94 relations: Albedo, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Amorphous carbon, Apparent magnitude, Apsis, Astronomical unit, Brown dwarf, Carbon, Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy, Centaur (minor planet), Classical Kuiper belt object, Clyde Tombaugh, Color index, Comet, Deep Ecliptic Survey, Detached object, Diameter, Dwarf planet, Dysnomia (moon), Earth mass, Ecliptic, Eris (dwarf planet), Ethane, Galactic tide, Giant planet, Gravity, Haumea, Icarus (journal), Infrared, International Astronomical Union, Invariable plane, Kuiper belt, List of trans-Neptunian objects, Makemake, Mars, Mesoplanet, Methane, Methanol, Micrometeorite, Micrometre, Minor planet, Minor Planet Center, Minor planet designation, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Nemesis (hypothetical star), Neptune, Neptune trojan, New Horizons, Observation arc, Occultation, ..., Oort cloud, Orbit, Organic compound, Perihelion and aphelion, Perturbation (astronomy), Phoebe (moon), Planet Nine, Planets beyond Neptune, Plutino, Pluto, Regolith, Resonant trans-Neptunian object, Scattered disc, Sednoid, Semi-major and semi-minor axes, Silicate, Small Solar System body, Solar System, Solar wind, Spitzer Space Telescope, Sun, The Astronomical Journal, The Astrophysical Journal, Tholin, Tisserand's parameter, Triton (moon), Tyche (hypothetical planet), V774104, Visible spectrum, Voyager 2, Wavelength, (385185) 1993 RO, 120347 Salacia, 15760 Albion, 20000 Varuna, 2060 Chiron, 28978 Ixion, 47171 Lempo, 50000 Quaoar, 5145 Pholus, 79360 Sila–Nunam, 7968 Elst–Pizarro, 90377 Sedna, 90482 Orcus. Expand index (44 more) » « Shrink index
Albedo (albedo, meaning "whiteness") is the measure of the diffuse reflection of solar radiation out of the total solar radiation received by an astronomical body (e.g. a planet like Earth).
The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, and supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity.
Amorphous carbon is free, reactive carbon that does not have any crystalline structure (also called diamond-like carbon).
The apparent magnitude of a celestial object is a number that is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth.
An apsis (ἁψίς; plural apsides, Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in the orbit of an object.
The astronomical unit (symbol: au, ua, or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun.
Brown dwarfs are substellar objects that occupy the mass range between the heaviest gas giant planets and the lightest stars, having masses between approximately 13 to 75–80 times that of Jupiter, or approximately to about.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy is a scientific journal covering the fields of astronomy and astrophysics.
Centaurs are small solar system bodies with a semi-major axis between those of the outer planets.
A classical Kuiper belt object, also called a cubewano ("QB1-o"), is a low-eccentricity Kuiper belt object (KBO) that orbits beyond Neptune and is not controlled by an orbital resonance with Neptune.
Clyde William Tombaugh (February 4, 1906January 17, 1997) was an American astronomer.
In astronomy, the color index is a simple numerical expression that determines the color of an object, which in the case of a star gives its temperature.
A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.
The Deep Ecliptic Survey (DES) is a project to find Kuiper belt objects (KBOs), using the facilities of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO).
Detached objects are a dynamical class of minor planets in the outer reaches of the Solar System and belong to the broader family of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs).
In geometry, a diameter of a circle is any straight line segment that passes through the center of the circle and whose endpoints lie on the circle.
A dwarf planet is a planetary-mass object that is neither a planet nor a natural satellite.
Dysnomia (Greek: Δυσνομία)—officially (136199) Eris I Dysnomia—is the only known moon of the dwarf planet Eris (the most massive known dwarf planet in the Solar System).
Earth mass (where ⊕ is the standard astronomical symbol for planet Earth) is the unit of mass equal to that of Earth.
The ecliptic is the circular path on the celestial sphere that the Sun follows over the course of a year; it is the basis of the ecliptic coordinate system.
Eris (minor-planet designation 136199 Eris) is the most massive and second-largest (by volume) dwarf planet in the known Solar System.
Ethane is an organic chemical compound with chemical formula.
A galactic tide is a tidal force experienced by objects subject to the gravitational field of a galaxy such as the Milky Way.
A giant planet is any massive planet.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
Haumea, minor-planet designation 136108 Haumea, is a dwarf planet located beyond Neptune's orbit.
Icarus is a scientific journal dedicated to the field of planetary science.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
The International Astronomical Union (IAU; Union astronomique internationale, UAI) is an international association of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy.
The invariable plane of a planetary system, also called Laplace's invariable plane, is the plane passing through its barycenter (center of mass) perpendicular to its angular momentum vector.
The Kuiper belt, occasionally called the Edgeworth–Kuiper belt, is a circumstellar disc in the outer Solar System, extending from the orbit of Neptune (at 30 AU) to approximately 50 AU from the Sun.
This is a list of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs), which are minor planets in the Solar System that orbit the Sun at a greater distance on average than Neptune, that is, their orbit has a semi-major axis greater than 30.1 astronomical units (AU).
Makemake (minor-planet designation 136472 Makemake) is a dwarf planet and perhaps the largest Kuiper belt object in the classical population, with a diameter approximately two thirds that of Pluto.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
Mesoplanets are planetary bodies with sizes smaller than Mercury but larger than Ceres.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).
A micrometeorite is essentially a micrometeoroid that has survived entry through Earth's atmosphere.
The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".
A minor planet is an astronomical object in direct orbit around the Sun (or more broadly, any star with a planetary system) that is neither a planet nor exclusively classified as a comet.
The Minor Planet Center (MPC) is the official worldwide organization in charge of collecting observational data for minor planets (such as asteroids and comets), calculating their orbits and publishing this information via the Minor Planet Circulars.
A formal minor planet designation is, in its final form, a number–name combination given to a minor planet (asteroid, centaur, trans-Neptunian object and dwarf planet but not comet).
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in astronomy and astrophysics.
Nemesis is a hypothetical red dwarf or brown dwarf, originally postulated in 1984 to be orbiting the Sun at a distance of about 95,000 AU (1.5 light-years), somewhat beyond the Oort cloud, to explain a perceived cycle of mass extinctions in the geological record, which seem to occur more often at intervals of 26 million years.
Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System.
Neptune trojans are bodies that orbit the Sun near one of the stable Lagrangian points of Neptune, similar to the trojans of other planets.
New Horizons is an interplanetary space probe that was launched as a part of NASA's New Frontiers program.
In observational astronomy, an observation arc (or arc length) is the time period between the first and most recent (last) observation, tracing the body's path.
An occultation is an event that occurs when one object is hidden by another object that passes between it and the observer.
The Oort cloud, named after the Dutch astronomer Jan Oort, sometimes called the Öpik–Oort cloud, is a theoretical cloud of predominantly icy planetesimals proposed to surround the Sun at distances ranging from.
In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
The perihelion of any orbit of a celestial body about the Sun is the point where the body comes nearest to the Sun.
In astronomy, perturbation is the complex motion of a massive body subject to forces other than the gravitational attraction of a single other massive body.
Phoebe (Greek: Φοίβη Phoíbē) is an irregular satellite of Saturn with a mean diameter of 213 km.
Planet Nine is a hypothetical planet in the outer region of the Solar System.
Following the discovery of the planet Neptune in 1846, there was considerable speculation that another planet might exist beyond its orbit.
In astronomy, the plutinos are a dynamical group of trans-Neptunian objects in the outermost region of the Solar System that orbit in 2:3 mean-motion resonance with Neptune.
Pluto (minor planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune.
Regolith is a layer of loose, heterogeneous superficial deposits covering solid rock.
In astronomy, a resonant trans-Neptunian object is a trans-Neptunian object (TNO) in mean-motion orbital resonance with Neptune.
The scattered disc (or scattered disk) is a distant circumstellar disc in the Solar System that is sparsely populated by icy small solar system bodies, and are a subset of the broader family of trans-Neptunian objects.
A sednoid is a trans-Neptunian object with a perihelion greater than and a semi-major axis greater than.
In geometry, the major axis of an ellipse is its longest diameter: a line segment that runs through the center and both foci, with ends at the widest points of the perimeter.
In chemistry, a silicate is any member of a family of anions consisting of silicon and oxygen, usually with the general formula, where 0 ≤ x Silicate anions are often large polymeric molecules with an extense variety of structures, including chains and rings (as in polymeric metasilicate), double chains (as in, and sheets (as in. In geology and astronomy, the term silicate is used to mean silicate minerals, ionic solids with silicate anions; as well as rock types that consist predominantly of such minerals. In that context, the term also includes the non-ionic compound silicon dioxide (silica, quartz), which would correspond to x.
A small Solar System body (SSSB) is an object in the Solar System that is neither a planet, nor a dwarf planet, nor a natural satellite.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the corona.
The Spitzer Space Telescope (SST), formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), is an infrared space telescope launched in 2003 and still operating as of 2018.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
The Astronomical Journal (often abbreviated AJ in scientific papers and references) is a peer-reviewed monthly scientific journal owned by the American Astronomical Society and currently published by IOP Publishing.
The Astrophysical Journal, often abbreviated ApJ (pronounced "ap jay") in references and speech, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astrophysics and astronomy, established in 1895 by American astronomers George Ellery Hale and James Edward Keeler.
Tholins (after the Greek θολός (tholós) "hazy" or "muddy"; from the ancient Greek word meaning "sepia ink") are a wide variety of organic compounds formed by solar ultraviolet irradiation or cosmic rays from simple carbon-containing compounds such as carbon dioxide, methane or ethane, often in combination with nitrogen.
Tisserand's parameter (or Tisserand's invariant) is a value calculated from several orbital elements (semi-major axis, orbital eccentricity and inclination) of a relatively small object and a larger "perturbing body".
Triton is the largest natural satellite of the planet Neptune, and the first Neptunian moon to be discovered.
Tyche is a hypothetical gas giant located in the Solar System's Oort cloud, first proposed in 1999 by astrophysicists John Matese, Patrick Whitman and Daniel Whitmire of the University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
V774104 is a trans-Neptunian object (TNO) with a radius roughly half that of Pluto or somewhat smaller.
The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
Voyager 2 is a space probe launched by NASA on August 20, 1977, to study the outer planets.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
(385185) 1993 RO is a plutino.
120347 Salacia, provisional designation, is a trans-Neptunian object in the Kuiper belt, approximately 850 kilometers in diameter and almost certainly a dwarf planet.
15760 Albion, provisional designation, was the first trans-Neptunian object to be discovered after Pluto and Charon.
20000 Varuna, provisional designation, is a large classical Kuiper belt object.
2060 Chiron, provisional designation, and also known as 95P/Chiron, is a minor planet in the outer Solar System, orbiting the Sun between Saturn and Uranus.
28978 Ixion, provisional designation, is a plutino (an object that has a 2:3 orbital resonance with Neptune).
47171 Lempo, provisional designation, is a trans-Neptunian object and trinary system from the Kuiper belt, located in the outermost regions of the Solar System.
50000 Quaoar, provisional designation, is a non-resonant trans-Neptunian object (cubewano) and possibly a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, located in the outermost region of the Solar System.
5145 Pholus (from Φόλος) provisional designation, is an eccentric centaur in the outer Solar System, approximately 180 kilometers in diameter, that crosses the orbit of both Saturn and Neptune.
79360 Sila–Nunam, provisional designation, is a double cold classical Kuiper belt object (cubewano) with components of almost equal size, orbiting beyond Neptune in the Solar System.
Comet Elst–Pizarro is a body that displays characteristics of both asteroids and comets, and is the prototype of main-belt comets.
90377 Sedna is a large minor planet in the outer reaches of the Solar System that was,, at a distance of about 86 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun, about three times as far as Neptune.
90482 Orcus, provisional designation, is a trans-Neptunian object from the Kuiper belt with a large moon, Vanth.
ETNO, Extreme trans Neptunian object, Extreme trans-Neptunian object, Extreme trans-Neptunian objects, Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud, Kuiper belt and Oort cloud, TNOs, Trans Neptunian Object, Trans Neptunian Objects, Trans Neptunian objects, Trans-Neptune object, Trans-Neptunian, Trans-Neptunian Object, Trans-Neptunian Objects, Trans-Neptunian objects, Trans-neptunian object, Trans-neptunian objects, TransNeptunian Object, Transneptunian object, Transneptunian objects.