26 relations: Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association, Axle, Beam axle, Car, Chassis, Citroën 2CV, Front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout, Front-wheel drive, Independent suspension, Landing gear, Lever, M422 Mighty Mite, MacPherson strut, Multi-link suspension, Oleo strut, Panhard rod, Parallel (geometry), Perpendicular, Renault 4, Renault 5, Suspension (vehicle), Swingarm, Taxiing, Twist-beam rear suspension, Weissach axle, Wheel.
The Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA) is a Frederick, Maryland-based American non-profit political organization that advocates for general aviation.
An axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear.
A beam axle, rigid axle or solid axle is a dependent suspension design, in which a set of wheels is connected laterally by a single beam or shaft.
A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.
A chassis (plural chassis) is the internal framework of an artificial object, which supports the object in its construction and use.
The Citroën 2CV ("deux chevaux" i.e. "deux chevaux-vapeur" (lit. "two steam horses", "two tax horsepower") is an air-cooled front-engine, front-wheel-drive economy car introduced at the 1948 Paris Mondial de l'Automobile and manufactured by Citroën for model years 1948–1990. Conceived by Citroën Vice-President Pierre Boulanger to help motorise the large number of farmers still using horses and carts in 1930s France, the 2CV has a combination of innovative engineering and utilitarian, straightforward metal bodywork — initially corrugated for added strength without added weight. The 2CV featured low cost; simplicity of overall maintenance; an easily serviced air-cooled engine (originally offering 9 hp); low fuel consumption; and an extremely long-travel suspension offering a soft ride and light off-road capability. Often called "an umbrella on wheels", the fixed-profile convertible bodywork featured a full-width, canvas, roll-back sunroof, which accommodated oversized loads and until 1955 reached almost to the car's rear bumper. Notably, Michelin introduced and first commercialized the radial tyre with the introduction of the 2CV. Manufactured in France between 1948 and 1988 (and in Portugal from 1988 to 1990), more than 3.8 million 2CVs were produced, along with over 1.2 million small 2CV-based delivery vans known as fourgonnettes. Citroën ultimately offered several mechanically identical variants including the Ami (over 1.8 million); the Dyane (over 1.4 million); the Acadiane (over 250,000); and the Mehari (over 140,000). In total, Citroën manufactured almost 9 million 2CVs and variants. The purchase price of the 2CV was low relative to its competition. In West Germany during the 1960s, for example, it cost about half as much as a Volkswagen Beetle. From the mid-1950s economy car competition had increased – internationally in the form of the 1957 Fiat 500 and 1955 Fiat 600, and 1959 Austin Mini. By 1952, Germany produced a price competitive car – the Messerschmitt KR175, followed in 1955 by the Isetta – these were microcars, not complete four-door cars like the 2CV. On the French home market, from 1961, the small Simca 1000 using licensed Fiat technology, and the larger Renault 4 hatchback had become available. The R4 was the biggest threat to the 2CV, eventually outselling it. A 1953 technical review in Autocar described "the extraordinary ingenuity of this design, which is undoubtedly the most original since the Model T Ford". In 2011, The Globe and Mail called it a "car like no other". The motoring writer L. J. K. Setright described the 2CV as "the most intelligent application of minimalism ever to succeed as a car", and a car of "remorseless rationality".
In automotive design, an FF, or front-engine, front-wheel-drive (FWD) layout places both the internal combustion engine and driven roadwheels at the front of the vehicle.
Front-wheel drive (FWD) is a form of engine and transmission layout used in motor vehicles, where the engine drives the front wheels only.
Independent suspension is a broad term for any automobile suspension system that allows each wheel on the same axle to move vertically (i.e. reacting to a bump in the road) independently of the others.
Landing gear is the undercarriage of an aircraft or spacecraft and may be used for either takeoff or landing.
A lever is a simple machine consisting of a beam or rigid rod pivoted at a fixed hinge, or fulcrum.
The M422 'Mighty Mite' is a lightweight ¼-ton 4x4 tactical truck, suitable for airlifting and manhandling.
The MacPherson strut is a type of automotive suspension system that uses the top of a telescopic damper as the upper steering pivot.
A multi-link suspension is a type of vehicle suspension design typically used in independent suspensions, using three or more lateral arms, and one or more longitudinal arms.
An oleo strut is a pneumatic air–oil hydraulic shock absorber used on the landing gear of most large aircraft and many smaller ones.
A Panhard rod (also called Panhard bar, track bar, or track rod) is a suspension link that provides lateral location of the axle.
In geometry, parallel lines are lines in a plane which do not meet; that is, two lines in a plane that do not intersect or touch each other at any point are said to be parallel.
In elementary geometry, the property of being perpendicular (perpendicularity) is the relationship between two lines which meet at a right angle (90 degrees).
The Renault 4, also known as the 4L (pronounced "Quatrelle"), is a hatchback economy car produced by the French automaker Renault between 1961 and 1994.
The Renault 5 is a supermini produced by French automaker Renault.
Suspension is the system of tires, tire air, springs, shock absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to its wheels and allows relative motion between the two.
A swingarm, or "swinging arm" (UK), originally known as a swing fork or pivoted fork, is the main component of the rear suspension of most modern motorcycles and ATVs.
Taxiing, also sometimes written "taxying", is the movement of an aircraft on the ground, under its own power, in contrast to towing or push-back where the aircraft is moved by a tug.
The twist-beam rear suspension (also torsion-beam axle or deformable torsion beam) is a type of automobile suspension based on a large H or C shaped member.
The Weissach axle (pronounced 'Vise-' as in 'advise' and '-ach' with guttural 'ch') is a special rear suspension arrangement devised for the Porsche 928.
A wheel is a circular component that is intended to rotate on an axle bearing.