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Index Transformer

A transformer is a static electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction. [1]

192 relations: AC power, AEG, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Alternating current, American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Amplifier, Amplitude modulation, ANSI device numbers, Arc welding, Arrhenius equation, Audio frequency, Autotransformer, Balanced line, Balun, Bandwidth (signal processing), Buchholz relay, Bushing (electrical), Capacitor voltage transformer, Cathode ray tube, Center tap, Ceramic, Conservation of energy, Consumer electronics, Coolant, Counter-electromotive force, Current transformer, DC-to-DC converter, Delta-wye transformer, Derivative, Direct current, Dissolved gas analysis, Distribution transformer, Eddy current, Electric arc, Electric arc furnace, Electric current, Electric field gradient, Electric generator, Electric multiple unit, Electric power distribution, Electric power industry, Electric power transmission, Electrical conductor, Electrical contacts, Electrical grid, Electrical impedance, Electrical insulation paper, Electrical load, Electrical network, Electrical resistance and conductance, ..., Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electrical steel, Electromagnetic induction, Electromagnetic interference, Electromotive force, Energy efficient transformer, Epstein frame, Equivalent circuit, Ethernet physical layer, Faraday's law of induction, Ferrite (magnet), Fluorocarbon, Flyback transformer, Formvar, Fundamental frequency, Fuse (electrical), Ganz Works, General Electric, Geomagnetic storm, Geomagnetically induced current, George Westinghouse, Glossary of shapes with metaphorical names, Grain boundary, Harmonic, Heat exchanger, High frequency, High voltage, High-speed rail, High-voltage transformer fire barriers, Hybrid coil, Identity function, Inductance, Induction coil, Inductive coupling, Inductor, Inrush current, Interrupter, Isolation transformer, Joseph Henry, Joule heating, Károly Zipernowsky, Leakage inductance, Lenz's law, Linearity, Liquid helium, Liquid nitrogen, Litz wire, Load profile, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lucien Gaulard, Magnet wire, Magnetic core, Magnetic field, Magnetic hysteresis, Magnetic reluctance, Magnetization, Magnetomotive force, Magnetostriction, Mains hum, Mercury-vapor lamp, Michael Faraday, Microphone, Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky, Miksa Déri, Mineral oil, Nature (journal), Negative resistance, Neon sign, Nicholas Callan, Nikola Tesla, Nitrogen, Ohm's law, Open-circuit test, Operating temperature, Ottó Bláthy, Paraformer, Pavel Yablochkov, Permalloy, Permeability (electromagnetism), Persistent organic pollutant, Phasor, Phonograph, Polarity (mutual inductance), Polychlorinated biphenyl, Polyphase system, Power rating, Power station, Protective relay, Proximity effect (electromagnetism), Push–pull converter, Quadrature booster, Radiation, Radio frequency, Railway electrification system, Rectifier, Rectiformer, Remanence, Repeating coil, Resonant inductive coupling, Root mean square, Saturable reactor, Saturation (magnetic), Scott-T transformer, Series and parallel circuits, Short circuit, Short-circuit test, Shunt (electrical), Silicone, Sine wave, Skin effect, Sodium-vapor lamp, St Patrick's College, Maynooth, Sulfur hexafluoride, Superconductivity, Tap changer, Telephone, Tesla coil, Three-phase electric power, Torus, Traction motor, Trade-off, Transformer oil, Transformer oil testing, Transformer types, Two-phase electric power, University of Florida, University of Pavia, Utility frequency, Vacuum, Vector group, Very high frequency, Volt-ampere, Voltage, Voltage regulation, Voltage source, War of the currents, Weber (unit), Westinghouse Electric Corporation, William Stanley Jr., Wire, Yablochkov candle, Zigzag transformer. Expand index (142 more) »

AC power

Power in an electric circuit is the rate of flow of energy past a given point of the circuit.

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Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft AG (AEG) (German: "General electricity company") was a German producer of electrical equipment founded as the Deutsche Edison-Gesellschaft für angewandte Elektricität in 1883 in Berlin by Emil Rathenau.

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Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is a federal public health agency within the United States Department of Health and Human Services.

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Alternating current

Alternating current (AC) is an electric current which periodically reverses direction, in contrast to direct current (DC) which flows only in one direction.

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American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy

The American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, or ACEEE, is a nonprofit, 501(c)(3) organization.

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An amplifier, electronic amplifier or (informally) amp is an electronic device that can increase the power of a signal (a time-varying voltage or current).

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Amplitude modulation

Amplitude modulation (AM) is a modulation technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave.

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ANSI device numbers

In the design of electrical power systems, the ANSI standard device numbers (ANSI /IEEE Standard C37.2 Standard for Electrical Power System Device Function Numbers, Acronyms, and Contact Designations) identifies the features of a protective device such as a relay or circuit breaker.

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Arc welding

Arc welding is a process that is used to join metal to metal by using electricity to create enough heat to melt metal, and the melted metals when cool result in a binding of the metals.

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Arrhenius equation

The Arrhenius equation is a formula for the temperature dependence of reaction rates.

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Audio frequency

An audio frequency (abbreviation: AF) or audible frequency is characterized as a periodic vibration whose frequency is audible to the average human.

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An Auto-transformer (sometimes called auto-step down transformer) is an electrical transformer with only one winding.

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Balanced line

In telecommunications and professional audio, a balanced line or balanced signal pair is a transmission line consisting of two conductors of the same type, each of which have equal impedances along their lengths and equal impedances to ground and to other circuits.

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A balun (for balanced to unbalanced) is an electrical device that converts between a balanced signal (two signals working against each other where ground is irrelevant) and an unbalanced signal (a single signal working against ground or pseudo-ground).

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Bandwidth (signal processing)

Bandwidth is the difference between the upper and lower frequencies in a continuous band of frequencies.

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Buchholz relay

In the field of electric power distribution and transmission, a Buchholz relay is a safety device mounted on some oil-filled power transformers and reactors, equipped with an external overhead oil reservoir called a "conservator".

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Bushing (electrical)

In electric power, a bushing is an insulated device that allows an electrical conductor to pass safely through a grounded conducting barrier such as the case of a transformer or circuit breaker.

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Capacitor voltage transformer

A capacitor voltage transformer (CVT or CCVT), is a transformer used in power systems to step down extra high voltage signals and provide a low voltage signal, for metering or operating a protective relay.

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Cathode ray tube

The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube that contains one or more electron guns and a phosphorescent screen, and is used to display images.

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Center tap

In electronics, a center tap (CT) is a contact made to a point halfway along a winding of a transformer or inductor, or along the element of a resistor or a potentiometer.

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A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.

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Conservation of energy

In physics, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant, it is said to be ''conserved'' over time.

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Consumer electronics

Consumer electronics or home electronics are electronic (analog or digital) equipments intended for everyday use, typically in private homes.

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A coolant is a substance, typically liquid or gas, that is used to reduce or regulate the temperature of a system.

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Counter-electromotive force

Counter-electromotive force (abbreviated counter EMF or simply CEMF),Graf, "counterelectromotive force", Dictionary of Electronics also known as back electromotive force (or back EMF), is the electromotive force or "voltage" that opposes the change in current which induced it.

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Current transformer

A current transformer (CT) is a type of transformer that is used to measure alternating current (AC).

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DC-to-DC converter

A DC-to-DC converter is an electronic circuit or electromechanical device that converts a source of direct current (DC) from one voltage level to another.

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Delta-wye transformer

A delta-wye transformer is a type of three-phase electric power transformer design that employs delta-connected windings on its primary and wye/star connected windings on its secondary.

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The derivative of a function of a real variable measures the sensitivity to change of the function value (output value) with respect to a change in its argument (input value).

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Direct current

Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge.

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Dissolved gas analysis

Dissolved gas analysis (DGA) is the study of dissolved gases in transformer oil.

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Distribution transformer

A distribution transformer or service transformer is a transformer that provides the final voltage transformation in the electric power distribution system, stepping down the voltage used in the distribution lines to the level used by the customer.

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Eddy current

Eddy currents (also called Foucault currents) are loops of electrical current induced within conductors by a changing magnetic field in the conductor due to Faraday's law of induction.

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Electric arc

An electric arc, or arc discharge, is an electrical breakdown of a gas that produces an ongoing electrical discharge.

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Electric arc furnace

An electric arc furnace (EAF) is a furnace that heats charged material by means of an electric arc.

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Electric current

An electric current is a flow of electric charge.

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Electric field gradient

In atomic, molecular, and solid-state physics, the electric field gradient (EFG) measures the rate of change of the electric field at an atomic nucleus generated by the electronic charge distribution and the other nuclei.

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Electric generator

In electricity generation, a generator is a device that converts motive power (mechanical energy) into electrical power for use in an external circuit.

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Electric multiple unit

An electric multiple unit or EMU is a multiple-unit train consisting of self-propelled carriages, using electricity as the motive power.

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Electric power distribution

Electric power distribution is the final stage in the delivery of electric power; it carries electricity from the transmission system to individual consumers.

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Electric power industry

The electric power industry covers the generation, transmission, distribution and sale of electric power to the general public and industry.

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Electric power transmission

Electric power transmission is the bulk movement of electrical energy from a generating site, such as a power plant, to an electrical substation.

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Electrical conductor

In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions.

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Electrical contacts

An electrical contact is an electrical circuit component found in electrical switches, relays, connectors and circuit breakers.

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Electrical grid

An electrical grid is an interconnected network for delivering electricity from producers to consumers.

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Electrical impedance

Electrical impedance is the measure of the opposition that a circuit presents to a current when a voltage is applied.

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Electrical insulation paper

Electrical insulation papers are paper types that are used as electrical insulation in many applications due to pure cellulose having outstanding electrical properties.

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Electrical load

An electrical load is an electrical component or portion of a circuit that consumes (active) electric power.

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Electrical network

An electrical network is an interconnection of electrical components (e.g. batteries, resistors, inductors, capacitors, switches) or a model of such an interconnection, consisting of electrical elements (e.g. voltage sources, current sources, resistances, inductances, capacitances).

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Electrical resistance and conductance

The electrical resistance of an electrical conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through that conductor.

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Electrical resistivity and conductivity

Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.

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Electrical steel

Electrical steel (lamination steel, silicon electrical steel, silicon steel, relay steel, transformer steel) is a special steel tailored to produce specific magnetic properties: small hysteresis area resulting in low power loss per cycle, low core loss, and high permeability.

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Electromagnetic induction

Electromagnetic or magnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force (i.e., voltage) across an electrical conductor in a changing magnetic field.

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Electromagnetic interference

Electromagnetic interference (EMI), also called radio-frequency interference (RFI) when in the radio frequency spectrum, is a disturbance generated by an external source that affects an electrical circuit by electromagnetic induction, electrostatic coupling, or conduction.

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Electromotive force

Electromotive force, abbreviated emf (denoted \mathcal and measured in volts), is the electrical intensity or "pressure" developed by a source of electrical energy such as a battery or generator.

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Energy efficient transformer

In a typical power distribution grid, electric transformer power loss typically contributes about 40-50% of the total transmission and distribution loss.

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Epstein frame

An Epstein frame or Epstein square is a standardised measurement device for measuring the magnetic properties of soft magnetic materials, especially used for testing of electrical steels.

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Equivalent circuit

In electrical engineering and science, an equivalent circuit refers to a theoretical circuit that retains all of the electrical characteristics of a given circuit.

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Ethernet physical layer

The Ethernet physical layer is the physical layer functionality of the Ethernet family of computer network standards.

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Faraday's law of induction

Faraday's law of induction is a basic law of electromagnetism predicting how a magnetic field will interact with an electric circuit to produce an electromotive force (EMF)—a phenomenon called electromagnetic induction.

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Ferrite (magnet)

A ferrite is a ceramic material made by mixing and firing large proportions iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3, rust) blended with small proportions of one or more additional metallic elements, such as barium, manganese, nickel, and zinc.

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Fluorocarbons, sometimes referred to as perfluorocarbons or PFCs, are, strictly speaking, organofluorine compounds with the formula CxFy, i.e. they contain only carbon and fluorine, though the terminology is not strictly followed.

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Flyback transformer

A flyback transformer (FBT), also called a line output transformer (LOPT), is a special type of electrical transformer.

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Formvar refers to any of several thermoplastic resins that are polyvinyl formals, which are polymers formed from polyvinyl alcohol and formaldehyde as copolymers with polyvinyl acetate.

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Fundamental frequency

The fundamental frequency, often referred to simply as the fundamental, is defined as the lowest frequency of a periodic waveform.

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Fuse (electrical)

In electronics and electrical engineering, a fuse is an electrical safety device that operates to provide overcurrent protection of an electrical circuit.

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Ganz Works

The Ganz Works or Ganz (or Ganz Művek, Ganz enterprises or Ganz companies) was a group of companies operating between 1845 and 1949 in Budapest, Hungary.

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General Electric

General Electric Company (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts.

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Geomagnetic storm

A geomagnetic storm (commonly referred to as a solar storm) is a temporary disturbance of the Earth's magnetosphere caused by a solar wind shock wave and/or cloud of magnetic field that interacts with the Earth's magnetic field.

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Geomagnetically induced current

Geomagnetically induced currents (GIC), affecting the normal operation of long electrical conductor systems, are a manifestation at ground level of space weather.

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George Westinghouse

George Westinghouse Jr. (October 6, 1846 – March 12, 1914) was an American entrepreneur and engineer based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania who invented the railway air brake and was a pioneer of the electrical industry, gaining his first patent at the age of 19.

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Glossary of shapes with metaphorical names

Many shapes have metaphorical names, i.e., their names are metaphors: these shapes are named after a most common object that has it.

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Grain boundary

A grain boundary is the interface between two grains, or crystallites, in a polycrystalline material.

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A harmonic is any member of the harmonic series, a divergent infinite series.

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Heat exchanger

A heat exchanger is a device used to transfer heat between two or more fluids.

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High frequency

High frequency (HF) is the ITU designation for the range of radio frequency electromagnetic waves (radio waves) between 3 and 30 megahertz (MHz).

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High voltage

The term high voltage usually means electrical energy at voltages high enough to inflict harm on living organisms.

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High-speed rail

High-speed rail is a type of rail transport that operates significantly faster than traditional rail traffic, using an integrated system of specialized rolling stock and dedicated tracks.

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High-voltage transformer fire barriers

High-voltage transformer fire barriers, or transformer firewalls, transformer ballistic firewalls, transformer blast walls, are outdoor countermeasures against cascading failures in a national electric grid.

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Hybrid coil

A hybrid coil (or bridge transformer, or sometimes hybrid) is a transformer that has three windings, and which is designed to be configured as a circuit having four ports that are conjugate in pairs.

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Identity function

Graph of the identity function on the real numbers In mathematics, an identity function, also called an identity relation or identity map or identity transformation, is a function that always returns the same value that was used as its argument.

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In electromagnetism and electronics, inductance is the property of an electrical conductor by which a change in electric current through it induces an electromotive force (voltage) in the conductor.

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Induction coil

An induction coil or "spark coil" (archaically known as an inductorium or Ruhmkorff coil after Heinrich Ruhmkorff) is a type of electrical transformer used to produce high-voltage pulses from a low-voltage direct current (DC) supply.

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Inductive coupling

In electrical engineering, two conductors are referred to as inductively coupled or magnetically coupled when they are configured such that a change in current through one wire induces a voltage across the ends of the other wire through electromagnetic induction.

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An inductor, also called a coil, choke or reactor, is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores energy in a magnetic field when electric current flows through it.

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Inrush current

Inrush current, input surge current, or switch-on surge is the maximal instantaneous input current drawn by an electrical device when first turned on.

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An interrupter in electrical engineering is a device used to interrupt the flow of a steady direct current for the purpose of converting a steady current into a changing one.

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Isolation transformer

An isolation transformer is a transformer used to transfer electrical power from a source of alternating current (AC) power to some equipment or device while isolating the powered device from the power source, usually for safety reasons.

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Joseph Henry

Joseph Henry (December 17, 1797 – May 13, 1878) was an American scientist who served as the first Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.

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Joule heating

Joule heating, also known as Ohmic heating and resistive heating, is the process by which the passage of an electric current through a conductor produces heat.

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Károly Zipernowsky

Károly Zipernowsky (born as Carl Zipernowsky, 4 April 1853 in Vienna – 29 November 1942 in Budapest) was an Austrian-born Hungarian electrical engineer.

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Leakage inductance

Leakage inductance is that property of an electrical transformer that causes a winding to appear to have some pure inductance in series with the mutually-coupled transformer windings.

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Lenz's law

Lenz's law (pronounced), named after the physicist Heinrich Friedrich Emil Lenz who formulated it in 1834, states that the direction of current induced in a conductor by a changing magnetic field due to induction is such that it creates a magnetic field that opposes the change that produced it.

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Linearity is the property of a mathematical relationship or function which means that it can be graphically represented as a straight line.

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Liquid helium

At standard pressure, the chemical element helium exists in a liquid form only at the extremely low temperature of −270 °C (about 4 K or −452.2 °F).

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Liquid nitrogen

Liquid nitrogen is nitrogen in a liquid state at an extremely low temperature.

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Litz wire

Litz wire is a type of specialized multistrand wire or cable used in electronics to carry alternating current (AC) at radio frequencies.

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Load profile

In electrical engineering, a load profile is a graph of the variation in the electrical load versus time.

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Los Alamos National Laboratory

Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos or LANL for short) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory initially organized during World War II for the design of nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project.

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Lucien Gaulard

Lucien Gaulard (1850 – November 26, 1888) invented devices for the transmission of alternating current electrical energy.

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Magnet wire

Magnet wire or enameled wire is a copper or aluminium wire coated with a very thin layer of insulation.

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Magnetic core

A magnetic core is a piece of magnetic material with a high magnetic permeability used to confine and guide magnetic fields in electrical, electromechanical and magnetic devices such as electromagnets, transformers, electric motors, generators, inductors, magnetic recording heads, and magnetic assemblies.

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Magnetic field

A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.

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Magnetic hysteresis

Magnetic hysteresis occurs when an external magnetic field is applied to a ferromagnet such as iron and the atomic dipoles align themselves with it.

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Magnetic reluctance

Magnetic reluctance, or magnetic resistance, is a concept used in the analysis of magnetic circuits.

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In classical electromagnetism, magnetization or magnetic polarization is the vector field that expresses the density of permanent or induced magnetic dipole moments in a magnetic material.

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Magnetomotive force

In physics, the magnetomotive force is a quantity appearing in the equation for the magnetic flux in a magnetic circuit, often called Ohm's law for magnetic circuits.

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Magnetostriction (cf. electrostriction) is a property of ferromagnetic materials that causes them to change their shape or dimensions during the process of magnetization.

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Mains hum

Mains hum, electric hum, or power line hum is a sound associated with alternating current at the frequency of the mains electricity.

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Mercury-vapor lamp

A mercury-vapor lamp is a gas discharge lamp that uses an electric arc through vaporized mercury to produce light.

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Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.

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A microphone, colloquially nicknamed mic or mike, is a transducer that converts sound into an electrical signal.

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Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky

Mikhail Osipovich Dolivo-Dobrovolsky (Михаи́л О́сипович Доли́во-Доброво́льский; Michail von Dolivo-Dobrowolsky or Michail Ossipowitsch Doliwo-Dobrowolski; Michał Doliwo-Dobrowolski; &ndash) was a Polish-Russian engineer, electrician, and inventor.

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Miksa Déri

Miksa Déri (27 October 1854 November, Bács, Kingdom of Hungary, (now: Bač, Serbia) – 3 March 1938) was a Hungarian electrical engineer, inventor, power plant builder.

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Mineral oil

Mineral oil is any of various colorless, odorless, light mixtures of higher alkanes from a mineral source, particularly a distillate of petroleum.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Negative resistance

In electronics, negative resistance (NR) is a property of some electrical circuits and devices in which an increase in voltage across the device's terminals results in a decrease in electric current through it.

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Neon sign

In the signage industry, neon signs are electric signs lighted by long luminous gas-discharge tubes that contain rarefied neon or other gases.

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Nicholas Callan

Father Nicholas Joseph Callan (22 December 1799 – 10 January 1864) was an Irish priest and scientist from Darver, County Louth, Ireland.

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Nikola Tesla

Nikola Tesla (Никола Тесла; 10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943) was a Serbian-American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, physicist, and futurist who is best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system.

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Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Ohm's law

Ohm's law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the voltage across the two points.

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Open-circuit test

The open-circuit test, or "no-load test", is one of the methods used in electrical engineering to determine the no-load impedance in the excitation branch of a transformer.

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Operating temperature

An operating temperature is the temperature at which an electrical or mechanical device operates.

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Ottó Bláthy

Ottó Titusz Bláthy (11 August 1860 – 26 September 1939) was a Hungarian electrical engineer.

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The paraformer is a particular type of transformer.

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Pavel Yablochkov

Pavel Nikolayevich Yablochkov (also transliterated as Jablochkoff) (Павел Николаевич Яблочков in Russian) (&ndash) was a Russian electrical engineer, businessman and the inventor of the Yablochkov candle (a type of electric carbon arc lamp) and the transformer.

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Permalloy is a nickel–iron magnetic alloy, with about 80% nickel and 20% iron content.

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Permeability (electromagnetism)

In electromagnetism, permeability is the measure of the ability of a material to support the formation of a magnetic field within itself.

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Persistent organic pollutant

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes.

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In physics and engineering, a phasor (a portmanteau of phase vector), is a complex number representing a sinusoidal function whose amplitude (A), angular frequency (ω), and initial phase (θ) are time-invariant.

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The phonograph is a device for the mechanical recording and reproduction of sound.

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Polarity (mutual inductance)

In electrical engineering, dot marking convention, or alphanumeric marking convention, or both, can be used to denote the same relative instantaneous polarity of two mutually inductive components such as between transformer windings.

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Polychlorinated biphenyl

A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is an organic chlorine compound with the formula C12H10−xClx.

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Polyphase system

A polyphase system is a means of distributing alternating-current electrical power where the power transfer is constant.

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Power rating

In electrical engineering and mechanical engineering, the power rating of equipment is the highest power input allowed to flow through particular equipment.

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Power station

A power station, also referred to as a power plant or powerhouse and sometimes generating station or generating plant, is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power.

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Protective relay

In electrical engineering, a protective relay is a relay device designed to trip a circuit breaker when a fault is detected.

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Proximity effect (electromagnetism)

In a conductor carrying alternating current, if currents are flowing through one or more other nearby conductors, such as within a closely wound coil of wire, the distribution of current within the first conductor will be constrained to smaller regions.

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Push–pull converter

A push–pull converter is a type of DC-to-DC converter, a switching converter that uses a transformer to change the voltage of a DC power supply.

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Quadrature booster

A phase angle regulating transformer, phase angle regulator (PAR, American usage), phase-shifting transformer, phase shifter (West coast American usage), or quadrature booster (quad booster, British usage), is a specialised form of transformer used to control the flow of real power on three-phase electricity transmission networks.

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In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.

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Radio frequency

Radio frequency (RF) refers to oscillatory change in voltage or current in a circuit, waveguide or transmission line in the range extending from around twenty thousand times per second to around three hundred billion times per second, roughly between the upper limit of audio and the lower limit of infrared.

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Railway electrification system

A railway electrification system supplies electric power to railway trains and trams without an on-board prime mover or local fuel supply.

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A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC), which flows in only one direction.

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A Rectiformer is a rectifier and transformer designed and built as a single entity for converting alternating current into direct current.

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Remanence or remanent magnetization or residual magnetism is the magnetization left behind in a ferromagnetic material (such as iron) after an external magnetic field is removed.

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Repeating coil

In telecommunications, a repeating coil is a voice-frequency transformer characterized by a closed magnetic core, a pair of identical balanced primary (line) windings, a pair of identical but not necessarily balanced secondary (drop) windings, and low transmission loss at voice frequencies.

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Resonant inductive coupling

Resonant inductive coupling or magnetic phase synchronous coupling is a phenomenon with inductive coupling where the coupling becomes stronger when the "secondary" (load-bearing) side of the loosely coupled coil resonates.

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Root mean square

In statistics and its applications, the root mean square (abbreviated RMS or rms) is defined as the square root of the mean square (the arithmetic mean of the squares of a set of numbers).

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Saturable reactor

A saturable reactor in electrical engineering is a special form of inductor where the magnetic core can be deliberately saturated by a direct electric current in a control winding.

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Saturation (magnetic)

Seen in some magnetic materials, saturation is the state reached when an increase in applied external magnetic field H cannot increase the magnetization of the material further, so the total magnetic flux density B more or less levels off.

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Scott-T transformer

A Scott-T transformer (also called a Scott connection) is a type of circuit used to produce two-phase electric power (2 φ, 90 degree phase rotation) from a three-phase (3 φ, 120 degree phase rotation) source, or vice versa.

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Series and parallel circuits

Components of an electrical circuit or electronic circuit can be connected in many different ways.

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Short circuit

A short circuit (sometimes abbreviated to short or s/c) is an electrical circuit that allows a current to travel along an unintended path with no or a very low electrical impedance.

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Short-circuit test

The purpose of a short-circuit test is to determine the series branch parameters of the equivalent circuit of a real transformer.

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Shunt (electrical)

In electronics, a shunt is a device which allows electric current to pass around another point in the circuit by creating a low resistance path.

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Silicones, also known as polysiloxanes, are polymers that include any inert, synthetic compound made up of repeating units of siloxane, which is a chain of alternating silicon atoms and oxygen atoms, combined with carbon, hydrogen, and sometimes other elements.

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Sine wave

A sine wave or sinusoid is a mathematical curve that describes a smooth periodic oscillation.

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Skin effect

Skin effect is the tendency of an alternating electric current (AC) to become distributed within a conductor such that the current density is largest near the surface of the conductor, and decreases with greater depths in the conductor.

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Sodium-vapor lamp

A sodium-vapor lamp is a gas-discharge lamp that uses sodium in an excited state to produce light at a characteristic wavelength near 589 nm.

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St Patrick's College, Maynooth

St Patrick's College, Maynooth (Coláiste Naoimh Phádraig, Maigh Nuad), is the "National Seminary for Ireland" (a Roman Catholic college), and a Pontifical University, located in the village of Maynooth, from Dublin, Ireland.

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Sulfur hexafluoride

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is an inorganic, colorless, odorless, non-flammable, extremely potent greenhouse gas, and an excellent electrical insulator.

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Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.

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Tap changer

A tap changer is a mechanism in transformers which allows for variable turn ratios to be selected in discrete steps.

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A telephone, or phone, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly.

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Tesla coil

A Tesla coil is an electrical resonant transformer circuit designed by inventor Nikola Tesla in 1891.

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Three-phase electric power

Three-phase electric power is a common method of alternating current electric power generation, transmission, and distribution.

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In geometry, a torus (plural tori) is a surface of revolution generated by revolving a circle in three-dimensional space about an axis coplanar with the circle.

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Traction motor

A traction motor is an electric motor used for propulsion of a vehicle, such as an electric locomotive or electric roadway vehicle.

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A trade-off (or tradeoff) is a situational decision that involves diminishing or losing one quality, quantity or property of a set or design in return for gains in other aspects.

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Transformer oil

Transformer oil or insulating oil is an oil that is stable at high temperatures and has excellent electrical insulating properties.

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Transformer oil testing

Transformer oil, a type of insulating and cooling oil used in transformers and other electrical equipment, needs to be tested periodically to ensure that it is still fit for purpose.

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Transformer types

A variety of types of electrical transformer are made for different purposes.

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Two-phase electric power

Two-phase electrical power was an early 20th-century polyphase alternating current electric power distribution system.

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University of Florida

The University of Florida (commonly referred to as Florida or UF) is an American public land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant research university on a campus in Gainesville, Florida.

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University of Pavia

The University of Pavia (Università degli Studi di Pavia, UNIPV or Università di Pavia; Ticinensis Universitas) is a university located in Pavia, Lombardy, Italy.

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Utility frequency

The utility frequency, (power) line frequency (American English) or mains frequency (British English) is the nominal frequency of the oscillations of alternating current (AC) in an electric power grid transmitted from a power station to the end-user.

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Vacuum is space devoid of matter.

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Vector group

In electrical engineering, a vector group is the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) method of categorizing the high voltage (HV) windings and low voltage (LV) winding configurations of three-phase transformers.

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Very high frequency

Very high frequency (VHF) is the ITU designation for the range of radio frequency electromagnetic waves (radio waves) from 30 to 300 megahertz (MHz), with corresponding wavelengths of ten to one meter.

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A volt-ampere (VA) is the unit used for the apparent power in an electrical circuit, equal to the product of root-mean-square (RMS) voltage and RMS current.

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Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.

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Voltage regulation

In electrical engineering, particularly power engineering, voltage regulation is a measure of change in the voltage magnitude between the sending and receiving end of a component, such as a transmission or distribution line.

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Voltage source

A voltage source is a two-terminal device which can maintain a fixed voltage.

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War of the currents

The war of the currents (sometimes called battle of the currents) was a series of events surrounding the introduction of competing electric power transmission systems in the late 1880s and early 1890s.

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Weber (unit)

In physics, the weber (symbol: Wb) is the SI unit of magnetic flux.

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Westinghouse Electric Corporation

The Westinghouse Electric Corporation was an American manufacturing company.

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William Stanley Jr.

William Stanley Jr. (November 28, 1858 – May 14, 1916) was an American physicist born in Brooklyn, New York.

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A wire is a single, usually cylindrical, flexible strand or rod of metal.

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Yablochkov candle

A Yablochkov candle (sometimes electric candle) is a type of electric carbon arc lamp, invented in 1876 by Pavel Yablochkov.

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Zigzag transformer

A zigzag transformer is a special-purpose transformer with a zigzag or "interconnected star" winding connection, such that each output is the vector sum of two (2) phases offset by 120°.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transformer

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