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Transfer RNA

Index Transfer RNA

A transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA and formerly referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins. [1]

98 relations: A-site, Aaron Klug, Adenine, Adenosine monophosphate, Adenosine triphosphate, Alexander Rich, Amino acid, Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase, Aminoacyl-tRNA, Aminoacylation, Antimicrobial resistance, Archaea, Base pair, Biomolecular structure, Biosignature, Caenorhabditis elegans, Cell nucleus, Chromosome, Cloverleaf model of tRNA, Complementarity (molecular biology), Cornell University, Cytoplasm, Cytosine, D arm, Deamidation, Dihydrouridine, Directionality (molecular biology), E-site, EEF-1, EF-Tu, Elongation factor, Endonuclease, Eukaryote, Francis Crick, Gene, Genetic code, Genetics, Genome, Glutamic acid, Glycine, Helicobacter pylori, HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee, Hydrogen bond, Inosine, Intron, Kim Sung-Hou, King's College London, Kissing stem-loop, Lysidine (nucleoside), MELAS syndrome, ..., Messenger RNA, Methylation, Mitochondrion, Molecule, Nanoarchaeum equitans, Nematode, Non-coding RNA, Nuclear export signal, Nucleic acid tertiary structure, Nucleotide, Nucleotidyltransferase, NUMT, P-site, Phosphate, Princeton University, Prokaryotic initiation factor-2, Protein, Pseudogene, Pseudouridine, Purine, Pyrimidine, Pyrophosphate, Ribonuclease P, Ribonuclease Z, Ribosome, Ribozyme, RNA, RNA polymerase III, RNA splicing, RNA world, Robert W. Holley, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Slippery sequence, T arm, Thymidine, Transcription (biology), Transfer RNA, Transfer RNA-like structures, Transfer-messenger RNA, Translation (biology), TRNA (guanine-N7-)-methyltransferase, TRNADB, United Kingdom, Uridine, Wobble base pair, X-ray crystallography, XPOT, Yeast. Expand index (48 more) »


The A-site (A for aminoacyl) of a ribosome is a binding site for charged t-RNA molecules during protein synthesis.

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Aaron Klug

Sir Aaron Klug (born 11 August 1926) is a Lithuanian-born, South African-educated, British chemist and biophysicist, and winner of the 1982 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes.

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Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).

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Adenosine monophosphate

Adenosine monophosphate (AMP), also known as 5'-adenylic acid, is a nucleotide.

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Adenosine triphosphate

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.

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Alexander Rich

Alexander Rich (November 15, 1924 – April 27, 2015) was an American biologist and biophysicist.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase

An aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS or ARS), also called tRNA-ligase, is an enzyme that attaches the appropriate amino acid onto its tRNA.

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Aminoacyl-tRNA (also aa-tRNA or charged tRNA) is tRNA to which its cognated amino acid is chemically bonded (charged).

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Aminoacylation is the process of adding an aminoacyl group to a compound.

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Antimicrobial resistance

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.

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Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.

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Base pair

A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.

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Biomolecular structure

Biomolecular structure is the intricate folded, three-dimensional shape that is formed by a molecule of protein, DNA, or RNA, and that is important to its function.

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A biosignature (sometimes called chemical fossil or molecular fossil) is any substance – such as an element, isotope, molecule, or phenomenon – that provides scientific evidence of past or present life.

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Caenorhabditis elegans

Caenorhabditis elegans is a free-living (not parasitic), transparent nematode (roundworm), about 1 mm in length, that lives in temperate soil environments.

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Cell nucleus

In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.

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Cloverleaf model of tRNA

The Cloverleaf model of tRNA is a model that depicts the molecular structure of tRNA.

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Complementarity (molecular biology)

In molecular biology, complementarity describes a relationship between two structures each following the lock-and-key principle.

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Cornell University

Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.

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In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.

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Cytosine (C) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).

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D arm

The D arm is a feature in the tertiary structure of transfer RNA (tRNA).

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Deamidation is a chemical reaction in which an amide functional group in the side chain of the amino acids asparagine or glutamine is removed or converted to another functional group.

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Dihydrouridine (abbreviated as D, DHU, or UH2) is a pyrimidine nucleoside which is the result of adding two hydrogen atoms to a uridine, making it a fully saturated pyrimidine ring with no remaining double bonds.

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Directionality (molecular biology)

Directionality, in molecular biology and biochemistry, is the end-to-end chemical orientation of a single strand of nucleic acid.

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The E-site is the third and final binding site for t-RNA in the ribosome during protein synthesis.

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eEF-1 is a eukaryotic elongation factor.

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EF-Tu (elongation factor thermo unstable) is a prokaryotic elongation factor responsible for catalyzing the binding of an aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA) to the ribosome.

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Elongation factor

Elongation factors are a set of proteins that are used in protein synthesis in the process of cell cycle and elongation in some cells.

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Endonucleases are enzymes that cleave the phosphodiester bond within a polynucleotide chain.

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Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).

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Francis Crick

Francis Harry Compton Crick (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004) was a British molecular biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist, most noted for being a co-discoverer of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953 with James Watson, work which was based partly on fundamental studies done by Rosalind Franklin, Raymond Gosling and Maurice Wilkins.

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In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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Genetic code

The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.

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Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.

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In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.

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Glutamic acid

Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.

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Glycine (symbol Gly or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain.

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Helicobacter pylori

Helicobacter pylori, previously known as Campylobacter pylori, is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium usually found in the stomach.

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HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee

The HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) is a committee of the Human Genome Organisation (HUGO) that sets the standards for human gene nomenclature.

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Hydrogen bond

A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.

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Inosine is a nucleoside that is formed when hypoxanthine is attached to a ribose ring (also known as a ribofuranose) via a β-N9-glycosidic bond.

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An intron is any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing during maturation of the final RNA product.

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Kim Sung-Hou

Kim Sung-Hou Ph.D. (born 1937) is a Korean-born American structural biologist and biophysicist.

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King's College London

King's College London (informally King's or KCL) is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, and a founding constituent college of the federal University of London.

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Kissing stem-loop

A kissing stem-loop, or kissing interaction, is formed in RNA when two bases between two hairpin loops pair.

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Lysidine (nucleoside)

Lysidine is an uncommon nucleoside, rarely seen outside of tRNA.

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MELAS syndrome

Mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) is one of the family of mitochondrial cytopathies, which also include MERRF, and Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy.

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Messenger RNA

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.

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In the chemical sciences, methylation denotes the addition of a methyl group on a substrate, or the substitution of an atom (or group) by a methyl group.

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The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.

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A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Nanoarchaeum equitans

Nanoarchaeum equitans is a species of marine Archaea that was discovered in 2002 in a hydrothermal vent off the coast of Iceland on the Kolbeinsey Ridge by Karl Stetter.

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The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).

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Non-coding RNA

A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is an RNA molecule that is not translated into a protein.

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Nuclear export signal

A nuclear export signal (NES) is a short amino acid sequence of 4 hydrophobic residues in a protein that targets it for export from the cell nucleus to the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore complex using nuclear transport.

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Nucleic acid tertiary structure

Nucleic acid tertiary structure is the three-dimensional shape of a nucleic acid polymer.

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Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.

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Nucleotidyltransferases are transferase enzymes of phosphorus-containing groups, e.g., substituents of nucleotidylic acids or simply nucleoside monophosphates.

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Numt is an abbreviated term for “nuclear mitochondrial DNA”, which describes any transfer or “transposition” of cytoplasmic mitochondrial DNA sequences into the separate nuclear genome of a eukaryotic organism.

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The P-site (for peptidyl) is the second binding site for tRNA in the ribosome.

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A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.

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Princeton University

Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.

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Prokaryotic initiation factor-2

Prokaryotic initiation factor-2 is a prokaryotic initiation factor.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Pseudogenes are segments of DNA that are related to real genes.

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Pseudouridine (abbreviated by the Greek letter psi- Ψ or the letter Q) is an isomer of the nucleoside uridine in which the uracil is attached via a carbon-carbon instead of a nitrogen-carbon glycosidic bond.

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A purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that consists of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.

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Pyrimidine is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound similar to pyridine.

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In chemistry, a pyrophosphate is a phosphorus oxyanion.

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Ribonuclease P

Ribonuclease P (RNase P) is a type of ribonuclease which cleaves RNA.

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Ribonuclease Z

TRNase Z (3 tRNase, tRNA 3 endonuclease, RNase Z, 3' tRNase) is an enzyme.

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The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).

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Ribozymes (ribonucleic acid enzymes) are RNA molecules that are capable of catalyzing specific biochemical reactions, similar to the action of protein enzymes.

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Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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RNA polymerase III

In eukaryote cells, RNA polymerase III (also called Pol III) transcribes DNA to synthesize ribosomal 5S rRNA, tRNA and other small RNAs.

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RNA splicing

In molecular biology, splicing is the editing of the nascent precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) transcript into a mature messenger RNA (mRNA).

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RNA world

The RNA world is a hypothetical stage in the evolutionary history of life on Earth, in which self-replicating RNA molecules proliferated before the evolution of DNA and proteins.

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Robert W. Holley

Robert William Holley (January 28, 1922 – February 11, 1993) was an American biochemist.

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of yeast.

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Slippery sequence

A slippery sequence is a small section of codon nucleotide sequences (usually UUUAAAC) that controls the rate of ribosomal frameshifting.

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T arm

The T-arm or T-loop is a specialized region on the tRNA molecule which acts as a special recognition site for the ribosome to form a tRNA-ribosome complex during protein biosynthesis or translation (biology).

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Thymidine (deoxythymidine; other names deoxyribosylthymine, thymine deoxyriboside) is a pyrimidine deoxynucleoside.

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Transcription (biology)

Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.

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Transfer RNA

A transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA and formerly referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins.

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Transfer RNA-like structures

Transfer RNA-like structures (tRNA-like structures) are RNA sequences, which have a similar tertiary structure to tRNA; they frequently contain a pseudoknot close to the 3' end.

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Transfer-messenger RNA

Transfer-messenger RNA (abbreviated tmRNA, also known as 10Sa RNA and by its genetic name SsrA) is a bacterial RNA molecule with dual tRNA-like and messenger RNA-like properties.

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Translation (biology)

In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.

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TRNA (guanine-N7-)-methyltransferase

In enzymology, a tRNA (guanine-N7-)-methyltransferase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are S-adenosyl methionine and tRNA, whereas its two products are S-adenosylhomocysteine and tRNA containing N7-methylguanine.

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tRNADB is a curated database of tRNA.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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Uridine is a glycosylated pyrimidine-analog containing uracil attached to a ribose ring (or more specifically, a ribofuranose) via a β-N1-glycosidic bond.

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Wobble base pair

A wobble base pair is a pairing between two nucleotides in RNA molecules that does not follow Watson-Crick base pair rules.

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X-ray crystallography

X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.

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Exportin-T is a protein that in humans is encoded by the XPOT gene.

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Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.

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Acceptor stem, Anti codon, Anti-codon, Anticodon, Anticodons, Nodoc, Rna, transfer, Soluble RNA, TRNA, TRNA gene, TRNAs, Transfer Rna, Transfer rna aminoacylation, Trna, Trna (transfer RNA).


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transfer_RNA

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