33 relations: Acetosyringone, Agrobacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Amino acid, Arabidopsis thaliana, Auxin, Biotechnology, Chromosomal translocation, Cytokinin, Dicotyledon, DNA, Enzyme, Flavonol synthase, Fusion gene, Gene, Genetic engineering, Genetically modified crops, Genome, Glufosinate, Glutamine synthetase, Herbicide, Horizontal gene transfer, Hygromycin, Insertional mutagenesis, Macromolecule, Monocotyledon, Operon, Opine, Phosphinothricin acetyltransferase, Plant hormone, Reverse genetics, Ti plasmid, Transfer DNA binary system.
Acetosyringone is a phenolic natural product, and is a chemical compound related to acetophenone and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol.
Agrobacterium is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria established by H. J. Conn that uses horizontal gene transfer to cause tumors in plants.
Agrobacterium tumefaciens (updated scientific name Rhizobium radiobacter, synonym Agrobacterium radiobacter) is the causal agent of crown gall disease (the formation of tumours) in over 140 species of eudicots.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Arabidopsis thaliana, the thale cress, mouse-ear cress or arabidopsis, is a small flowering plant native to Eurasia and Africa.
Auxins (plural of auxin) are a class of plant hormones (or plant growth regulators) with some morphogen-like characteristics.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
In genetics, a chromosome translocation is a chromosome abnormality caused by rearrangement of parts between nonhomologous chromosomes.
Cytokinins (CK) are a class of plant growth substances (phytohormones) that promote cell division, or cytokinesis, in plant roots and shoots.
The dicotyledons, also known as dicots (or more rarely dicotyls), are one of the two groups into which all the flowering plants or angiosperms were formerly divided.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
In enzymology, a flavonol synthase is an enzyme that catalyzes the following chemical reaction: dihydroflavonol + 2-oxoglutarate + \rightleftharpoons a flavonol + succinate + C + H2O The 3 substrates of this enzyme are dihydroflavonol, 2-oxoglutarate, and O2, whereas its 4 products are flavonol, succinate, CO2, and H2O.
A fusion gene is a hybrid gene formed from two previously separate genes.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.
Genetically modified crops (GMCs, GM crops, or biotech crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering methods.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
Glufosinate (also known as phosphinothricin and often sold as an ammonium salt) is a naturally occurring broad-spectrum systemic herbicide produced by several species of Streptomyces soil bacteria.
Glutamine synthetase (GS) is an enzyme that plays an essential role in the metabolism of nitrogen by catalyzing the condensation of glutamate and ammonia to form glutamine: Glutamate + ATP + NH3 → Glutamine + ADP + phosphate Glutamine Synthetase uses ammonia produced by nitrate reduction, amino acid degradation, and photorespiration.
Herbicides, also commonly known as weedkillers, are chemical substances used to control unwanted plants.
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.
Hygromycin may refer to.
In molecular biology, insertional mutagenesis is the creation of mutations of DNA by the addition of one or more base pairs.
A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).
Monocotyledons, commonly referred to as monocots, (Lilianae sensu Chase & Reveal) are flowering plants (angiosperms) whose seeds typically contain only one embryonic leaf, or cotyledon.
In genetics, an operon is a functioning unit of DNA containing a cluster of genes under the control of a single promoter.
Opines are low molecular weight compounds found in plant crown gall tumors or hairy root tumors produced by parasitic bacteria of the genus Agrobacterium.
Phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT, PPT acetyltransferase, Pt-N-acetyltransferase, ac-Pt) is an enzyme with systematic name acetyl-CoA:phosphinothricin N-acetyltransferase.
Plant hormones (also known as phytohormones) are chemicals that regulate plant growth.
Reverse genetics is a method that is used to help understand the function of a gene by analyzing the phenotypic effects of specific engineered gene sequences.
A Ti or tumour inducing plasmid is a plasmid that often, but not always, is a part of the genetic equipment that Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes use to transduce their genetic material to plants.
A transfer DNA (T-DNA) binary system is a pair of plasmids consisting of a binary plasmid and a helper plasmid.