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Transformation (genetics)

Index Transformation (genetics)

In molecular biology, transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake and incorporation of exogenous genetic material from its surroundings through the cell membrane(s). [1]

105 relations: Agrobacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Alkali, Antimicrobial resistance, Arabidopsis thaliana, Auxotrophy, Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment, Bacillus subtilis, Bacterial conjugation, Bacteriophage, Beta-galactosidase, Biofilm, Biotechnology, Blue–white screen, Caesium, Calcium chloride, Calcium chloride transformation, Cancer, Cell (biology), Cell membrane, Colin Munro MacLeod, Complementation (genetics), Divalent, DNA ligase, DNA repair, Douglas Hanahan, Electric field, Electroporation, Escherichia coli, Evolution of sexual reproduction, Exogenous DNA, Exonuclease, Frederick Griffith, Gene gun, Genetic marker, Genetically modified mouse, Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, Green fluorescent protein, Haemophilus influenzae, Helicobacter pylori, Helper virus, Homologous recombination, Horizontal gene transfer, Introduction to genetics, Ion, John C. Sanford, Joshua Lederberg, Lac operon, Lambda phage, ..., Legionella pneumophila, Lipopolysaccharide, Lithium, Lithium acetate, Luciferase, Luciferin, Maclyn McCarty, Malignant transformation, Marker gene, Meiosis, Microinjection, Molecular biology, Molecular cloning, Multiple cloning site, Natural competence, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis, Origin of replication, Oswald Avery, Phospholipid, Pilin, Plant pathology, Plasmid, Polyethylene glycol, Proteobacteria, Pseudomonas stutzeri, PUC19, Ralstonia solanacearum, RecA, Reporter gene, Research, RNA, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Selectable marker, Spheroplast, Springer Science+Business Media, Stanley Norman Cohen, Staphylococcus aureus, Strain (biology), Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus sanguinis, Ti plasmid, Transduction (genetics), Transfection, Transformation efficiency, Translocase, Vector (molecular biology), Vibrio cholerae, Viral transformation, Vitamin B12, Volt, X-gal, Xylella fastidiosa, Yeast. Expand index (55 more) »


Agrobacterium is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria established by H. J. Conn that uses horizontal gene transfer to cause tumors in plants.

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Agrobacterium tumefaciens

Agrobacterium tumefaciens (updated scientific name Rhizobium radiobacter, synonym Agrobacterium radiobacter) is the causal agent of crown gall disease (the formation of tumours) in over 140 species of eudicots.

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In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.

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Antimicrobial resistance

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.

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Arabidopsis thaliana

Arabidopsis thaliana, the thale cress, mouse-ear cress or arabidopsis, is a small flowering plant native to Eurasia and Africa.

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Auxotrophy (αὐξάνω "to increase"; τροφή "nourishment") is the inability of an organism to synthesize a particular organic compound required for its growth (as defined by IUPAC).

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Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment

The Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment was an experimental demonstration, reported in 1944 by Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod, and Maclyn McCarty, that DNA is the substance that causes bacterial transformation, in an era when it had been widely believed that it was proteins that served the function of carrying genetic information (with the very word protein itself coined to indicate a belief that its function was primary).

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Bacillus subtilis

Bacillus subtilis, known also as the hay bacillus or grass bacillus, is a Gram-positive, catalase-positive bacterium, found in soil and the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants and humans.

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Bacterial conjugation

Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact or by a bridge-like connection between two cells.

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A bacteriophage, also known informally as a phage, is a virus that infects and replicates within Bacteria and Archaea.

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β-galactosidase, also called lactase, beta-gal or β-gal, is a glycoside hydrolase enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of β-galactosides into monosaccharides through the breaking of a glycosidic bond.

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A biofilm comprises any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface.

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Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).

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Blue–white screen

The blue–white screen is a screening technique that allows for the rapid and convenient detection of recombinant bacteria in vector-based molecular cloning experiments.

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Caesium (British spelling and IUPAC spelling) or cesium (American spelling) is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55.

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Calcium chloride

Calcium chloride is an inorganic compound, a salt with the chemical formula CaCl2.

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Calcium chloride transformation

Calcium chloride (CaCl2) transformation is a laboratory technique in prokaryotic (bacterial) cell biology.

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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cell membrane

The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).

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Colin Munro MacLeod

Colin Munro MacLeod (January 28, 1909 – February 11, 1972) was a Canadian-American geneticist.

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Complementation (genetics)

In genetics, complementation occurs when two strains of an organism with different homozygous recessive mutations that produce the same mutant phenotype (for example, a change in wing structure in flies) produce offspring with the wild-type phenotype when mated or crossed.

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In chemistry, a divalent (sometimes bivalent) element, ion, functional group, or molecule has a valence of two.

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DNA ligase

DNA ligase is a specific type of enzyme, a ligase, that facilitates the joining of DNA strands together by catalyzing the formation of a phosphodiester bond.

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DNA repair

DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.

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Douglas Hanahan

Douglas Hanahan (born 1951) is an American biologist, professor and director of the Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL).

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Electric field

An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.

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Electroporation, or electropermeabilization, is a microbiology technique in which an electrical field is applied to cells in order to increase the permeability of the cell membrane, allowing chemicals, drugs, or DNA to be introduced into the cell.

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Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).

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Evolution of sexual reproduction

The evolution of sexual reproduction describes how sexually reproducing animals, plants, fungi and protists evolved from a common ancestor that was a single celled eukaryotic species.

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Exogenous DNA

Exogenous DNA refers to any deoxyribonucleic acid that originates outside of the organism of concern or study.

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Exonucleases are enzymes that work by cleaving nucleotides one at a time from the end (exo) of a polynucleotide chain.

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Frederick Griffith

Frederick Griffith was a British bacteriologist whose focus was the epidemiology and pathology of bacterial pneumonia.

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Gene gun

A gene gun or a biolistic particle delivery system, originally designed for plant transformation, is a device for delivering exogenous DNA (transgenes) to cells.

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Genetic marker

A genetic marker is a gene or DNA sequence with a known location on a chromosome that can be used to identify individuals or species.

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Genetically modified mouse

A genetically modified mouse (Mus musculus) is a mouse that has had its genome altered through the use of genetic engineering techniques.

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Gram-negative bacteria

Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the gram-staining method of bacterial differentiation.

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Gram-positive bacteria

Gram-positive bacteria are bacteria that give a positive result in the Gram stain test, which is traditionally used to quickly classify bacteria into two broad categories according to their cell wall.

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Green fluorescent protein

The green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a protein composed of 238 amino acid residues (26.9 kDa) that exhibits bright green fluorescence when exposed to light in the blue to ultraviolet range.

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Haemophilus influenzae

Haemophilus influenzae (formerly called Pfeiffer's bacillus or Bacillus influenzae) is a Gram-negative, coccobacillary, facultatively anaerobic pathogenic bacterium belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family.

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Helicobacter pylori

Helicobacter pylori, previously known as Campylobacter pylori, is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium usually found in the stomach.

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Helper virus

A helper virus is a virus used when producing copies of a helper dependent viral vector which does not have the ability to replicate on its own.

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Homologous recombination

Homologous recombination is a type of genetic recombination in which nucleotide sequences are exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA.

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Horizontal gene transfer

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.

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Introduction to genetics

Genetics is the study of heredity and variations.

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An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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John C. Sanford

John C. Sanford (born 1950) is an American plant geneticist, and an advocate of intelligent design and young earth creationism.

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Joshua Lederberg

Joshua Lederberg, ForMemRS (May 23, 1925 – February 2, 2008) was an American molecular biologist known for his work in microbial genetics, artificial intelligence, and the United States space program.

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Lac operon

The lac operon (lactose operon) is an operon required for the transport and metabolism of lactose in Escherichia coli and many other enteric bacteria.

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Lambda phage

Enterobacteria phage λ (lambda phage, coliphage λ) is a bacterial virus, or bacteriophage, that infects the bacterial species Escherichia coli (E. coli).

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Legionella pneumophila

Legionella pneumophila is a thin, aerobic, pleomorphic, flagellated, nonspore-forming, Gram-negative bacterium of the genus Legionella.

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Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans and endotoxins, are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide composed of O-antigen, outer core and inner core joined by a covalent bond; they are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.

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Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.

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Lithium acetate

Lithium acetate (CH3COOLi) is a salt of lithium and acetic acid.

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Luciferase is a generic term for the class of oxidative enzymes that produce bioluminescence, and is usually distinguished from a photoprotein.

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Luciferin (from the Latin lucifer, "light-bringer") is a generic term for the light-emitting compound found in organisms that generate bioluminescence.

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Maclyn McCarty

Maclyn McCarty (June 9, 1911 – January 2, 2005) was an American geneticist.

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Malignant transformation

Malignant transformation is the process by which cells acquire the properties of cancer.

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Marker gene

In biology, a marker gene may have several meanings.

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Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.

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Microinjection is the use of a glass micropipette to inject a liquid substance at a microscopic or borderline macroscopic level.

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Molecular biology

Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.

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Molecular cloning

Molecular cloning is a set of experimental methods in molecular biology that are used to assemble recombinant DNA molecules and to direct their replication within host organisms.

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Multiple cloning site

A multiple cloning site (MCS), also called a polylinker, is a short segment of DNA which contains many (up to ~20) restriction sites - a standard feature of engineered plasmids.

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Natural competence

In microbiology, genetics, cell biology, and molecular biology, competence is the ability of a cell to alter its genetics by taking up extracellular ("naked") DNA from its environment in the process called transformation.

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Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as gonococcus (singular), or gonococci (plural) is a species of gram-negative diplococci bacteria isolated by Albert Neisser in 1879.

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Neisseria meningitidis

Neisseria meningitidis, often referred to as meningococcus, is a Gram-negative bacterium that can cause meningitis and other forms of meningococcal disease such as meningococcemia, a life-threatening sepsis.

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Origin of replication

The origin of replication (also called the replication origin) is a particular sequence in a genome at which replication is initiated.

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Oswald Avery

Oswald Theodore Avery Jr. (October 21, 1877 – February 20, 1955) was a Canadian-American physician and medical researcher.

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Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes.

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Pilin refers to a class of fibrous proteins that are found in pilus structures in bacteria.

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Plant pathology

Plant pathology (also phytopathology) is the scientific study of diseases in plants caused by pathogens (infectious organisms) and environmental conditions (physiological factors).

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A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.

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Polyethylene glycol

Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a polyether compound with many applications from industrial manufacturing to medicine.

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Proteobacteria is a major phylum of gram-negative bacteria. They include a wide variety of pathogens, such as Escherichia, Salmonella, Vibrio, Helicobacter, Yersinia, Legionellales, and many other notable genera. Others are free-living (non-parasitic), and include many of the bacteria responsible for nitrogen fixation. Carl Woese established this grouping in 1987, calling it informally the "purple bacteria and their relatives". Because of the great diversity of forms found in this group, it was named after Proteus, a Greek god of the sea capable of assuming many different shapes and is not named after the genus Proteus. Some Alphaproteobacteria can grow at very low levels of nutrients and have unusual morphology such as stalks and buds. Others include agriculturally important bacteria capable of inducing nitrogen fixation in symbiosis with plants. The type order is the Caulobacterales, comprising stalk-forming bacteria such as Caulobacter. The Betaproteobacteria are highly metabolically diverse and contain chemolithoautotrophs, photoautotrophs, and generalist heterotrophs. The type order is the Burkholderiales, comprising an enormous range of metabolic diversity, including opportunistic pathogens. The Hydrogenophilalia are obligate thermophiles and include heterotrophs and autotrophs. The type order is the Hydrogenophilales. The Gammaproteobacteria are the largest class in terms of species with validly published names. The type order is the Pseudomonadales, which include the genera Pseudomonas and the nitrogen-fixing Azotobacter. The Acidithiobacillia contain only sulfur, iron and uranium-oxidising autotrophs. The type order is the Acidithiobacillales, which includes economically important organisms used in the mining industry such as Acidithiobacillus spp. The Deltaproteobacteria include bacteria that are predators on other bacteria and are important contributors to the anaerobic side of the sulfur cycle. The type order is the Myxococcales, which includes organisms with self-organising abilities such as Myxococcus spp. The Epsilonproteobacteria are often slender, Gram-negative rods that are helical or curved. The type order is the Campylobacterales, which includes important food pathogens such as Campylobacter spp. The Oligoflexia are filamentous aerobes. The type order is the Oligoflexales, which contains the genus Oligoflexus.

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Pseudomonas stutzeri

Pseudomonas stutzeri is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile, single polar-flagellated, soil bacterium first isolated from human spinal fluid.

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pUC19 is one of a series of plasmid cloning vectors created by Joachim Messing and co-workers.

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Ralstonia solanacearum

Ralstonia solanacearum is an aerobic nonspore-forming, Gram-negative, plant pathogenic bacterium.

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RecA is a 38 kilodalton protein essential for the repair and maintenance of DNA.

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Reporter gene

In molecular biology, a reporter gene (often simply reporter) is a gene that researchers attach to a regulatory sequence of another gene of interest in bacteria, cell culture, animals or plants.

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Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.

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Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of yeast.

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Selectable marker

A selectable marker is a gene introduced into a cell, especially a bacterium or to cells in culture, that confers a trait suitable for artificial selection.

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A spheroplast is a cell from which the cell wall has been almost completely removed, as by the action of penicillin.

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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Stanley Norman Cohen

Stanley Norman Cohen (born February 17, 1935 in Perth Amboy, New Jersey, United States) is an American geneticist and the Kwoh-Ting Li Professor in the Stanford University School of Medicine.

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Staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and it is a member of the normal flora of the body, frequently found in the nose, respiratory tract, and on the skin.

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Strain (biology)

In biology, a strain is a low-level taxonomic rank used at the intraspecific level (within a species).

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Streptococcus mutans

Streptococcus mutans is a facultatively anaerobic, gram-positive coccus (round bacterium) commonly found in the human oral cavity and is a significant contributor to tooth decay.

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Streptococcus pneumoniae

Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic (under aerobic conditions) or beta-hemolytic (under anaerobic conditions), facultative anaerobic member of the genus Streptococcus.

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Streptococcus sanguinis

Streptococcus sanguinis, formerly known as Streptococcus sanguis, is a Gram-positive facultative anaerobic coccus species of bacteria and a member of the Viridans Streptococcus group.

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Ti plasmid

A Ti or tumour inducing plasmid is a plasmid that often, but not always, is a part of the genetic equipment that Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes use to transduce their genetic material to plants.

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Transduction (genetics)

Transduction is the process by which foreign DNA is introduced into a cell by a virus or viral vector.

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Transfection is the process of deliberately introducing naked or purified nucleic acids into eukaryotic cells.

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Transformation efficiency

Transformation efficiency is the efficiency by which cells can take up extracellular DNA and express genes encoded by it.

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Translocase is a general term for a protein that assists in moving another molecule, usually across a membrane.

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Vector (molecular biology)

In molecular cloning, a vector is a DNA molecule used as a vehicle to artificially carry foreign genetic material into another cell, where it can be replicated and/or expressed (e.g.- plasmid, cosmid, Lambda phages).

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Vibrio cholerae

Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative, comma-shaped bacterium.

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Viral transformation

Viral transformation is the change in growth, phenotype, or indefinite reproduction of cells caused by the introduction of inheritable material.

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Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body: it is a cofactor in DNA synthesis, and in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism.

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The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.

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X-gal (also abbreviated BCIG for 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-galactopyranoside) is an organic compound consisting of galactose linked to a substituted indole.

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Xylella fastidiosa

Xylella fastidiosa is an aerobic, Gram-negative bacteria of the monophyletic genus Xylella.

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Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.

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Bacterial transformation, Cell transformation, neoplastic, Cell transformation, viral, Cellular transformation, DNA transfer, Genetic transformation, Transformation (bacteria), Transformation, bacterial, Transformation, genetic, Yeast transformation.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transformation_(genetics)

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