138 relations: Abu Hanifa Dinawari, Africa, Aloe vera, Alternative medicine, Ancient Egyptian medicine, Ancient Iranian medicine, Apéritif and digestif, Arab Agricultural Revolution, Arabic, Aristotle, Asia, Aulus Cornelius Celsus, Avicenna, Ayurveda, Aztecs, Bedouin, Bernardino de Sahagún, Biomedicine, Bioprospecting, Bush medicine, Caribbean, Carolus Clusius, Catharine Beecher, Charaka, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Chicken soup, Chinese herbology, Clinical trial, Codex, Congee, Convention on Biological Diversity, Cookbook, Cupping therapy, De Materia Medica, De Medicina, Disease, Duct tape, Dutch language, Ebers Papyrus, Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, English language, Ethnobotany, Ethnography, Ethnomedicine, Fin, Folk healer, Francisco Hernández de Toledo, Francisco Ximénez, Galen, Georgian folk medicine, ..., Habituation, Han dynasty, Healing, Health, Hebrew language, Henry Lyte (botanist), Herbalism, Hieronymus Bock, Hippocrates, Ibn al-Baitar, Ifá, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigestion, Infection, Influenza, Internet, Iranian traditional medicine, Jaipur, John Gerard, Juan Badiano, Juan de Esteyneffer, Kampo, Kashrut, Kogel mogel, Latin, Latin translations of the 12th century, Leech, Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis, List of liqueurs, Maimonides, Medical anthropology, Medicinal chemistry, Medicine, Medicine in the medieval Islamic world, Mexico, Midwifery, Moisturizer, Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, Muti, Nahuatl, National Informatics Centre, Natural History (Pliny), Old Testament, Old wives' tale, Oral tradition, Pedanius Dioscorides, Pharmacopoeia, Philip II of Spain, Physiology, Phytochemical, Pilgrims (Plymouth Colony), Placebo, Plantar wart, Pliny the Elder, Primary healthcare, Pseudo-Apuleius, Pythagoreanism, Quackery, Rembert Dodoens, Respiratory system, Routledge, Science (journal), Shamanism, Shark, Shennong, Siddha medicine, Slow loris, Spanish National Research Council, Sumer, Sushruta, Tang dynasty, The Canon of Medicine, The Economist, Theophrastus, Tradition, Traditional African medicine, Traditional Chinese medicine, Traditional knowledge, Traditional Korean medicine, Turkish language, United States, University of Arizona Press, Uyghurs, West Indies, World Health Organization, Yaoxing Lun, Yunani medicine, 20th century. Expand index (88 more) » « Shrink index
Ābu Ḥanīfah Āḥmad ibn Dawūd Dīnawarī (815–896 CE, أبو حنيفة الدينوري) was an Islamic Golden Age polymath, astronomer, agriculturist, botanist, metallurgist, geographer, mathematician, and historian.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Aloe vera is a succulent plant species of the genus Aloe.
Alternative medicine, fringe medicine, pseudomedicine or simply questionable medicine is the use and promotion of practices which are unproven, disproven, impossible to prove, or excessively harmful in relation to their effect — in the attempt to achieve the healing effects of medicine.--> --> --> They differ from experimental medicine in that the latter employs responsible investigation, and accepts results that show it to be ineffective. The scientific consensus is that alternative therapies either do not, or cannot, work. In some cases laws of nature are violated by their basic claims; in some the treatment is so much worse that its use is unethical. Alternative practices, products, and therapies range from only ineffective to having known harmful and toxic effects.--> Alternative therapies may be credited for perceived improvement through placebo effects, decreased use or effect of medical treatment (and therefore either decreased side effects; or nocebo effects towards standard treatment),--> or the natural course of the condition or disease. Alternative treatment is not the same as experimental treatment or traditional medicine, although both can be misused in ways that are alternative. Alternative or complementary medicine is dangerous because it may discourage people from getting the best possible treatment, and may lead to a false understanding of the body and of science.-->---> Alternative medicine is used by a significant number of people, though its popularity is often overstated.--> Large amounts of funding go to testing alternative medicine, with more than US$2.5 billion spent by the United States government alone.--> Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment,--> and most studies showing any effect have been statistical flukes. Alternative medicine is a highly profitable industry, with a strong lobby. This fact is often overlooked by media or intentionally kept hidden, with alternative practice being portrayed positively when compared to "big pharma". --> The lobby has successfully pushed for alternative therapies to be subject to far less regulation than conventional medicine.--> Alternative therapies may even be allowed to promote use when there is demonstrably no effect, only a tradition of use. Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine and health care providers varies between and within countries. Despite laws making it illegal to market or promote alternative therapies for use in cancer treatment, many practitioners promote them.--> Alternative medicine is criticized for taking advantage of the weakest members of society.--! Terminology has shifted over time, reflecting the preferred branding of practitioners.. Science Based Medicine--> For example, the United States National Institutes of Health department studying alternative medicine, currently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, was established as the Office of Alternative Medicine and was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine before obtaining its current name. Therapies are often framed as "natural" or "holistic", in apparent opposition to conventional medicine which is "artificial" and "narrow in scope", statements which are intentionally misleading. --> When used together with functional medical treatment, alternative therapies do not "complement" (improve the effect of, or mitigate the side effects of) treatment.--> Significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively impact functional treatment, making it less effective, notably in cancer.--> Alternative diagnoses and treatments are not part of medicine, or of science-based curricula in medical schools, nor are they used in any practice based on scientific knowledge or experience.--> Alternative therapies are often based on religious belief, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural energies, pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, or lies.--> Alternative medicine is based on misleading statements, quackery, pseudoscience, antiscience, fraud, and poor scientific methodology. Promoting alternative medicine has been called dangerous and unethical.--> Testing alternative medicine that has no scientific basis has been called a waste of scarce research resources.--> Critics state that "there is really no such thing as alternative medicine, just medicine that works and medicine that doesn't",--> that the very idea of "alternative" treatments is paradoxical, as any treatment proven to work is by definition "medicine".-->.
The medicine of the ancient Egyptians is some of the oldest documented.
The practice and study of medicine in Persia has a long and prolific history.
Apéritifs and digestifs are drinks, typically alcoholic, that are normally served before (apéritif) or after (digestif) a meal.
The Arab Agricultural Revolution is the transformation in agriculture from the 8th to the 13th century in the Islamic region of the Old World.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Aulus Cornelius Celsus (25 BC 50 AD) was a Roman encyclopaedist, known for his extant medical work, De Medicina, which is believed to be the only surviving section of a much larger encyclopedia.
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
Ayurveda is a system of medicine with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent.
The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.
The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.
Bernardino de Sahagún (c. 1499 – October 23, 1590) was a Franciscan friar, missionary priest and pioneering ethnographer who participated in the Catholic evangelization of colonial New Spain (now Mexico).
Biomedicine (i.e. medical biology) is a branch of medical science that applies biological and physiological principles to clinical practice.
Bioprospecting is the process of discovery and commercialization of new products based on biological resources.
Bush medicine, also called traditional medicine, is the sum of the total knowledge, skills and practices based on the theories, beliefs and experiences indigenous to different cultures, whether explicable or not, used in the maintenance of health as well as in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illness.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
Charles de l'Écluse, L'Escluse, or Carolus Clusius (Arras, February 19, 1526 – Leiden, April 4, 1609), seigneur de Watènes, was an Artois doctor and pioneering botanist, perhaps the most influential of all 16th-century scientific horticulturists.
Catharine Esther Beecher (September 6, 1800 – May 12, 1878) was an American educator known for her forthright opinions on female education as well as her vehement support of the many benefits of the incorporation of kindergarten into children's education.
Charaka (चरक) (~6th – 2nd century BCE) was one of the principal contributors to Ayurveda, a system of medicine and lifestyle developed in Ancient India.
Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.
Chicken soup is a soup made from chicken, simmered in water, usually with various other ingredients.
Chinese herbology is the theory of traditional Chinese herbal therapy, which accounts for the majority of treatments in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.
A codex (from the Latin caudex for "trunk of a tree" or block of wood, book), plural codices, is a book constructed of a number of sheets of paper, vellum, papyrus, or similar materials.
Congee or conjee is a type of rice porridge or gruel popular in many Asian countries, especially East Asia.
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), known informally as the Biodiversity Convention, is a multilateral treaty.
A cookbook or cookery book is a kitchen reference containing recipes.
Cupping therapy is a form of alternative medicine in which a local suction is created on the skin.
De Materia Medica (Latin name for the Greek work Περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς, Peri hulēs iatrikēs, both meaning "On Medical Material") is a pharmacopoeia of herbs and the medicines that can be obtained from them.
De Medicina is a 1st-century medical treatise by Aulus Cornelius Celsus, a Roman encyclopedist and possibly (but not likely) a practicing physician.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Duct tape, also referred to as duck tape, is cloth- or scrim-backed pressure-sensitive tape, often coated with polyethylene.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
The Ebers Papyrus, also known as Papyrus Ebers, is an Egyptian medical papyrus of herbal knowledge dating to circa 1550 BC.
The Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science is a three-volume encyclopedia covering the history of Arabic contributions to science, mathematics and technology which had a marked influence on the Middle Ages in Europe.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Ethnobotany is the study of a region's plants and their practical uses through the traditional knowledge of a local culture and people.
Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures.
Ethnomedicine is a study or comparison of the traditional medicine practiced by various ethnic groups, and especially by indigenous peoples.
A fin is a thin component or appendage attached to a larger body or structure.
A folk healer is an unlicensed person who practices the art of healing using traditional practices, herbal remedies and even the power of suggestion.
Francisco Hernández de Toledo (1514 in La Puebla de Montalbán, Toledo – 28 January 1587 in Madrid) was a naturalist and court physician to the King of Spain.
Francísco Ximénez (November 28, 1666 – c.1729) was a Dominican priest who is known for his conservation of an indigenous Maya narrative known today as Popol Vuh.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
Georgian folk medicine (or Georgian traditional medicine) originated at the crossroads of the East and West and therefore integrates the principles of both medical traditions.
Habituation is a form of learning in which an organism decreases or ceases its responses to a stimulus after repeated or prolonged presentations.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Healing (literally meaning to make whole) is the process of the restoration of health from an unbalanced, diseased or damaged organism.
Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.
Henry Lyte (1529? – 16 October 1607) was an English botanist and antiquary.
Herbalism (also herbal medicine or phytotherapy) is the study of botany and use of plants intended for medicinal purposes or for supplementing a diet.
Hieronymus Bock (Latinised Tragus) (1498 – February 21, 1554) was a German botanist, physician, and Lutheran minister who began the transition from medieval botany to the modern scientific worldview by arranging plants by their relation or resemblance.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
Ḍiyāʾ Al-Dīn Abū Muḥammad ʿAbdllāh Ibn Aḥmad al-Mālaqī, commonly known as Ibn al-Bayṭār (1197–1248 AD) was an Andalusian Arab pharmacist, botanist, physician and scientist.
Ifá is a religion and system of divination and refers to the verses of the literary corpus known as the Odu Ifá.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Indigestion, also known as dyspepsia, is a condition of impaired digestion.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
Iranian traditional medicine (ITM), also known as Persian traditional medicine, Iranian-Islamic traditional medicine (IITM), traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), or simply traditional medicine (Persian: طب سنتی ایرانی tebbe sonnati irāni) is one of famous and most ancient forms of traditional medicines.
Jaipur is the capital and the largest city of the Indian state of Rajasthan in Northern India.
John Gerard (also John Gerarde, c. 1545–1612) was an English botanist with a large herbal garden in London.
Juan Badiano (1484-after 1552) was the translator of Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis ca.
Juan de Esteyneffer (March 4, 1664 – 1716) was a Moravian German lay Jesuit missionary sent to the New World.
, often known simply as, is the study of traditional Chinese medicine in Japan following its introduction, beginning in the 7th century.
Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus) is a set of Jewish religious dietary laws.
Kogel mogel, gogl-mogl, gogel-mogel, gogol-mogol (Гоголь-моголь), gogli-mogli, or gogle-mogle (גאָגל-מאָגל) is an egg-based homemade dessert popular in Central and Eastern Europe, as well as in Caucasus.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin translations of the 12th century were spurred by a major search by European scholars for new learning unavailable in western Europe at the time; their search led them to areas of southern Europe, particularly in central Spain and Sicily, which recently had come under Christian rule following their reconquest in the late 11th century.
Leeches are segmented parasitic or predatory worm-like animals that belong to the phylum Annelida and comprise the subclass Hirudinea.
The Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis (Latin for "Little Book of the Medicinal Herbs of the Indians") is an Aztec herbal manuscript, describing the medicinal properties of various plants used by the Aztecs.
Liqueurs are alcoholic beverages that are bottled with added sugar and have added flavors that are usually derived from fruits, herbs, or nuts.
Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.
Medical anthropology studies "human health and disease, health care systems, and biocultural adaptation".
Medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry are disciplines at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for market of pharmaceutical agents, or bio-active molecules (drugs).
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine is the science of medicine developed in the Islamic Golden Age, and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of Islamic civilization.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Midwifery is the health science and health profession that deals with pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period (including care of the newborn), in addition to the sexual and reproductive health of women throughout their lives.
Moisturizers or emollients are complex mixtures of chemical agents (often occlusives help hold water in the skin after application, humectants attract moisture and emollients help smooth the skin.) specially designed to make the external layers of the skin (epidermis) softer and more pliable.
Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyyā al-Rāzī (Abūbakr Mohammad-e Zakariyyā-ye Rāzī, also known by his Latinized name Rhazes or Rasis) (854–925 CE), was a Persian polymath, physician, alchemist, philosopher, and important figure in the history of medicine.
Muti is a term for traditional medicine in Southern Africa as far north as Lake Tanganyika.
Nahuatl (The Classical Nahuatl word nāhuatl (noun stem nāhua, + absolutive -tl) is thought to mean "a good, clear sound" This language name has several spellings, among them náhuatl (the standard spelling in the Spanish language),() Naoatl, Nauatl, Nahuatl, Nawatl. In a back formation from the name of the language, the ethnic group of Nahuatl speakers are called Nahua.), known historically as Aztec, is a language or group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family.
The National Informatics Centre (NIC) (Rashtriya Suchna Vigyan Kendra) is the premier science & technology organisation of Government of India in informatics services and information and communication technology (ICT) applications.
The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
Old wives' tale is a term used to indicate that a supposed truth is actually spurious or a superstition.
Oral tradition, or oral lore, is a form of human communication where in knowledge, art, ideas and cultural material is received, preserved and transmitted orally from one generation to another.
Pedanius Dioscorides (Πεδάνιος Διοσκουρίδης, Pedianos Dioskorides; 40 – 90 AD) was a Greek physician, pharmacologist, botanist, and author of De Materia Medica (Περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς, On Medical Material) —a 5-volume Greek encyclopedia about herbal medicine and related medicinal substances (a pharmacopeia), that was widely read for more than 1,500 years.
A pharmacopoeia, pharmacopeia, or pharmacopoea (literally, “drug-making”), in its modern technical sense, is a book containing directions for the identification of compound medicines, and published by the authority of a government or a medical or pharmaceutical society.
Philip II (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–58).
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Phytochemicals are chemical compounds produced by plants, generally to help them thrive or thwart competitors, predators, or pathogens.
The Pilgrims or Pilgrim Fathers were early European settlers of the Plymouth Colony in present-day Plymouth, Massachusetts, United States.
A placebo is a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value.
A plantar wart is a wart occurring on the bottom of the foot or toes.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Primary healthcare (PHC) refers to "essential health care" that is based on "scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology, which make universal health care accessible to all individuals and families in a community.
Pseudo-Apuleius is the name given to the author of a 4th-century herbal known as Pseudo-Apuleius Herbarius or Herbarium Apuleii Platonici.
Pythagoreanism originated in the 6th century BC, based on the teachings and beliefs held by Pythagoras and his followers, the Pythagoreans, who were considerably influenced by mathematics and mysticism.
Quackery or health fraud is the promotion of fraudulent or ignorant medical practices.
Rembert Dodoens (born Rembert Van Joenckema, 29 June 1517 – 10 March 1585) was a Flemish physician and botanist, also known under his Latinized name Rembertus Dodonaeus.
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.
Sharks are a group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head.
Shennong (which can be variously translated as "God Farmer" or "God Peasant", "Agriculture God"), also known as the Wugushen (五穀神 "Five Grains' or Five Cereals' God") or also Wuguxiandi (五穀先帝 "First Deity of the Five Grains"), is a deity in Chinese religion, a mythical sage ruler of prehistoric China.
Siddha medicine is a system of traditional medicine originating in ancient Tamilakam (Tamil Nadu) in South India.
Slow lorises are a group of several species of nocturnal strepsirrhine primates that make up the genus Nycticebus.
The Spanish National Research Council (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, CSIC) is the largest public institution dedicated to research in Spain and the third largest in Europe.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
Sushruta, or Suśruta (Sanskrit: सुश्रुत, lit. "well heard") was an ancient Indian physician during 1500 BCE to 1000 BCE, known as the main author of the treatise The Compendium of Suśruta (Sanskrit: ''Suśruta-saṃhitā'').
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
The Canon of Medicine (القانون في الطب al-Qānūn fī al-Ṭibb) is an encyclopedia of medicine in five books compiled by Persian philosopher Avicenna (Ibn Sina) and completed in 1025.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
Theophrastus (Θεόφραστος Theόphrastos; c. 371 – c. 287 BC), a Greek native of Eresos in Lesbos,Gavin Hardy and Laurence Totelin, Ancient Botany, 2015, p. 8.
A tradition is a belief or behavior passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past.
Traditional African medicine is an alternative medicine discipline involving indigenous herbalism and African spirituality, typically involving diviners, midwives, and herbalists.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a style of traditional medicine built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy, but recently also influenced by modern Western medicine.
The terms traditional knowledge, indigenous knowledge and local knowledge generally refer to knowledge systems embedded in the cultural traditions of regional, indigenous, or local communities.
Traditional Korean medicine (Hangul: 한의학(Hanuihak), Hanja: 韓醫學) or (Hangul: 향약 (Hyangyak), Hanja: 鄕藥) refers to the traditional medicine practices that originated and developed in Korea.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Arizona Press, a publishing house founded in 1959 as a department of the University of Arizona, is a nonprofit publisher of scholarly and regional books.
The Uyghurs or Uygurs (as the standard romanisation in Chinese GB 3304-1991) are a Turkic ethnic group who live in East and Central Asia.
The West Indies or the Caribbean Basin is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean in the Caribbean that includes the island countries and surrounding waters of three major archipelagoes: the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Yaoxing Lun (Yao-hsing Lun), literally Treatise on the Nature of Medicinal Herbs, is a 7th-century Tang Dynasty Chinese treatise on herbal medicine.
"Yunani" or "Unani medicine" (Urdu: طب یونانی tibb yūnānī) is the term for Perso-Arabic traditional medicine as practiced in Mughal India and in Muslim culture in South Asia and modern day Central Asia.
The 20th century was a century that began on January 1, 1901 and ended on December 31, 2000.
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