130 relations: Abortive initiation, Activator (genetics), Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparallel (biochemistry), Apoptosis, Archaea, Archaeal transcription factor B, Bacteria, Bacterial transcription, Base pair, BRCA1, Cancer epigenetics, Cell (biology), Cell nucleus, Central dogma of molecular biology, ChIP-on-chip, Coactivator (genetics), Coding strand, Complementarity (molecular biology), Complementary DNA, CpG site, Cytoplasm, DNA, DNA methylation, DNA microarray, DNA replication, Enzyme, Euchromatin, Eukaryote, Eukaryotic transcription, Five prime untranslated region, Five-prime cap, François Jacob, Fungus, G-less cassette, Gene, Gene expression, Genetic code, Genetic hitchhiking, Genome, HeLa, Histone methylation, HIV, HIV/AIDS, Homology (biology), Hydrogen bond, In situ hybridization, In vitro, In vivo, ..., Integrase, Intrinsic termination, Intron, Jacques Monod, Messenger RNA, MicroRNA, MS2 tagging, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Non-coding RNA, Northern blot, Nuclear pore, Nuclear run-on, Nuclease protection assay, Nucleic acid, Nucleoside triphosphate, Nucleosome, Nucleotide, Okazaki fragments, Pathogenic bacteria, Peptide, Polyadenylation, Polynucleotide phosphorylase, Precursor mRNA, Primary transcript, Primer (molecular biology), Promoter (genetics), Protein, Regulation of gene expression, Regulation of transcription in cancer, Repressor, Reverse transcriptase, Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Rho factor, Ribonuclease H, Ribosomal RNA, Ribozyme, Rifampicin, RNA, RNA polymerase, RNA polymerase II, RNA splicing, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, RNA-Seq, Roger D. Kornberg, Run-off transcription, Sense (molecular biology), Sequence homology, Severo Ochoa, Sigma factor, Stem-loop, T cell, TATA-binding protein, Telomerase, Telomere, Three prime untranslated region, Thymine, Transcription (biology), Transcription bubble, Transcription factor, Transcription factor II A, Transcription factor II B, Transcription factor II D, Transcription factor II E, Transcription factor II F, Transcription factor II H, Transcription factories, Transcriptional bursting, Transcriptome, Transcriptomics technologies, Transfer RNA, Translation (biology), Upstream and downstream (DNA), Uracil, Viral replication, Virology, Virus, Walter Fiers, 2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol, 8-Hydroxyquinoline. Expand index (80 more) » « Shrink index
Abortive initiation, also known as abortive transcription, is an early process of genetic transcription in which RNA polymerase binds to a DNA promoter and enters into cycles of synthesis of short mRNA transcripts which are released before the transcription complex leaves the promoter.
A transcriptional activator is a protein (transcription factor) that increases gene transcription of a gene or set of genes.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
An antifungal medication, also known as an antimycotic medication, is a pharmaceutical fungicide or fungistatic used to treat and prevent mycosis such as athlete's foot, ringworm, candidiasis (thrush), serious systemic infections such as cryptococcal meningitis, and others.
In biochemistry, two biopolymers are antiparallel if they run parallel to each other but with opposite alignments.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
Archaeal transcription factor B (ATFB or TFB) (homologous to eukaryotic TFIIB, and more distantly to bacterial sigma factor) is a polypeptide important in archaeal transcription.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bacterial transcription is the process in which messenger RNA transcripts of genetic material in bacteria are produced, to be translated for the production of proteins.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
BRCA1 and BRCA1 are a human gene and its protein product, respectively.
Cancer epigenetics is the study of epigenetic modifications to the DNA of cancer cells that do not involve a change in the nucleotide sequence.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
The central dogma of molecular biology is an explanation of the flow of genetic information within a biological system.
ChIP-on-chip (also known as ChIP-chip) is a technology that combines chromatin immunoprecipitation ('ChIP') with DNA microarray ("chip").
A coactivator is a type of transcriptional coregulator that binds to an activator (a transcription factor) to increase the rate of transcription of a gene or set of genes.
When referring to DNA transcription, the coding strand is the DNA strand whose base sequence corresponds to the base sequence of the RNA transcript produced (although with thymine replaced by uracil).
In molecular biology, complementarity describes a relationship between two structures each following the lock-and-key principle.
In genetics, complementary DNA (cDNA) is DNA synthesized from a single stranded RNA (e.g., messenger RNA (mRNA) or microRNA) template in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme reverse transcriptase.
The CpG sites or CG sites are regions of DNA where a cytosine nucleotide is followed by a guanine nucleotide in the linear sequence of bases along its 5' → 3' direction.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule.
A DNA microarray (also commonly known as DNA chip or biochip) is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Euchromatin is a lightly packed form of chromatin (DNA, RNA, and protein) that is enriched in genes, and is often (but not always) under active transcription.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Eukaryotic transcription is the elaborate process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of RNA replica.
The 5′ untranslated region (5′ UTR) (also known as a leader sequence or leader RNA) is the region of an mRNA that is directly upstream from the initiation codon.
In molecular biology, the five-prime cap (5′ cap) is a specially altered nucleotide on the 5′ end of some primary transcripts such as precursor messenger RNA.
François Jacob (17 June 1920 – 19 April 2013) was a French biologist who, together with Jacques Monod, originated the idea that control of enzyme levels in all cells occurs through regulation of transcription.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
The G-less cassette transcription assay is a method used in molecular biology to determine promoter strength in vitro.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.
Genetic hitchhiking, also called genetic draft or the hitchhiking effect, is when an allele changes frequency not because it itself is under natural selection, but because it is near another gene that is undergoing a selective sweep and that is on the same DNA chain.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
HeLa (also Hela or hela) is a cell type in an immortal cell line used in scientific research.
Histone methylation is a process by which methyl groups are transferred to amino acids of histone proteins that make up nucleosomes, which the DNA double helix wraps around to form chromosomes.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
In situ hybridization (ISH) is a type of hybridization that uses a labeled complementary DNA, RNA or modified nucleic acids strand (i.e., probe) to localize a specific DNA or RNA sequence in a portion or section of tissue (in situ), or, if the tissue is small enough (e.g., plant seeds, Drosophila embryos), in the entire tissue (whole mount ISH), in cells, and in circulating tumor cells (CTCs).
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.
Retroviral integrase (IN) is an enzyme produced by a retrovirus (such as HIV) that enables its genetic material to be integrated into the DNA of the infected cell.
Intrinsic termination (also called Rho-independent termination) is a mechanism in prokaryotes that causes RNA transcription to stop and release the newly made RNA.
An intron is any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing during maturation of the final RNA product.
Jacques Lucien Monod (February 9, 1910 – May 31, 1976), a French biochemist, won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1965, sharing it with François Jacob and Andre Lwoff "for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis".
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.
A microRNA (abbreviated miRNA) is a small non-coding RNA molecule (containing about 22 nucleotides) found in plants, animals and some viruses, that functions in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression.
MS2 tagging is a technique based upon the natural interaction of the MS2 bacteriophage coat protein with a stem-loop structure from the phage genome, which is used for biochemical purification of RNA-protein complexes and partnered to GFP for detection of RNA in living cells.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is an RNA molecule that is not translated into a protein.
The northern blot, or RNA blot,Gilbert, S. F. (2000) Developmental Biology, 6th Ed.
Nuclear pore complexes are large protein complexes that span the nuclear envelope, which is the double membrane surrounding the eukaryotic cell nucleus.
A nuclear run-on assay is conducted to identify the genes that are being transcribed at a certain time point.
Nuclease protection assay is a laboratory technique used in biochemistry and genetics to identify individual RNA molecules in a heterogeneous RNA sample extracted from cells.
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.
A nucleoside triphosphate is a molecule containing a nitrogenous base bound to a 5-carbon sugar (either ribose or deoxyribose), with three phosphate groups bound to the sugar.
A nucleosome is a basic unit of DNA packaging in eukaryotes, consisting of a segment of DNA wound in sequence around eight histone protein cores.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
Okazaki fragments are short, newly synthesized DNA fragments that are formed on the lagging template strand during DNA replication.
Pathogenic bacteria are bacteria that can cause disease.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
Polyadenylation is the addition of a poly(A) tail to a messenger RNA.
Polynucleotide Phosphorylase (PNPase) is a bifunctional enzyme with a phosphorolytic 3' to 5' exoribonuclease activity and a 3'-terminal oligonucleotide polymerase activity.
Precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) is an immature single strand of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA).
A primary transcript is the single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) product synthesized by transcription of DNA, and processed to yield various mature RNA products such as mRNAs, tRNAs, and rRNAs.
A primer is a short strand of RNA or DNA (generally about 18-22 bases) that serves as a starting point for DNA synthesis.
In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Regulation of gene expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA), and is informally termed gene regulation.
Generally, in progression to cancer, hundreds of genes are silenced or activated.
In molecular genetics, a repressor is a DNA- or RNA-binding protein that inhibits the expression of one or more genes by binding to the operator or associated silencers.
A reverse transcriptase (RT) is an enzyme used to generate complementary DNA (cDNA) from an RNA template, a process termed reverse transcription.
Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), a variant of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), is a technique commonly used in molecular biology to detect RNA expression.
A ρ factor (Rho factor) is a prokaryotic protein involved in the termination of transcription.
Ribonuclease H (abbreviated RNase H or RNH) is a family of non-sequence-specific endonuclease enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of RNA in an RNA/DNA substrate via a hydrolytic mechanism.
Ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) is the RNA component of the ribosome, and is essential for protein synthesis in all living organisms.
Ribozymes (ribonucleic acid enzymes) are RNA molecules that are capable of catalyzing specific biochemical reactions, similar to the action of protein enzymes.
Rifampicin, also known as rifampin, is an antibiotic used to treat several types of bacterial infections, including tuberculosis, leprosy, and Legionnaire's disease.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
RNA polymerase (ribonucleic acid polymerase), both abbreviated RNAP or RNApol, official name DNA-directed RNA polymerase, is a member of a family of enzymes that are essential to life: they are found in all organisms (-species) and many viruses.
RNA polymerase II (RNAP II and Pol II) is a multiprotein complex.
In molecular biology, splicing is the editing of the nascent precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) transcript into a mature messenger RNA (mRNA).
RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP), (RDR), or RNA replicase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the replication of RNA from an RNA template.
RNA-Seq (RNA sequencing), also called whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing (WTSS), uses next-generation sequencing (NGS) to reveal the presence and quantity of RNA in a biological sample at a given moment.
Roger David Kornberg (born April 24, 1947) is an American biochemist and professor of structural biology at Stanford University School of Medicine.
A run-off transcription assay is an assay in molecular biology which is conducted in vitro to identify the position of the transcription start site (1 base pair upstream) of a specific promoter along with its accuracy and rate of in vitro transcription.
In molecular biology and genetics, the sense of nucleic acid molecules (often DNA or RNA) is the nature of their roles and their complementary molecules' nucleic acid units' roles in specifying amino acids.
Sequence homology is the biological homology between DNA, RNA, or protein sequences, defined in terms of shared ancestry in the evolutionary history of life.
Severo Ochoa de Albornoz (24 September 1905 – 1 November 1993) was a Spanish-American physician and biochemist, and joint winner of the 1959 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Arthur Kornberg.
A sigma factor (σ factor) is a protein needed only for initiation of transcription.
Stem-loop intramolecular base pairing is a pattern that can occur in single-stranded DNA or, more commonly, in RNA.
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
The TATA-binding protein (TBP) is a general transcription factor that binds specifically to a DNA sequence called the TATA box.
Telomerase, also called terminal transferase, is a ribonucleoprotein that adds a species-dependent telomere repeat sequence to the 3' end of telomeres.
A telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes.
In molecular genetics, the three prime untranslated region (3'-UTR) is the section of messenger RNA (mRNA) that immediately follows the translation termination codon.
---> Thymine (T, Thy) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
A transcription bubble is a molecular structure that occurs during the transcription of DNA when a limited portion of the DNA double strand is unwound and is about 11bp of DNA.
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
Transcription factor TFIIA is a nuclear protein involved in the RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription of DNA.
Transcription factor II B (TFIIB) is a general transcription factor that is involved in the formation of the RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex (PIC) and aids in stimulating transcription initiation.
Transcription factor II D (TFIID) is one of several general transcription factors that make up the RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex.
Transcription factor II E (TFIIE) is one of several general transcription factors that make up the RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex.
Transcription factor IIF (TFIIF) is one of several general transcription factors that make up the RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex.
Transcription factor II Human (Transcription Factor II H; TFIIH) is an important protein complex, having roles in transcription of various protein-coding genes and DNA nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathways.
In genetics, transcription factories describe the discrete sites where transcription occurs in the nucleus.
Transcriptional bursting, also known as transcriptional pulsing, is a fundamental property of genes in which transcription from DNA to RNA can occur in "bursts" or "pulses", which has been observed in diverse organisms, from bacteria to mammals.
The transcriptome is the set of all RNA molecules in one cell or a population of cells.
Transcriptomics technologies are the techniques used to study an organism’s transcriptome, the sum of all of its RNA transcripts.
A transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA and formerly referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins.
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.
In molecular biology and genetics, upstream and downstream both refer to relative positions of genetic code in DNA or RNA.
Uracil (U) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA that are represented by the letters A, G, C and U. The others are adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).
Viral replication is the formation of biological viruses during the infection process in the target host cells.
Virology is the study of viruses – submicroscopic, parasitic particles of genetic material contained in a protein coat – and virus-like agents.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Walter Fiers (born 1931 in Ypres, West Flanders) is a Belgian molecular biologist.
2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol is the organic compound with the formula CF3CH2OH.
8-Hydroxyquinoline is an organic compound with the formula C9H7NO.
DNA transcription, Dna Transcription, Dna transcription, Gene transcription, Genetic transcription, Initiation of transcription, MRNA biosynthesis (bacteria), MRNA biosynthesis (eukaryotes), MRNA transcription, RNA replication, RNA synthesis, RNA synthesis inhibitor, RNA transcription, Rna elongation, Template strand, Transcription (RNA), Transcription (genetics), Transcription inhibitor, Transcription initiation, Transcription start site, Transcription, genetic, Transcriptional, Transcriptional initiation, Transcriptional start sites.