was an Australian athlete, writer, and Mayor of the Gold Coast from 2004 to 2012.
A round shot (or solid shot, or a cannonball, or simply ball) is a solid projectile without explosive charge, fired from a cannon.
Running is a method of terrestrial locomotion allowing humans and other animals to move rapidly on foot.
A running club, also known in some parts of the United States as a running crew, is an eclectic institution specialising in running and oriented towards the sport and recreation of running or track and field.
Saïd Aouita (سعيد عويطة; born November 2, 1959) is a former Moroccan track and field athlete.
A sandpit (most Commonwealth countries) or sandbox (US/Canada) is a low, wide container or shallow depression filled with soft (beach) sand in which children can play.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
The scissors is a style used in the athletics event of high jump.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Sebastian Newbold Coe, Baron Coe, (born 29 September 1956), often referred to as Seb Coe or Lord Coe, is a British politician and former track and field athlete.
A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place.
Serhii Nazarovych Bubka (Сергій Назарович Бубка; Сергей Назарович Бубка, Sergey Nazarovich Bubka; born 4 December 1963) is a Ukrainian former pole vaulter.
The shot put (pronounced) is a track and field event involving "throwing"/"putting" (throwing in a pushing motion) a heavy spherical object—the shot—as far as possible.
Shrewsbury School is an English co-educational independent school for pupils aged 13 to 18 in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, founded by Edward VI in 1552 by Royal Charter.
A sledgehammer is a tool with a large, flat, often metal head, attached to a lever (or handle).
The South American Championships in Athletics is a biennial athletics event organized by CONSUDATLE.
SPIKES is an athletics website and magazine published by Haymarket Network in conjunction with the IAAF.
Sport (British English) or sports (American English) includes all forms of competitive physical activity or games which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants, and in some cases, entertainment for spectators.
Athletics is a collection of sporting events that involve competitive running, jumping, throwing, and walking.
A sports club or sporting club, sometimes athletics club or sports society or sports association, is a group of people formed for the purpose of playing sports.
A sports governing body is a sports organization that has a regulatory or sanctioning function.
Sports Illustrated is an American sports magazine owned by Meredith Corporation.
Sports science (also sports and exercise science, sports medicine or exercise physiology) is a discipline that studies how the healthy human body works during exercise, and how sport and physical activity promote health and performance from cellular to whole body perspectives.
A sports venue is a building, structure, or place in which a sporting competition is held.
Sprinting is running over a short distance in a limited period of time.
The sprint medley relay (SMR) is a track and field event in which teams of four athletes compete over sprinting distances as part of a relay race.
Stadion or stade (στάδιον) was an ancient running event, part of the Ancient Olympic Games and the other Panhellenic Games.
A stadium (plural stadiums or stadia) is a place or venue for (mostly) outdoor sports, concerts, or other events and consists of a field or stage either partly or completely surrounded by a tiered structure designed to allow spectators to stand or sit and view the event.
The standing high jump is an athletics event that was featured in the Olympics from 1900 to 1912.
The standing long jump, also known as the standing broad jump, is an athletics event.
Standing triple jump is an athletics event based on the conventional triple jump with three jumping phases, but without an approach run-up.
Starting blocks are a device used in the sport of track and field by sprint athletes to hold their feet at the start of a race so they do not slip as they push out at the sound of the gun.
A starting pistol or starter pistol is a blank handgun that is fired to start track and field races, as well as competitive swimming races at some meets.
The steeplechase is an obstacle race in athletics, which derives its name from the steeplechase in horse racing.
A steeplechase is a distance horse race in which competitors are required to jump diverse fence and ditch obstacles.
Steinstossen is the Swiss variant of stone put, a competition in throwing a heavy stone.
Stephen "Steve" Cram CBE (born 14 October 1960) is a British retired track and field athlete.
Stephen Michael James "Steve" Ovett OBE (born 9 October 1955), is a former middle-distance runner from England.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
The stone put is one of the main Scottish heavy athletic events at modern-day Highland games gatherings.
The straddle technique was the dominant style in the high jump before the development of the Fosbury Flop.
In many forms of racing, the straight is those parts of the race track in which the competitors travel in a straight line for any significant time, as opposed to a bend.
Strength athletics, more generally known as strongman competitions, is a sport which tests competitors' strength in a variety of different ways.
The Summer Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'été) or the Games of the Olympiad, first held in 1896, is an international multi-sport event that is hosted by a different city every four years.
Swedish relay is an athletics track event in which teams comprise four runners.
Synthetic fibers (British English: synthetic fibres) are fibers made by humans with chemical synthesis, as opposed to natural fibers that humans get from living organisms with little or no chemical changes.
The Tailteann Games, Tailtin Fair, Áenach Tailteann, Aonach Tailteann, Assembly of Talti, Fair of Taltiu or Festival of Taltii were funeral games associated with the semi-legendary history of Pre-Christian Ireland.
Tartan Track is a trademarked all-weather synthetic track surfacing made of polyurethane used for track and field competitions, manufactured by 3M.
The Crystal Palace was a cast-iron and plate-glass structure originally built in Hyde Park, London, to house the Great Exhibition of 1851.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Herald is a Scottish broadsheet newspaper founded in 1783.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
Throwing is the launching of a ballistic projectile by hand.
Throwing sports, or throwing games, are physical, human competitions where the outcome is measured by a player's ability to throw an object.
Timothy "Tim" Montgomery (born January 28, 1975) is an American former track and field sprinter who specialized in the 100-meter dash.
Track & Field News is an American monthly sports magazine founded in 1948 by brothers Bert Nelson and Cordner Nelson, focused on the world of track and field.
The triple jump, sometimes referred to as the hop, step and jump or the hop, skip and jump, is a track and field event, similar to the long jump.
Union des sociétés françaises de sports athlétiques (USFSA) is a former French sports governing body.
The United States Olympic Trials for the sport of track and field is the quadrennial meet to select the United States representatives at the Olympic Games.
The Universiade is an international multi-sport event, organized for university athletes by the International University Sports Federation (FISU).
The USA Outdoor Track and Field Championships is an annual track and field competition organized by USA Track & Field, which serves as the American national championships for the sport.
USA Track & Field (USATF) is the United States national governing body for the sports of track and field, cross country running, road running and racewalking (known as the sport of athletics outside the US).
Usain St Leo Bolt (born 21 August 1986) is a retired Jamaican sprinter and world record holder in the 100 metres, 200 metres and 4 × 100 metres relay.
Two sports have events that fall under the name of weight throw.
Weltklasse Zürich (World Class Zurich) is an annual, invitation-only, world-class track and field meeting at the Letzigrund in Zürich, Switzerland, generally held at the end of August.
The Wenlock Olympian Games, dating from 1850, are a forerunner of the modern Olympic Games.
The Western roll is a high jump technique invented by George Horine of Stanford University.
William Penny Brookes (13 August 1809 – 11 December 1895) was an English surgeon, magistrate, botanist, and educationalist especially known for inspiring the modern Olympic Games, the Wenlock Olympian Games and for his promotion of physical education and personal betterment.
The pentathlon or women's pentathlon is a combined track and field event in which each woman competes in five separate events over one day (formerly two days).
Women's sports includes amateur as well as women's professional sports, in all varieties of sports.
The Women's World Games were the first international women's sports events in track and field.
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.
The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA; Agence mondiale antidopage, AMA) is a foundation initiated by the International Olympic Committee based in Canada to promote, coordinate and monitor the fight against drugs in sports.
A world championship is generally an international sports competition open to elite competitors from around the world, representing their nations, and winning such an event will be considered the highest or near highest achievement in the sport or contest.
The World Masters Games is an international multi-sport event held every four years which, in terms of competitor numbers, has developed into the largest of its kind.
A world record is usually the best global performance ever recorded and officially verified in a specific skill or sport.
The World's Strongest Man is a strongman competition.
Zola Pieterse (née Budd; born 26 May 1966) is a middle-distance and long-distance runner.
The 10,000 metres or 10,000-meter run is a common long-distance track running event.
The 100 metres, or 100-metre dash, is a sprint race in track and field competitions.
The 100 metres hurdles, or 100-meter hurdles, is a track and field event run mainly by women (the male counterpart is the 110 metres hurdles).
The 100-yard dash is a track and field event of 100 yards or 91.44 metres.
The 110 metres hurdles, or 110-meter hurdles, is a hurdling track and field event for men.
150 metres is a sprint event in track and field.
The 1500 metres or 1,500-metre run (typically pronounced 'fifteen-hundred metres') is the foremost middle distance track event in athletics.
The 1896 Summer Olympics (Θερινοί Ολυμπιακοί Αγώνες 1896), officially known as the Games of the I Olympiad, was the first international Olympic Games held in modern history.
The 1900 Summer Olympics (Les Jeux olympiques d'été de 1900), today officially known as the Games of the II Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that took place in Paris, France, in 1900.
The 1904 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the III Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in St. Louis, Missouri, in the United States from August 29 until September 3, 1904, as part of an extended sports program lasting from July 1 to November 23, 1904, at what is now known as Francis Field on the campus of Washington University in St. Louis.
The 1906 Intercalated Games or 1906 Olympic Games was an international multi-sport event that was celebrated in Athens, Greece.
The 1919 South American Championships in Athletics was the inaugural South American Championships and was contested by Uruguay and Chile were held in Montevideo, Uruguay.
The 1923 International Universities Championships was an athletics competition organised by the Union Nationale des Étudiants de France (UNEF) and held in Paris, France.
The 1923 USA Outdoor Track and Field Championships women's competition were the first national Track and Field championships for women in the USA.
The 1923 WAAA Championships were the first national track and field championships for women in the UK.
The 1924 Women's Olympiad (formally called Women’s International and British Games, French Grand meeting international féminin) was the first international competition for women in track and field in the United Kingdom.
The 1930 British Empire Games were the first of what later became known as the Commonwealth Games, and were held in Hamilton, in the province of Ontario in Canada from 16–23 August 1930.
The 1st Maccabiah (aka The Maccabiah and the White Horse Olympics) (המכביה הראשונה or המכביאדה) was the first edition of the Maccabiah, which was held in Mandatory Palestine from March 28 to April 2, 1932.
The 1948 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XIV Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event which was held in London, United Kingdom.
The 1968 Summer Olympics (Spanish: Juegos Olímpicos de Verano de 1968), officially known as the Games of the XIX Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in Mexico City, Mexico, in October 1968.
The inaugural World Championships in Athletics were run under the auspices of the International Association of Athletics Federations and were held at the Olympic Stadium in Helsinki, Finland between 7 and 14 August 1983.
The 6th IAAF World Indoor Championships in Athletics were held at the Palais Omnisports de Paris-Bercy in Paris, France from March 7 to March 9, 1997.
The 200 metres (also spelled 200 meters) is a sprint running event.
The 2016 Summer Olympics (Jogos Olímpicos de Verão de 2016), officially known as the Games of the XXXI Olympiad and commonly known as Rio 2016, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 5 to 21 August 2016 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with preliminary events in some sports beginning on 3 August.
The 2017 IAAF World Championships was the 16th edition of the global athletics competition organised by the International Association of Athletics Federations and was held in London from 4 to 13 August 2017.
The 300 metres is a rarely run uncommon sprinting event in track and field competitions.
The 3000 metres or 3000-meter run is a track running event, also commonly known as the 3K or 3K run, where 7.5 laps are completed around an outdoor 400 m track or 15 laps around a 200 m indoor track.
The 3000 metres steeplechase or 3000-meter steeplechase is the most common distance for the steeplechase in track and field.
The 3M Company, formerly known as the Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company, is an American multinational conglomerate corporation based in Maplewood, Minnesota, a suburb of St. Paul.
The 4 × 100 metres relay or sprint relay is an athletics track event run in lanes over one lap of the track with four runners completing 100 metres each.
The 4 x 1500 meters relay is an athletics track event in which teams comprise four runners who each complete 1500 meters or 3.75 laps on a standard 400 meter track.
The 4 × 200 metres relay is an athletics track event in which teams comprise four runners who each complete 200 metres or half a lap on a standard 400 metre track.
The 4 × 400 metres relay or long relay is an athletics track event in which teams consist of four runners who each complete 400 metres or one lap.
The 4 × 800 meters relay is an athletics track event in which teams consist of four runners who each complete 800 meters or 2 laps on a standard 400 meter track.
The 400 metres, or 400 metre dash, is a sprinting event in track and field competitions.
The 400 metres hurdles is a track and field hurdling event.
The 440-yard dash, or quarter-mile race, is a sprint race in track and field competitions.
50 metres is a sprint event in track and field.
The 500 metres is a rarely run middle-distance running event in track and field competitions.
The 5000 metres or 5000-meter run (approximately 3.1 mi or 16,404 ft) is a common long-distance running event in track and field.
55 metres is a sprint event in track and field.
60 metres, or 60-meter dash, is a sprint event in track and field.
60 metres hurdles is a distance in hurdling which is generally run in indoor competitions.
80 metres hurdles is a distance in hurdling ran by women until 1972 in international competitions.
The 800 metres, or 800 meters (US spelling), is a common track running event.
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