67 relations: A priori and a posteriori, Alfred Korzybski, Anthony Kenny, Aphorism, Aristotle, Arthur Schopenhauer, Baruch Spinoza, Bertrand Russell, Charles Kay Ogden, Chess, Cora Diamond, David Pears, Deductive reasoning, Frank P. Ramsey, Friedrich Waismann, G. E. Moore, Geometry, Georg Henrik von Wright, Gilbert Ryle, Henry M. Sheffer, Heraclitus, Immanuel Kant, James F. Conant, Latin, Linguistic philosophy, Logic, Logical atomism, Logical consequence, Logical equivalence, Logical NOR, Logical positivism, Ludwig Wittgenstein, M. A. Numminen, Moritz Schlick, Natural science, Péter Forgács, Philosopher, Philosophical Investigations, Picture theory of language, Plato, Platonic realism, Poetry, Projection (mathematics), Proposition, Qi, Rabindranath Tagore, Ray Monk, Rudolf Carnap, Søren Kierkegaard, Semantics, ..., Sheffer stroke, St. Martin's Press, Tautology (logic), The Journal of Philosophy, The New Wittgenstein, Theorem, Theory of descriptions, Tractatus Theologico-Politicus, Transcendence (philosophy), Truth condition, Truth function, Truth table, Vienna Circle, Wilhelm Ostwald, William Kneale, Wittgenstein Tractatus, World War I. Expand index (17 more) » « Shrink index
The Latin phrases a priori ("from the earlier") and a posteriori ("from the latter") are philosophical terms of art popularized by Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason (first published in 1781, second edition in 1787), one of the most influential works in the history of philosophy.
Alfred Habdank Skarbek Korzybski (July 3, 1879 – March 1, 1950) was a Polish-American independent scholar who developed a field called general semantics, which he viewed as both distinct from, and more encompassing than, the field of semantics.
Sir Anthony John Patrick Kenny (born 16 March 1931) is an English philosopher whose interests lie in the philosophy of mind, ancient and scholastic philosophy, the philosophy of Wittgenstein and the philosophy of religion.
An aphorism (from Greek ἀφορισμός: aphorismos, denoting "delimitation", "distinction", and "definition") is a concise, terse, laconic, and/or memorable expression of a general truth or principle.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Arthur Schopenhauer (22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher.
Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa,; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.
Charles Kay Ogden (1 June 1889 – 20 March 1957) was an English linguist, philosopher, and writer.
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.
Cora Diamond (born 1937) is an American philosopher who works on Ludwig Wittgenstein, Gottlob Frege, moral philosophy, political philosophy, philosophy of language, and philosophy and literature.
David Pears (8 August 1921 – 1 July 2009) was a British philosopher renowned for his work on Ludwig Wittgenstein.
Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic, logical deduction is the process of reasoning from one or more statements (premises) to reach a logically certain conclusion.
Frank Plumpton Ramsey (22 February 1903 – 19 January 1930) was a British philosopher, mathematician and economist who made fundamental contributions to abstract algebra before his death at the age of 26.
Friedrich Waismann (21 March 1896 – 4 November 1959) was an Austrian mathematician, physicist, and philosopher.
George Edward Moore (4 November 1873 – 24 October 1958), usually cited as G. E. Moore, was an English philosopher.
Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.
Georg Henrik von Wright (14 June 1916 – 16 June 2003) was a Finnish philosopher, who succeeded Ludwig Wittgenstein as professor at the University of Cambridge.
Gilbert Ryle (19 August 1900 – 6 October 1976) was a British philosopher.
Henry Maurice Sheffer (September 1, 18821964) was an American logician.
Heraclitus of Ephesus (Hērákleitos ho Ephésios) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, and a native of the city of Ephesus, then part of the Persian Empire.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
James Ferguson Conant (born June 10, 1958) is an American philosopher who has written extensively on topics in philosophy of language, ethics, and metaphilosophy.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Linguistic philosophy is the view that philosophical problems are problems which may be solved (or dissolved) either by reforming language, or by understanding more about the language we presently use.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
Logical atomism is a philosophical belief that originated in the early 20th century with the development of analytic philosophy.
Logical consequence (also entailment) is a fundamental concept in logic, which describes the relationship between statements that hold true when one statement logically follows from one or more statements.
In logic, statements p and q are logically equivalent if they have the same logical content.
In boolean logic, logical nor or joint denial is a truth-functional operator which produces a result that is the negation of logical or.
Logical positivism and logical empiricism, which together formed neopositivism, was a movement in Western philosophy whose central thesis was verificationism, a theory of knowledge which asserted that only statements verifiable through empirical observation are cognitively meaningful.
Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.
Mauri Antero Numminen, often known as M.A. Numminen, (born 12 March 1940 in Somero, Southwest Finland) is a Finnish artist, who has worked in several different fields of music and culture.
Friedrich Albert Moritz Schlick (April 14, 1882 – June 22, 1936) was a German philosopher, physicist, and the founding father of logical positivism and the Vienna Circle.
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
Péter Forgács (born 1950) is a media artist and independent filmmaker based in Budapest, Hungary.
A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.
Philosophical Investigations (Philosophische Untersuchungen) is a work by the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein, first published, posthumously, in 1953, in which Wittgenstein discusses numerous problems and puzzles in the fields of semantics, logic, philosophy of mathematics, philosophy of psychology, philosophy of action, and philosophy of mind.
The picture theory of language, also known as the picture theory of meaning, is a theory of linguistic reference and meaning articulated by Ludwig Wittgenstein in the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Platonic realism is a philosophical term usually used to refer to the idea of realism regarding the existence of universals or abstract objects after the Greek philosopher Plato (c. 427–c. 347 BC), a student of Socrates.
Poetry (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.
In mathematics, a projection is a mapping of a set (or other mathematical structure) into a subset (or sub-structure), which is equal to its square for mapping composition (or, in other words, which is idempotent).
The term proposition has a broad use in contemporary analytic philosophy.
In traditional Chinese culture, qi or ch'i is believed to be a vital force forming part of any living entity.
Rabindranath Tagore FRAS, also written Ravīndranātha Ṭhākura (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali polymath who reshaped Bengali literature and music, as well as Indian art with Contextual Modernism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Ray Monk (born 15 February 1957) is a British philosopher.
Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891 – September 14, 1970) was a German-born philosopher who was active in Europe before 1935 and in the United States thereafter.
Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher.
Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.
In Boolean functions and propositional calculus, the Sheffer stroke, named after Henry M. Sheffer, written ↑, also written | (not to be confused with "||", which is often used to represent disjunction), or Dpq (in Bocheński notation), denotes a logical operation that is equivalent to the negation of the conjunction operation, expressed in ordinary language as "not both".
In logic, a tautology (from the Greek word ταυτολογία) is a formula or assertion that is true in every possible interpretation.
The Journal of Philosophy is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal on philosophy, founded in 1904 at Columbia University.
The New Wittgenstein (2000) is a book containing a family of interpretations of the work of philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein.
In mathematics, a theorem is a statement that has been proven on the basis of previously established statements, such as other theorems, and generally accepted statements, such as axioms.
The theory of descriptions is the philosopher Bertrand Russell's most significant contribution to the philosophy of language.
Written by the Dutch philosopher Baruch Spinoza, the Tractatus Theologico-Politicus (TTP) or Theologico-Political Treatise was one of the most controversial texts of the early modern period.
In philosophy, transcendence conveys the basic ground concept from the word's literal meaning (from Latin), of climbing or going beyond, albeit with varying connotations in its different historical and cultural stages.
In semantics and pragmatics, a truth condition is the condition under which a sentence is true.
In logic, a truth function is a function that accepts truth values as input and produces a truth value as output, i.e., the input and output are all truth values.
A truth table is a mathematical table used in logic—specifically in connection with Boolean algebra, boolean functions, and propositional calculus—which sets out the functional values of logical expressions on each of their functional arguments, that is, for each combination of values taken by their logical variables (Enderton, 2001).
The Vienna Circle (Wiener Kreis) of Logical Empiricism was a group of philosophers and scientists drawn from the natural and social sciences, logic and mathematics who met regularly from 1924 to 1936 at the University of Vienna, chaired by Moritz Schlick.
Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald (2 September 1853 – 4 April 1932) was a German chemist.
William Calvert Kneale (22 June 1906 – 24 June 1990) was an English logician best known for his 1962 book The Development of Logic, a history of logic from its beginnings in Ancient Greece written with his wife Martha.
Wittgenstein Tractatus is a 1992 film, made by the Hungarian filmmaker Peter Forgacs.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
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