131 relations: Air traffic control, All-way stop, Arabic, Arc de Triomphe, Atlantic Ocean, Australian Road Rules, Autobahn, Automotive lighting, Bicycle, Bicycle safety, Bicycle-friendly, Boom barrier, Boris Kerner, Boulevard rule, Braess's paradox, Brazil, Catalan language, Colorado, Continental Europe, Contraflow lane reversal, Controlled-access highway, Criminal law, Croatia, Cross-sea traffic ways, Driving, Driving etiquette, Dual carriageway, Emergency service, Expressways of China, Federal Highway Administration, Firefighting apparatus, Floating car data, Grade separation, Green wave, Gridlock, Guilt (law), High-occupancy vehicle lane, Housing estate, Induced demand, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Integration of traffic data with navigation systems, Intelligent transportation system, Interchange (road), International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, Intersection (road), Interstate Highway System, Intuition, Jaywalking, Journal of Transport and Land Use, Junction (traffic), ..., Kerner's breakdown minimization principle, Lane, Lane splitting, Last clear chance, Left- and right-hand traffic, Level of service, Limited-access road, Lincoln Tunnel, Line source, Louisiana, Manila, Massachusetts, Mathematical physics, Mexico City, Mobile Infrared Transmitter, Moped, Motor vehicle, Moveable bridge, Netherlands, Network traffic, New Zealand Road Code, One-way traffic, Overtaking, Parallel (geometry), Pedestrian, Pedestrian crossing, Place Charles de Gaulle, Priority to the right, Protected intersection, Public transport, Punishment, Queueing theory, Radar, Road, Road debris, Road rage, Road surface marking, Road traffic control, Road traffic control device, Road traffic safety, Road transport, Roadworks, Rodovia Anchieta, Rodovia dos Imigrantes, Roundabout, Rules of the road in China, Rush hour, São Paulo, Social norm, South Carolina, Speed limit, Stochastic process, Stop sign, Taipei, The Highway Code, The New Zealand Herald, Three-phase traffic theory, Tom Vanderbilt, Traffic, Traffic circle, Traffic code, Traffic collision, Traffic congestion, Traffic congestion reconstruction with Kerner's three-phase theory, Traffic engineering (transportation), Traffic flow, Traffic light, Traffic psychology, Traffic sign, Traffic wave, Trafficability, Tram, Transport Research Laboratory, Transportation forecasting, Tunnel, Turnpike, Uniform Vehicle Code, Vehicle registration plate, Vienna Convention on Road Signs and Signals, Vienna Convention on Road Traffic, Vulgar Latin. Expand index (81 more) » « Shrink index
Air traffic control (ATC) is a service provided by ground-based air traffic controllers who direct aircraft on the ground and through controlled airspace, and can provide advisory services to aircraft in non-controlled airspace.
An all-way stop (or four-way stop when there are four approaches to the intersection) is an intersection system used predominantly in the United States of America, SADC, Liberia and Canada where traffic approaching it from all directions is required to stop before proceeding through the intersection.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile (Triumphal Arch of the Star) is one of the most famous monuments in Paris, standing at the western end of the Champs-Élysées at the center of Place Charles de Gaulle, formerly named Place de l'Étoile — the étoile or "star" of the juncture formed by its twelve radiating avenues.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
The Australian Road Rules are a set of model road rules developed by the National Road Transport Commission which form the basis for state and territory road rules across Australia.
The Autobahn (plural) is the federal controlled-access highway system in Germany.
The lighting system of a motor vehicle consists of lighting and signalling devices mounted or integrated to the front, rear, sides, and in some cases the top of a motor vehicle.
A bicycle, also called a cycle or bike, is a human-powered, pedal-driven, single-track vehicle, having two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other.
Bicycle safety is the use of road traffic safety practices to reduce risk associated with cycling.
Bicycle-friendly policies and practices help some people feel more comfortable about traveling by bicycle with other traffic.
A boom barrier, also known as a boom gate, is a bar, or pole pivoted to allow the boom to block vehicular access through a controlled point.
Boris S. Kerner (born 1947) is the pioneer of three phase traffic theory.
The boulevard rule is a principle in United States traffic law which states that the driver of a vehicle entering a highway from a smaller road or entrance (called the unfavored driver) must stop and yield the right of way to all oncoming highway traffic (the favored drivers).
Braess's paradox (often cited as Braess' paradox) is a proposed explanation for the situation where an alteration to a road network to improve traffic flow actually has the reverse effect and impedes traffic through it.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
Colorado is a state of the United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.
Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.
Contraflow lane reversal is the altering of the normal flow of traffic, typically on a controlled-access highway (such as a freeway or motorway), to either aid in an emergency evacuation (the most common usage of the term in the United States) or, as part of routine maintenance activities, to facilitate widening or reconstruction of one of the highway's carriageways (the most common usage in the United Kingdom).
A controlled-access highway is a type of highway which has been designed for high-speed vehicular traffic, with all traffic flow and ingress/egress regulated.
Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
Cross-sea traffic ways are vehicle or railroad traffic ways across the sea.
Driving is the controlled operation and movement of a motor vehicle, including cars, motorcycles, trucks, and buses.
Driving etiquette relates to the general courtesy rules which communities expect the operators of vehicles to follow while driving.
A dual carriageway (British English) or divided highway (American English) is a class of highway with carriageways for traffic travelling in opposite directions separated by a central reservation.
Emergency services and rescue services are organizations which ensure public safety and health by addressing different emergencies.
The expressway network of China, with the national-level expressway system officially known as the National Trunk Highway System (abbreviated as NTHS), is an integrated system of national and provincial-level expressways in China.
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a division of the United States Department of Transportation that specializes in highway transportation.
A firefighting apparatus describes any vehicle that has been customized for use during firefighting operations.
Floating car data (FCD), also known as floating cellular data, is a method to determine the traffic speed on the road network.
Grade separation is the name given to a method of aligning a junction of two or more surface transport axes at different heights (grades) so that they will not disrupt the traffic flow on other transit routes when they cross each other.
A green wave occurs when a series of traffic lights (usually three or more) are coordinated to allow continuous traffic flow over several intersections in one main direction.
Gridlock is a form of traffic congestion where "continuous queues of vehicles block an entire network of intersecting streets, bringing traffic in all directions to a complete standstill".
In criminal law, guilt is the state of being responsible for the commission of an offense.
A high-occupancy vehicle lane (also known as an HOV lane, carpool lane, diamond lane, 2+ lane, and transit lane or T2 or T3 lanes in Australia and New Zealand) is a restricted traffic lane reserved at peak travel times or longer for the exclusive use of vehicles with a driver and one or more passengers, including carpools, vanpools, and transit buses.
A housing estate (or sometimes housing complex) is a group of homes and other buildings built together as a single development.
Induced demand, or latent demand, is the phenomenon that after supply increases, more of a good is consumed.
The Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) is an international educational and scientific association of transportation professionals who are responsible for meeting mobility and safety needs.
Integration of traffic data with navigation systems enables navigation systems to use traffic and other related data to optimise routing and travel times by taking into account traffic conditions and other disruptions to traffic flows.
An intelligent transportation system (ITS) is an advanced application which, without embodying intelligence as such, aims to provide innovative services relating to different modes of transport and traffic management and enable users to be better informed and make safer, more coordinated, and 'smarter' use of transport networks.
In the field of road transport, an interchange is a road junction that uses grade separation, and typically one or more ramps, to permit traffic on at least one highway to pass through the junction without interruption from any other crossing traffic stream.
The International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea 1972 (COLREGs) are published by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and set out, among other things, the "rules of the road" or navigation rules to be followed by ships and other vessels at sea to prevent collisions between two or more vessels.
An intersection is an at-grade junction where two or more roads meet or cross.
The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly known as the Interstate Highway System, is a network of controlled-access highways that forms part of the National Highway System in the United States.
Intuition is the ability to acquire knowledge without proof, evidence, or conscious reasoning, or without understanding how the knowledge was acquired.
Jaywalking occurs when a pedestrian walks in or crosses a roadway illegally.
The Journal of Transport and Land Use is an open access peer-reviewed academic journal covering the interaction of transport and land use that was established in 2008.
A junction, when discussed in the context of transport, is a location where traffic can change between different routes, directions, or sometimes modes, of travel.
Kerner’s breakdown minimization principle (BM principle) is a principle for the optimization of vehicular traffic networks introduced by Boris Kerner in 2011.
In the context of traffic control, a lane is part of a roadway (carriageway) that is designated for use by a single line of vehicles, to control and guide drivers and reduce traffic conflicts.
Lane splitting is riding a bicycle or motorcycle between lanes or rows of slow moving or stopped traffic moving in the same direction.
The last clear chance is a doctrine in the law of torts that is employed in contributory negligence jurisdictions.
The terms right-hand traffic (RHT) and left-hand traffic (LHT) refer to the practice, in bidirectional traffic situations, to keep to the right side or to the left side of the road, respectively.
Level of service (LOS) is a qualitative measure used to relate the quality of motor vehicle traffic service.
A limited-access road, known by various terms worldwide, including limited-access highway, dual-carriageway, expressway, and partial controlled access highway, is a highway or arterial road for high-speed traffic which has many or most characteristics of a controlled-access highway (freeway or motorway), including limited or no access to adjacent property, some degree of separation of opposing traffic flow, use of grade separated interchanges to some extent, prohibition of some modes of transport such as bicycles or horses, and very few or no intersecting cross-streets.
The Lincoln Tunnel is an approximately tunnel under the Hudson River, consisting of three vehicular tubes.
A line source, as opposed to a point source, area source, or volume source, is a source of air, noise, water contamination or electromagnetic radiation that emanates from a linear (one-dimensional) geometry.
Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Manila (Maynilà, or), officially the City of Manila (Lungsod ng Maynilà), is the capital of the Philippines and the most densely populated city proper in the world.
Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Mathematical physics refers to the development of mathematical methods for application to problems in physics.
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.
A Mobile Infrared Transmitter (MIRT) is an electronic traffic preemption device that city buses and emergency vehicles use to control the traffic control equipment for intersections they are approaching, in order to pass through the intersection as efficiently or safely as possible.
A moped is a small motorcycle, generally having a less stringent licensing requirement than motorcycles or automobiles because mopeds typically travel about the same speed as bicycles on public roads.
A motor vehicle is a self-propelled vehicle, commonly wheeled, that does not operate on rails, such as trains or trams and used for the transportation of passengers, or passengers and property.
A moveable bridge, or movable bridge, is a bridge that moves to allow passage for boats or barges.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Network traffic or data traffic is the amount of data moving across a network at a given point of time.
The New Zealand Road Code is the official road safety manual for New Zealand published by NZ Transport Agency.
One-way traffic (or uni-directional traffic) is traffic that moves in a single direction.
Overtaking or passing is the act of one vehicle going past another slower moving vehicle, travelling in the same direction, on a road.
In geometry, parallel lines are lines in a plane which do not meet; that is, two lines in a plane that do not intersect or touch each other at any point are said to be parallel.
A pedestrian is a person travelling on foot, whether walking or running.
A pedestrian crossing (British English) or crosswalk (American English) is a place designated for pedestrians to cross a road.
The Place Charles de Gaulle, historically known as the Place de l'Étoile, is a large road junction in Paris, France, the meeting point of twelve straight avenues (hence its historic name, which translates as "Square of the Star") including the Champs-Élysées.
Priority to the right is a right-of-way system, in which the driver of a vehicle is required to give way to vehicles approaching from the right at intersections.
A protected intersection is an at-grade road junction in which cyclists and pedestrians are separated from cars.
Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, or mass transit) is transport of passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public, typically managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, and that charge a posted fee for each trip.
A punishment is the imposition of an undesirable or unpleasant outcome upon a group or individual, meted out by an authority—in contexts ranging from child discipline to criminal law—as a response and deterrent to a particular action or behaviour that is deemed undesirable or unacceptable.
Queueing theory is the mathematical study of waiting lines, or queues.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places that has been paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or some form of conveyance, including a motor vehicle, cart, bicycle, or horse.
Road debris, a form of road hazard, is debris on or off a road.
Road rage is aggressive or angry behavior exhibited by a driver of a road vehicle, which includes rude and offensive gestures, verbal insults, physical threats or dangerous driving methods targeted toward another driver or a pedestrian in an effort to intimidate or release frustration.
Road surface marking is any kind of device or material that is used on a road surface in order to convey official information; they are commonly placed with road marking machines (or road marking equipment, pavement marking equipment).
Road traffic control involves directing vehicular and pedestrian traffic around a construction zone, accident or other road disruption, thus ensuring the safety of emergency response teams, construction workers and the general public.
Road traffic control devices are markers, signs and signal devices used to inform, guide and control traffic, including pedestrians, motor vehicle drivers and bicyclists.
Road traffic safety refers to the methods and measures used to prevent road users from being killed or seriously injured.
Road transport or road transportation is a type of transport by using roads.
Roadworks (called road work or road construction in the United States) occur when part of the road, or in rare cases, the entire road, has to be occupied for work relating to the road, most often in the case of road surface repairs.
Rodovia Anchieta (Anchieta Highway, official designation SP-150) is a highway connection between São Paulo and the Atlantic coast, the cities of Cubatão and Santos, in Brazil.
Rodovia dos Imigrantes (official designation SP‑160) is a highway in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.
A roundabout, also called a traffic circle, road circle, rotary, rotunda or island, is a type of circular intersection or junction in which road traffic flows almost continuously in one direction around a central island.
Traffic law in China is still in its nascent stage (see Road Traffic Safety Law of the People's Republic of China).
A rush hour (American English, British English) is a part of the day during which traffic congestion on roads and crowding on public transport is at its highest.
São Paulo is a municipality in the southeast region of Brazil.
From a sociological perspective, social norms are informal understandings that govern the behavior of members of a society.
South Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Road speed limits are used in most countries to set the maximum (or minimum in some cases) speed at which road vehicles may legally travel on particular stretches of road.
--> In probability theory and related fields, a stochastic or random process is a mathematical object usually defined as a collection of random variables.
A stop sign is a traffic sign to notify drivers that they must come to a complete stop and make sure no other cars are coming before proceeding.
Taipei, officially known as Taipei City, is the capital and a special municipality of Taiwan (officially known as the Republic of China, "ROC").
The Highway Code is a set of information, advice, guides and mandatory rules for all road users in the United Kingdom.
The New Zealand Herald is a daily newspaper published in Auckland, New Zealand, owned by New Zealand Media and Entertainment.
Three-phase traffic theory is a theory of traffic flow developed by Boris Kerner between 1996 and 2002.
Tom Vanderbilt (born 1968) is an American journalist, blogger, and author of the best-selling book, Traffic: Why We Drive the Way We Do (and What It Says About Us).
Traffic on roads consists of road users including pedestrians, ridden or herded animals, vehicles, streetcars, buses and other conveyances, either singly or together, while using the public way for purposes of travel.
A traffic circle is a type of intersection that directs both turning and through traffic onto a one-way circular roadway, usually built for the purposes of traffic calming or aesthetics.
Traffic code (also motor vehicle code) refers to the collection of local statutes, regulations, ordinances and rules that have been officially adopted in the United States to govern the orderly operation and interaction of motor vehicles, bicycles, pedestrians and others upon the public (and sometimes private) ways.
A traffic collision, also called a motor vehicle collision (MVC) among other terms, occurs when a vehicle collides with another vehicle, pedestrian, animal, road debris, or other stationary obstruction, such as a tree, pole or building.
Traffic congestion is a condition on transport networks that occurs as use increases, and is characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times, and increased vehicular queueing.
Vehicular traffic can be either free or congested.
Traffic engineering is a branch of civil engineering that uses engineering techniques to achieve the safe and efficient movement of people and goods on roadways.
In mathematics and civil engineering, traffic flow is the study of interactions between travellers (including pedestrians, cyclists, drivers, and their vehicles) and infrastructure (including highways, signage, and traffic control devices), with the aim of understanding and developing an optimal transport network with efficient movement of traffic and minimal traffic congestion problems.
Traffic lights, also known as traffic signals, traffic lamps, traffic semaphore, signal lights, stop lights, robots (in South Africa and most of Africa), and traffic control signals (in technical parlance), are signalling devices positioned at road intersections, pedestrian crossings, and other locations to control flows of traffic.
Traffic psychology is a discipline of psychology that studies the relationship between psychological processes and the behavior of road users.
Traffic signs or road signs are signs erected at the side of or above roads to give instructions or provide information to road users.
Traffic waves, also called stop waves, ghost jams, or traffic shocks, are traveling disturbances in the distribution of cars on a highway.
Trafficability is the ability of a given vehicle to traverse a specified terrain.
A tram (also tramcar; and in North America streetcar, trolley or trolley car) is a rail vehicle which runs on tramway tracks along public urban streets, and also sometimes on a segregated right of way.
TRL Limited, trading as TRL, and colloquially known as the Transport Research Laboratory, is a fully independent private company offering a transport consultancy and research service to the public and private sector.
Transportation forecasting is the attempt of estimating the number of vehicles or people that will use a specific transportation facility in the future.
A tunnel is an underground passageway, dug through the surrounding soil/earth/rock and enclosed except for entrance and exit, commonly at each end.
Turnpike may refer to.
The Uniform Vehicle Code (UVC) is a privately prepared set of United States traffic laws prepared by the National Committee on Uniform Traffic Laws and Ordinances, a private non-profit organization.
A vehicle registration plate, also known as a number plate (British English) or a license plate (American English), is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes.
The Convention on Road Signs and Signals, commonly known as the Vienna Convention on Road Signs and Signals, is a multilateral treaty designed to increase road safety and aid international road traffic by standardising the signing system for road traffic (road signs, traffic lights and road markings) in use internationally.
The Convention on Road Traffic, commonly known as the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic, is an international treaty designed to facilitate international road traffic and to increase road safety by establishing standard traffic rules among the contracting parties.
Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin (as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire.
Automobile traffic, Priority (right of way), Right of way (traffic), Right-of-way (traffic), Rights of way (traffic), Road traffic, The traffic, Traffic lanes, Traffic laws, Traffic right of way, Traffic rules, Traffick, Traffics.