548 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Accuracy and precision, Active voice, Actor, Adaptation, Age of Enlightenment, Al-Azhar University, Al-Nizamiyya of Baghdad, Alexander Fraser Tytler, Lord Woodhouselee, Alexander Pope, Alexander Pushkin, Alexandria, Alfred the Great, Allah, Ambiguity, American Literary Translators Association, Analytic language, Analytic philosophy, Anatolia, Anatomy, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Ancient Greek literature, Ancient history, Ancient Rome, Ange Mlinko, Aniela Zagórska, Anka Muhlstein, Antoine Berman, Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, Antonio Weiss, Antwerp, Applied linguistics, Arabic, Arabic script, Arabs, Aramaic language, Aramaic New Testament, Aristotle, Armenian language, Art music, Artificial intelligence, Artist, Asia, Assyria, Athletics (physical culture), Babel Fish (website), Babylon (software), Barry B. Powell, ..., Bassoon, Bede, Ben Jonson, Benjamin Jowett, Bible, Bible translations, Biculturalism, Bilingual dictionary, BLEU, Boethius, Brighton, Buddhism, Byzantine Empire, C. K. Scott Moncrieff, Cairo, Calligraphy, Calque, Canadian literature, Catherine Winkworth, Catholic Church, Córdoba, Spain, Censorship, Charles Darwin, Charles Tomlinson, Chemistry, China, Chinese characters, Chinese language, Chinese poetry, Chinese translation theory, Choice, Chorale, Christian, Christian Church, Christianity, Christopher de Bellaigue, Christopher Kasparek, Cicero, Civil service, Classical Arabic, Classical Latin, Claude Piron, Clinical trial, Code-mixing, Cognate, Colonialism, Communication, Computer-assisted translation, Concept, Concordancer, Connotation, Consonant, Constantinople, Content word, Context (language use), Contrafactum, Contrastive linguistics, Coptic language, Cosimo de' Medici, Council of Constance, Crowdsourcing, Culture, Czesław Miłosz, Darwinism, David Bellos, David Bentley Hart, David Bromwich, Denis Feeney, Dictionary, Dictionary-based machine translation, Dilemma, Diplomacy, Douglas Hofstadter, Dutch language, Dynamic and formal equivalence, East Asia, Ecclesiastical History of the English People, Ecological niche, Ectaco, Edmund Chojecki, Edward Balcerzan, Edward FitzGerald (poet), Egypt, Egyptian–Hittite peace treaty, Eliot Weinberger, Elizabethan era, Emily Wilson, Encyclopedia, Encyclopedia Americana, England, English language, Epic of Gilgamesh, Equinox Publishing (Sheffield), Erasmus, Ethics committee (European Union), Etymology, Eugene Nida, European History Online, European Master's in Translation, Even Though the Whole World Is Burning, Expurgation, Extensive reading, Ezra Pound, False cognate, False friend, Fez, Morocco, Fidelity, Filial piety, Film, First language, Flageolet, Florence, François Fénelon, France, Francis de Sales, Free verse, French language, Friedrich Schleiermacher, Gabriel, Garbage in, garbage out, Garry Wills, Gary Marcus, Gödel's incompleteness theorems, Gemistus Pletho, Gender and Language, Genre, Geoffrey Chaucer, Georgian language, German language, German literature, German Romanticism, Germanic languages, Gilles Ménage, Giovanni Boccaccio, Gloss (annotation), Google Translate, Gospel of Judas, Governor General's Awards, Grammar, Grammatical number, Grammatical tense, Greek language, Gulf of Mexico, Hadith, Haruki Murakami, Hebrew language, Hejaz, Herbert Spencer, Heresy, Hernán Cortés, Hesiod, Hidatsa, High German languages, Hindi-to-Punjabi Machine Translation System, History, History of Christianity during the Middle Ages, History of the world, Hittites, Homer, Homophonic translation, Horace, House of Saud, Humour in translation, Hymn, Idiom, Idiom (language structure), Ignacy Krasicki, Ignorance, Imperialism, In Search of Lost Time, India, Informed consent, Institutional review board, Intelligence, International Federation of Translators, Internationalization and localization, Internet, Interpreting notes, Inttranet, Iran, Islam, Israel, Italian language, Italy, Jakub Wujek, James Macpherson, Jan Potocki, Japanese people, Jean de La Fontaine, Jean Froissart, Jerome, Jesus, Jews, Johann Gottfried Herder, John Dryden, John Wycliffe, Jonathan Galassi, Jorge Luis Borges, Joseph Conrad, Kanbun, King James Only movement, King James Version, Koine Greek, Kurt Gödel, La Malinche, La Marseillaise, La Pléiade, Language, Language industry, Language interpretation, Language localisation, Language professional, Language transfer, Languages of Europe, Languages of India, Latin, Lawrence Venuti, Le Morte d'Arthur, Le Ton beau de Marot, Legal translation, Leibniz Institute of European History, Lemhi Shoshone, Lewis and Clark Expedition, Lexicography, Linda Gaboriau, Lingua franca, Linguistic validation, Linguistics, List of archbishops of Gniezno and primates of Poland, List of Latin translations of modern literature, Listening, Literal translation, Literary adaptation, Literary criticism, Literary language, Literature, Loanword, London, Lord Berners, Low German, Machine translation, Mainz, Malise Ruthven, Manner of articulation, Marcel Proust, Mario Pei, Mark Twain, Market (economics), Marsilio Ficino, Martin Luther, Martyr, Mary Snell-Hornby, Matter of Britain, Maya peoples, Meaning (linguistics), Measure word, Medical translation, Mesopotamia, Metaphrase, Mexico, Michael Wood (academic), Michelangelo, Middle Ages, Middle class, Middle East, Mobile translation, Modern English Bible translations, Monk, Montesquieu, Morocco, Moses, Mufti, Muhammad, Muhammad Abduh, Muhammad Ali of Egypt, Multilingualism, Music, Musician, Muslim Brotherhood, Nahuas, Napoleonic Code, National Translation Mission, Natural language, Neologism, Neuroscience, New Testament, Newsweek, North America, Note (typography), Noun, Novel, Novelist, NPR, Occitan language, Octavio Paz, Old English, Old Testament, Oliver Leaman, Omar Khayyam, Omniscience, On Linguistic Aspects of Translation, Onufry Kopczyński, Opera, Ossian, Ottoman Empire, Ovid, Pacific Ocean, Painting, Parallelism (grammar), Paraphrase, Passive voice, Patron saint, PBS, Perfection, Perry Link, Peter the Great, Petrarch, Phono-semantic matching, Physics, Pitch contour, Plato, Poet, Poetry, Polish Institute of Arts and Sciences of America, Polish language, Polysemy, Pop-up ad, Pope Martin V, Popular music, Postediting, Preposition and postposition, Preposition stranding, Princeton University Press, Printing, Printing press, Pronoun, Prophetic biography, Prose, Protestantism, Psychology, Pun, Quran, Ramayana, Reading (process), Reformation, Refrain, Register (sociolinguistics), Religion, Religious text, Renaissance, Rhyme, Rhythm, Ribaldry, River Swift, Robert Dickson (writer), Robert Frost, Robert Stiller, Rochester, New York, Roger Bacon, Roman de la Rose, Roman Jakobson, Romance languages, Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, Rudolf Flesch, Russia, Russian language, Sacagawea, Samuel Johnson, Sanskrit, Scalpel, Schism, Scholasticism, Science, Scientific American, Seamus Heaney, Second language, Self-translation, Sememe, Semiotics, Semitic languages, Sentence (linguistics), Septuagint, Sheikh, Sheila Fischman, Short story, Sign language, Sino-Xenic pronunciations, Skepticism, Skopos theory, Slavic languages, Small and medium-sized enterprises, Social organism, Source language (translation), Source text, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Spain, Speech, Spoken language, St. Elizabeths Hospital, Stanza, StarDict, Stephen Greenblatt, Stieg Larsson, Stuart Berg Flexner, Stylistics, Subject (grammar), Surtitles, Sutra, Sykes–Picot Agreement, Syllable, Syntax, Synthetic language, Syriac language, Tabernacle, Tadeusz Boy-Żeleński, Tang dynasty, Target language (translation), Target text, Technical translation, Technology, Terence, Terminology, The Canterbury Tales, The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County, The Consolation of Philosophy, The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo, The Knight's Tale, The Little Prince, The Manuscript Found in Saragossa, The New York Review of Books, The Paris Review, The Polish Review, The Tale of Genji, Theatre, Thesaurus, Thomas Malory, Till Eulenspiegel, Tim Parks, Toledo, Spain, Tone (linguistics), Tours, Transcription (linguistics), Translating for legal equivalence, Translation, Translation criticism, Translation management system, Translation memory, Translation studies, Translation-quality standards, Transliteration, Transparency (linguistic), Troilus and Criseyde, Tudor period, Turing test, Turkish language, Tyndale Bible, United States, Universe, University of Al Quaraouiyine, University of California Press, Untranslatability, Vasily Zhukovsky, Verb, Vernacular, Verse–chorus form, Victorian era, Virgil, Vladimir Nabokov, Vocabulary, Vocal music, Voice (grammar), Voltaire, Vulgate, W. S. Merwin, Wang Wei (Tang dynasty), Washington, D.C., Władysław Tatarkiewicz, Wen Xuan, Wessex, Western Asia, Western Christianity, Western Xia, William Empson, William Shakespeare, William Tyndale, Winston Churchill, Woodblock printing, Woordenboek der Nederlandsche Taal, Word, Word order, Word-sense disambiguation, World War I, Writing, Writing style, Wycliffe's Bible, Yale University Press, Zdzisław Najder. Expand index (498 more) » « Shrink index
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Precision is a description of random errors, a measure of statistical variability.
Active voice is a grammatical voice common in many of the world's languages.
An actor (often actress for women; see terminology) is a person who portrays a character in a performance.
In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Al-Azhar University (1,, "the (honorable) Azhar University") is a university in Cairo, Egypt.
Al-Nizamiyya of Baghdad (Arabic,المدرسة النظامية), one of the first nezamiyehs, was established in 1065.
Alexander Fraser Tytler, Lord Woodhouselee FRSE (15 October 1747 – 5 January 1813) was a Scottish advocate, judge, writer and historian who served as Professor of Universal History, and Greek and Roman Antiquities at the University of Edinburgh.
Alexander Pope (21 May 1688 – 30 May 1744) was an 18th-century English poet.
Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (a) was a Russian poet, playwright, and novelist of the Romantic eraBasker, Michael.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Alfred the Great (Ælfrēd, Ælfrǣd, "elf counsel" or "wise elf"; 849 – 26 October 899) was King of Wessex from 871 to 899.
Allah (translit) is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions.
Ambiguity is a type of meaning in which several interpretations are plausible.
The American Literary Translators Association (ALTA) bridges cultural communication and understanding among countries and languages through the art and craft of literary translation.
In linguistic typology, an analytic language is a language that primarily conveys relationships between words in sentences by way of helper words (particles, prepositions, etc.) and word order, as opposed to utilizing inflections (changing the form of a word to convey its role in the sentence).
Analytic philosophy (sometimes analytical philosophy) is a style of philosophy that became dominant in the Western world at the beginning of the 20th century.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Ancient Greek literature refers to literature written in the Ancient Greek language from the earliest texts until the time of the Byzantine Empire.
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Ange Mlinko (born Philadelphia) is an American poet and critic.
Aniela Zagórska (Lublin, 26 December 1881 – 30 November 1943, Warsaw) was a Polish translator who rendered into Polish nearly all the works of Joseph Conrad.
Anka Muhlstein (born 1935) is a historian and biographer.
Antoine Berman (24 June 1942 – 1991) was a French translator, philosopher, historian and theorist of translation.
Antoine Marie Jean-Baptiste Roger, comte de Saint-Exupéry (29 June 1900 – 31 July 1944) was a French writer, poet, aristocrat, journalist, and pioneering aviator.
Antonio Francesco Weiss (born September 28, 1966) is Counselor to the Secretary of the US Treasury, serving since January, 2015.
Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.
Applied linguistics is an interdisciplinary field of linguistics which identifies, investigates, and offers solutions to language-related real-life problems.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
The Aramaic New Testament of the Bible exists in two versions: The official Assyrian Church of the East (known by some as the Nestorian Church) does not recognise the new "Assyrian Modern" edition, and traditionally considers the New Testament of the Peshitta to be the original New Testament, and Aramaic to be its original language.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
Art music (alternately called classical music, cultivated music, serious music, and canonic music) is music that implies advanced structural and theoretical considerationsJacques Siron, "Musique Savante (Serious music)", Dictionnaire des mots de la musique (Paris: Outre Mesure): 242.
Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.
An artist is a person engaged in an activity related to creating art, practicing the arts, or demonstrating an art.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
Athletics is a term encompassing the human competitive sports and games requiring physical skill, and the systems of training that prepare athletes for competition performance.
Yahoo! Babel Fish was a free Web-based multilingual translation application.
Babylon is a computer dictionary and translation program, developed by Babylon Software Ltd., an Israeli public company based in Or Yehuda.
Barry B. Powell is the Halls-Bascom Professor of Classics Emeritus at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, author of the widely used textbook Classical Myth and many other books.
The bassoon is a woodwind instrument in the double reed family that typically plays music written in the bass and tenor clefs, and occasionally the treble.
Bede (italic; 672/3 – 26 May 735), also known as Saint Bede, Venerable Bede, and Bede the Venerable (Bēda Venerābilis), was an English Benedictine monk at the monastery of St.
Benjamin Jonson (c. 11 June 1572 – 6 August 1637) was an English playwright, poet, actor, and literary critic, whose artistry exerted a lasting impact upon English poetry and stage comedy.
Benjamin Jowett (modern variant; 15 April 1817 – 1 October 1893) was renowned as an influential tutor and administrative reformer in the University of Oxford, a theologian and translator of Plato and Thucydides.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
The Bible has been translated into many languages from the biblical languages of Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek.
Biculturalism in sociology describes the co-existence, to varying degrees, of two originally distinct cultures.
A bilingual dictionary or translation dictionary is a specialized dictionary used to translate words or phrases from one language to another.
BLEU (bilingual evaluation understudy) is an algorithm for evaluating the quality of text which has been machine-translated from one natural language to another.
Anicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius, commonly called Boethius (also Boetius; 477–524 AD), was a Roman senator, consul, magister officiorum, and philosopher of the early 6th century.
Brighton is a seaside resort on the south coast of England which is part of the city of Brighton and Hove, East Sussex, 47 miles (75 km) south of London.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Charles Kenneth Scott Moncrieff, (25 September 1889 – 28 February 1930) was a Scottish writer, most famous for his English translation of most of Proust's À la recherche du temps perdu, which he published under the Shakespearean title Remembrance of Things Past.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
Calligraphy (from Greek: καλλιγραφία) is a visual art related to writing.
In linguistics, a calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation.
Canadian literature (widely abbreviated as CanLit) is literature originating from Canada.
Catherine Winkworth (13 September 1827 – 1 July 1878) was an English-language translator from London.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Córdoba, also called Cordoba or Cordova in English, is a city in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba.
Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information, on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or "inconvenient" as determined by government authorities.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
Alfred Charles Tomlinson, CBE (8 January 1927 – 22 August 2015) was a British poet, translator, academic and illustrator.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Chinese poetry is poetry written, spoken, or chanted in the Chinese language.
Chinese translation theory was born out of contact with vassal states during the Zhou Dynasty.
Choice involves decision making.
Chorale is the name of several related musical forms originating in the music genre of the Lutheran chorale.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
"Christian Church" is an ecclesiological term generally used by Protestants to refer to the whole group of people belonging to Christianity throughout the history of Christianity.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christopher de Bellaigue (born 1971 in London) is a journalist who has worked on the Middle East and South Asia since 1994.
Christopher Kasparek (born 1945) is a Scottish-born writer of Polish descent who has translated works by numerous authors, including Ignacy Krasicki, Bolesław Prus, Florian Znaniecki, Władysław Tatarkiewicz, Marian Rejewski, and Władysław Kozaczuk, as well as the Polish-Lithuanian Constitution of 3 May 1791.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
The civil service is independent of government and composed mainly of career bureaucrats hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leadership.
Classical Arabic is the form of the Arabic language used in Umayyad and Abbasid literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD.
Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
Claude Piron (26 February 1931 – 22 January 2008), also known by the pseudonym Johán Valano, was a Swiss psychologist, Esperantist, translator, and writer.
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.
Code-mixing is the mixing of two or more languages or language varieties in speech.
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules.
Computer-assisted translation,computer-aided translation or CAT is a form of language translation in which a human translator uses computer hardware to support and facilitate the translation process.
Concepts are mental representations, abstract objects or abilities that make up the fundamental building blocks of thoughts and beliefs.
A concordancer is a computer program that automatically constructs a concordance.
A connotation is a commonly understood cultural or emotional association that some word or phrase carries, in addition to its explicit or literal meaning, which is its denotation.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
In linguistics content words are words that name objects of reality and their qualities.
In semiotics, linguistics, sociology and anthropology, context refers to those objects or entities which surround a focal event, in these disciplines typically a communicative event, of some kind.
In vocal music, contrafactum (pl. contrafacta) is "the substitution of one text for another without substantial change to the music".
Contrastive linguistics is a practice-oriented linguistic approach that seeks to describe the differences and similarities between a pair of languages (hence it is occasionally called "differential linguistics").
Coptic or Coptic Egyptian (Bohairic: ti.met.rem.ən.khēmi and Sahidic: t.mənt.rəm.ən.kēme) is the latest stage of the Egyptian language, a northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Egypt until at least the 17th century.
Cosimo di Giovanni de' Medici (called 'the Elder' (Italian il Vecchio) and posthumously Father of the Fatherland (Latin pater patriae); 27 September 1389 – 1 August 1464) was an Italian banker and politician, the first member of the Medici political dynasty that served as de facto rulers of Florence during much of the Italian Renaissance.
The Council of Constance is the 15th-century ecumenical council recognized by the Catholic Church, held from 1414 to 1418 in the Bishopric of Constance.
Crowdsourcing is a sourcing model in which individuals or organizations obtain goods and services.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
Czesław Miłosz (30 June 1911 – 14 August 2004) was a Polish poet, prose writer, translator and diplomat.
Darwinism is a theory of biological evolution developed by the English naturalist Charles Darwin (1809–1882) and others, stating that all species of organisms arise and develop through the natural selection of small, inherited variations that increase the individual's ability to compete, survive, and reproduce.
David Bellos (born 1945) is an English-born translator and biographer.
David Bentley Hart (born 1965) is an American Orthodox Christian philosophical theologian, cultural commentator and polemicist.
David Bromwich is Sterling Professor of English at Yale University.
Denis C. Feeney, FBA (born 1955) is Professor of Classics and Giger Professor of Latin at Princeton University.
A dictionary, sometimes known as a wordbook, is a collection of words in one or more specific languages, often arranged alphabetically (or by radical and stroke for ideographic languages), which may include information on definitions, usage, etymologies, pronunciations, translation, etc.
Machine translation can use a method based on dictionary entries, which means that the words will be translated as a dictionary does – word by word, usually without much correlation of meaning between them.
A dilemma (δίλημμα "double proposition") is a problem offering two unrelated possibilities, neither of which is unambiguously acceptable or preferable.
Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states.
Douglas Richard Hofstadter (born February 15, 1945) is an American professor of cognitive science whose research focuses on the sense of self in relation to the external world, consciousness, analogy-making, artistic creation, literary translation, and discovery in mathematics and physics.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
Dynamic equivalence and formal equivalence, terms coined by Eugene Nida, are two dissimilar translation approaches, achieving differing level of literalness between the source text and the target text, as employed in biblical translation.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
The Ecclesiastical History of the English People (Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum), written by the Venerable Bede in about AD 731, is a history of the Christian Churches in England, and of England generally; its main focus is on the conflict between the pre-Schism Roman Rite and Celtic Christianity.
In ecology, a niche (CanE, or) is the fit of a species living under specific environmental conditions.
ECTACO Inc. (East-Coast Trading American Company Incorporated) is a US-based developer and manufacturer of hardware and software products for speech recognition and electronic translation.
Edmund Franciszek Maurycy Chojecki (Wiski, Podlasie, 15 October 1822 – 1 December 1899, Paris) was a Polish journalist, playwright, novelist, poet and translator.
Edward Balcerzan (born in Vovchansk, Kharkiv Oblast, Ukraine, 13 October 1937) is a Polish literary critic, poet, prose writer, and translator.
Edward FitzGerald (31 March 1809 – 14 June 1883) was an English poet and writer, best known as the poet of the first and most famous English translation of The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Egyptian–Hittite peace treaty, also known as the Eternal Treaty or the Silver Treaty, is the only ancient Near Eastern treaty for which both sides' versions have survived.
Eliot Weinberger (born 6 February 1949) is a contemporary American writer, essayist, editor, and translator.
The Elizabethan era is the epoch in the Tudor period of the history of England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558–1603).
Emily Rose Caroline Wilson (born 1971) is a British classicist and Professor of Classics at the University of Pennsylvania.
An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of information from either all branches of knowledge or from a particular field or discipline.
Encyclopedia Americana is one of the largest general encyclopedias in the English language.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from ancient Mesopotamia that is often regarded as the earliest surviving great work of literature.
Equinox Publishing Ltd is an independent academic publisher founded in 2003 by Janet Joyce and based in Sheffield.
Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (28 October 1466Gleason, John B. "The Birth Dates of John Colet and Erasmus of Rotterdam: Fresh Documentary Evidence," Renaissance Quarterly, The University of Chicago Press on behalf of the Renaissance Society of America, Vol. 32, No. 1 (Spring, 1979), pp. 73–76; – 12 July 1536), known as Erasmus or Erasmus of Rotterdam,Erasmus was his baptismal name, given after St. Erasmus of Formiae.
The ethics committee, according to Directive 2001/20/EC, is an independent body in a member state of the European Union, consisting of healthcare professionals and non-medical members, whose responsibility is to protect the rights, safety and well being of human subjects involved in a clinical trial and to provide public assurance of that protection, by, among other things, expressing an opinion on the clinical trial protocol, the suitability of the investigators involved in the trial and the adequacy of facilities, and on the methods and documents to be used to inform trial subjects and obtain their informed consent.
EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".
Eugene A. Nida (November 11, 1914 – August 25, 2011) was a linguist who developed the dynamic-equivalence Bible-translation theory and one of the founders of the modern discipline of Translation Studies.
European History Online (Europäische Geschichte Online, EGO) is an academic website that publishes articles on the history of Europe between the period of 1450 and 1950 according to the principle of open access.
The European Master's in Translation (EMT) is a partnership project between the Directorate-General for Translation (DGT) of the European Commission and a number of universities from a wide range of European countries.
Even Though the Whole World Is Burning is a feature documentary film about former United States Poet Laureate and environmental activist W. S. Merwin.
Expurgation, also known as bowdlerization, is a form of censorship which involves purging anything deemed noxious or offensive from an artistic work, or other type of writing of media.
Extensive reading, free reading, book flood, or reading for pleasure is a way of language learning, including foreign language learning, through large amounts of reading.
Ezra Weston Loomis Pound (30 October 1885 – 1 November 1972) was an expatriate American poet and critic, as well as a major figure in the early modernist poetry movement.
False cognates are pairs of words that seem to be cognates because of similar sounds and meaning, but have different etymologies; they can be within the same language or from different languages.
False friends are words in two languages that look or sound similar, but differ significantly in meaning.
Fez (فاس, Berber: Fas, ⴼⴰⵙ, Fès) is a city in northern inland Morocco and the capital of the Fas-Meknas administrative region.
Fidelity is the quality of faithfulness or loyalty.
In Confucian philosophy, filial piety (xiào) is a virtue of respect for one's parents, elders, and ancestors.
A film, also called a movie, motion picture, moving pícture, theatrical film, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
The flageolet is a woodwind instrument and a member of the fipple flute family.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
François de Salignac de la Mothe-Fénelon, more commonly known as François Fénelon (6 August 1651 – 7 January 1715), was a French Roman Catholic archbishop, theologian, poet and writer.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francis de Sales (François de Sales; Francesco di Sales); 21 August 156728 December 1622) was a Bishop of Geneva and is honored as a saint in the Catholic Church. He became noted for his deep faith and his gentle approach to the religious divisions in his land resulting from the Protestant Reformation. He is known also for his writings on the topic of spiritual direction and spiritual formation, particularly the Introduction to the Devout Life and the Treatise on the Love of God.
Free verse is an open form of poetry.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher (November 21, 1768 – February 12, 1834) was a German theologian, philosopher, and biblical scholar known for his attempt to reconcile the criticisms of the Enlightenment with traditional Protestant Christianity.
Gabriel (lit, lit, ⲅⲁⲃⲣⲓⲏⲗ, ܓܒܪܝܝܠ), in the Abrahamic religions, is an archangel who typically serves as God's messenger.
In computer science, garbage in, garbage out (GIGO) is where flawed, or nonsense input data produces nonsense output or "garbage".
Garry Wills (born May 22, 1934) is an American author, journalist, and historian, specializing in American history, politics, and religion, especially the history of the Catholic Church.
Gary F. Marcus (born February 8, 1970) is a scientist, author, and entrepreneur.
Gödel's incompleteness theorems are two theorems of mathematical logic that demonstrate the inherent limitations of every formal axiomatic system containing basic arithmetic.
Georgius Gemistus (Γεώργιος Γεμιστός; /1360 – 1452/1454), later called Plethon (Πλήθων), was one of the most renowned philosophers of the late Byzantine era.
Gender and Language is a triannual peer-reviewed academic journal covering research on and debates about feminist research on gender and language.
Genre is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed upon conventions developed over time.
Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1343 – 25 October 1400), known as the Father of English literature, is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages.
Georgian (ქართული ენა, translit.) is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
German literature comprises those literary texts written in the German language.
German Romanticism was the dominant intellectual movement of German-speaking countries in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, influencing philosophy, aesthetics, literature and criticism.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
Gilles Ménage (15 August 1613 – 23 July 1692) was a French scholar.
Giovanni Boccaccio (16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and an important Renaissance humanist.
A gloss is a brief notation, especially a marginal one or an interlinear one, of the meaning of a word or wording in a text.
Google Translate is a free multilingual machine translation service developed by Google, to translate text.
The Gospel of Judas is a Gnostic gospel whose content consists of conversations between Jesus and Judas Iscariot.
The Governor General's Awards are a collection of annual awards presented by the Governor General of Canada, recognizing distinction in numerous academic, artistic, and social fields.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Gulf of Mexico (Golfo de México) is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent.
Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
is a Japanese writer.
The Hejaz (اَلْـحِـجَـاز,, literally "the Barrier"), is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia.
Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.
Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization.
Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro Altamirano, Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca (1485 – December 2, 1547) was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of what is now mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century.
Hesiod (or; Ἡσίοδος Hēsíodos) was a Greek poet generally thought by scholars to have been active between 750 and 650 BC, around the same time as Homer.
The Hidatsa are a Siouan people.
The High German languages or High German dialects (hochdeutsche Mundarten) comprise the varieties of German spoken south of the Benrath and Uerdingen isoglosses in central and southern Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, and Luxembourg, as well as in neighboring portions of France (Alsace and northern Lorraine), Italy (South Tyrol), the Czech Republic (Bohemia), and Poland (Upper Silesia).
Hindi to Punjabi machine translation system, developed at Punjabi University, Patiala by Gurpreet Singh Lehal and Dr.
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
The history of Christianity during the Middle Ages is the history of Christianity between the Fall of Rome and the onset of the Protestant Reformation during the early 16th century, the development usually taken to mark the beginning of modern Christianity.
The history of the world is the history of humanity (or human history), as determined from archaeology, anthropology, genetics, linguistics, and other disciplines; and, for periods since the invention of writing, from recorded history and from secondary sources and studies.
The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
Homophonic translation renders a text in one language into a near-homophonic text in another language, usually with no attempt to preserve the original meaning of the text.
Quintus Horatius Flaccus (December 8, 65 BC – November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus (also known as Octavian).
The House of Saud (Āl Suʻūd) is the ruling royal family of Saudi Arabia.
Humour in translation can be caused by translation errors, because of irregularities and discrepancies between certain items that translators attempt to translate.
A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification.
An idiom (idiom, "special property", from translite, "special feature, special phrasing, a peculiarity", f. translit, "one's own") is a phrase or an expression that has a figurative, or sometimes literal, meaning.
Idiom is the syntactical, grammatical, or structural form peculiar to a language.
Ignacy Krasicki (3 February 173514 March 1801), from 1766 Prince-Bishop of Warmia (in German, Ermland) and from 1795 Archbishop of Gniezno (thus, Primate of Poland), was Poland's leading Enlightenment poet"Ignacy Krasicki", Encyklopedia Polski (Encyclopedia of Poland), p. 325.
Ignorance is a lack of knowledge.
Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.
In Search of Lost Time (À la recherche du temps perdu) – previously also translated as Remembrance of Things Past – is a novel in seven volumes, written by Marcel Proust (1871–1922).
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Informed consent is a process for getting permission before conducting a healthcare intervention on a person, or for disclosing personal information.
An institutional review board (IRB), also known as an independent ethics committee (IEC), ethical review board (ERB), or research ethics board (REB), is a type of committee that applies research ethics by reviewing the methods proposed for research to ensure that they are ethical.
Intelligence has been defined in many different ways to include the capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, and problem solving.
The Fédération Internationale des Traducteurs (English: International Federation of Translators) is an international grouping of associations of translators, interpreters and terminologists.
In computing, internationalization and localization are means of adapting computer software to different languages, regional differences and technical requirements of a target locale.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
Interpreting notes are used by some interpreters, who re-express oral communications (such as speeches) in whole or in part.
The Inttranet is a multilingual portal for and global network of professional interpreters and translators, fully compatible with ISO 9001 quality assurance requirements, and was officially inaugurated in October 2002.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jakub Wujek (1541 – 27 April 1597) son of Maciej Wujek; a Polish Jesuit, religious writer, Doctor of Theology, Vice-Chancellor of the Vilnius Academy and translator of the Bible into Polish.
James Macpherson (Gaelic: Seumas MacMhuirich or Seumas Mac a' Phearsain; 27 October 1736 – 17 February 1796) was a Scottish writer, poet, literary collector and politician, known as the "translator" of the Ossian cycle of epic poems.
Count Jan Potocki (8 March 1761 – 23 December 1815) was a Polish nobleman, Polish Army Captain of Engineers, ethnologist, Egyptologist, linguist, traveler, adventurer, and popular author of the Enlightenment period, whose life and exploits made him a legendary figure in his homeland.
are a nation and an ethnic group that is native to Japan and makes up 98.5% of the total population of that country.
Jean de La Fontaine (8 July 162113 April 1695) was a French fabulist and one of the most widely read French poets of the 17th century.
Jean Froissart (Old French, Middle French Jehan, –) was a French-speaking medieval author and court historian from the Low Countries, who wrote several works, including Chronicles and Meliador, a long Arthurian romance, and a large body of poetry, both short lyrical forms, as well as longer narrative poems.
Jerome (Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; c. 27 March 347 – 30 September 420) was a priest, confessor, theologian, and historian.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Johann Gottfried (after 1802, von) Herder (25 August 174418 December 1803) was a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic.
John Dryden (–) was an English poet, literary critic, translator, and playwright who was made England's first Poet Laureate in 1668.
John Wycliffe (also spelled Wyclif, Wycliff, Wiclef, Wicliffe, Wickliffe; 1320s – 31 December 1384) was an English scholastic philosopher, theologian, Biblical translator, reformer, English priest, and a seminary professor at the University of Oxford.
Jonathan Galassi (born 1949 in Seattle, Washington) is the president and publisher of Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Jorge Francisco Isidoro Luis Borges Acevedo (24 August 1899 – 14 June 1986) was an Argentine short-story writer, essayist, poet and translator, and a key figure in Spanish-language literature.
Joseph Conrad (born Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski; 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924) was a Polish-British writer regarded as one of the greatest novelists to write in the English language.
, a method of annotating Classical Chinese so that it can be read in Japanese, was used from the Heian period to the mid-20th century.
The King James Only movement is a movement within Anglosphere Protestantism which asserts the King James Version of the Bible as being superior to all other English translations.
The King James Version (KJV), also known as the King James Bible (KJB) or simply the Version (AV), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, begun in 1604 and completed in 1611.
Kurt Friedrich Gödel (April 28, 1906 – January 14, 1978) was an Austrian, and later American, logician, mathematician, and philosopher.
La Malinche (c. 1496 or c. 1501 – c. 1529), known also as Malinalli, Malintzin or Doña Marina, was a Nahua woman from the Mexican Gulf Coast, who played a key role in the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, acting as an interpreter, advisor, and intermediary for the Spanish conquistador, Hernán Cortés.
"La Marseillaise" is the national anthem of France.
La Pléiade is the name given to a group of 16th-century French Renaissance poets whose principal members were Pierre de Ronsard, Joachim du Bellay and Jean-Antoine de Baïf.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
The language industry is the sector of activity dedicated to facilitating multilingual communication, both oral and written.
Interpretation or interpreting is a translational activity in which one produces a first and final translation on the basis of a one-time exposure to an utterance in a source language.
Language localisation (or localization, see spelling-differences) is the process of adapting a product that has been previously translated into multiple languages to a specific country or region (from Latin locus (place) and the English term locale, "a place where something happens or is set").
Language professionals are people who support authors in their quest to publish by helping produce documents of appropriate scope and quality (in any language).
Language transfer (also known as L1 interference, linguistic interference, and crosslinguistic influence) refers to speakers or writers applying knowledge from one language to another language.
Most languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family.
Languages spoken in India belong to several language families, the major ones being the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by 76.5% of Indians and the Dravidian languages spoken by 20.5% of Indians.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lawrence Venuti (born 1953) is an American translation theorist, translation historian, and a translator from Italian, French, and Catalan.
Le Morte d'Arthur (originally spelled Le Morte Darthur, Middle French for "the death of Arthur") is a reworking of existing tales by Sir Thomas Malory about the legendary King Arthur, Guinevere, Lancelot, Merlin, and the Knights of the Round Table.
Le Ton beau de Marot: In Praise of the Music of Language is a 1997 book by Douglas Hofstadter in which he explores the meaning, strengths, failings, and beauty of translation.
Legal translation is the translation of texts within the field of law.
The Leibniz Institute of European History (IEG) in Mainz, Germany, is an independent, public research institute that carries out and promotes historical research on the foundations of Europe in the early and late Modern period.
The Lemhi Shoshone are a tribe of Northern Shoshone, called the Akaitikka, Agaidika, or "Eaters of Salmon."Murphy and Murphy, 306 The name "Lemhi" comes from Fort Lemhi, a Mormon mission to this group.
The Lewis and Clark Expedition from May 1804 to September 1806, also known as the Corps of Discovery Expedition, was the first American expedition to cross the western portion of the United States.
Lexicography is divided into two separate but equally important groups.
Linda Gaboriau, née Johnson,"Decoding the message a translator's challenge".
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
Linguistic validation is the process of investigating the reliability, conceptual equivalence, and content validityU.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER), Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) December 2009 of translations of patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
This is a list of Archbishops of the Archdiocese of Gniezno, who are simultaneously Primates of Poland since 1418.
A number of Latin translations of modern literature have been made to bolster interest in the language.
Listening is to give one's attention to sound or action.
Literal translation, direct translation, or word-for-word translation is the rendering of text from one language to another one word at a time (Latin: "verbum pro verbo") with or without conveying the sense of the original whole.
Literary adaptation is the adapting of a literary source (e.g. a novel, short story, poem) to another genre or medium, such as a film, stage play, or video game.
Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature.
A literary language is the form of a language used in the writing of the language.
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Gerald Hugh Tyrwhitt-Wilson, 14th Baron Berners (18 September 188319 April 1950), also known as Gerald Tyrwhitt, was a British composer, novelist, painter and aesthete.
Low German or Low Saxon (Plattdütsch, Plattdüütsch, Plattdütsk, Plattduitsk, Nedersaksies; Plattdeutsch, Niederdeutsch; Nederduits) is a West Germanic language spoken mainly in northern Germany and the eastern part of the Netherlands.
Machine translation, sometimes referred to by the abbreviation MT (not to be confused with computer-aided translation, machine-aided human translation (MAHT) or interactive translation) is a sub-field of computational linguistics that investigates the use of software to translate text or speech from one language to another.
Satellite view of Mainz (south of the Rhine) and Wiesbaden Mainz (Mogontiacum, Mayence) is the capital and largest city of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany.
Malise Walter Maitland Knox Hore-Ruthven (born 14 May 1942) is an Anglo-Irish academic and writer.
In articulatory phonetics, the manner of articulation is the configuration and interaction of the articulators (speech organs such as the tongue, lips, and palate) when making a speech sound.
Valentin Louis Georges Eugène Marcel Proust (10 July 1871 – 18 November 1922), known as Marcel Proust, was a French novelist, critic, and essayist best known for his monumental novel À la recherche du temps perdu (In Search of Lost Time; earlier rendered as Remembrance of Things Past), published in seven parts between 1913 and 1927.
Mario Andrew Pei (1901–1978) was an Italian-American linguist and polyglot who wrote a number of popular books known for their accessibility to readers without a professional background in linguistics.
Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, humorist, entrepreneur, publisher, and lecturer.
A market is one of the many varieties of systems, institutions, procedures, social relations and infrastructures whereby parties engage in exchange.
Marsilio Ficino (Latin name: Marsilius Ficinus; 19 October 1433 – 1 October 1499) was an Italian scholar and Catholic priest who was one of the most influential humanist philosophers of the early Italian Renaissance.
Martin Luther, (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.
A martyr (Greek: μάρτυς, mártys, "witness"; stem μάρτυρ-, mártyr-) is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a belief or cause as demanded by an external party.
Mary Snell-Hornby (born Mirfield, Yorkshire, 2 April 1940), - Zentrum für Translationswissenschaft Wien is a British-Austrian translator and scholar.
The Matter of Britain is the body of Medieval literature and legendary material associated with Great Britain, and sometimes Brittany, and the legendary kings and heroes associated with it, particularly King Arthur.
The Maya peoples are a large group of Indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica.
In linguistics, meaning is the information or concepts that a sender intends to convey, or does convey, in communication with a receiver.
In linguistics, measure words are words (or morphemes) that are used in combination with a numeral to indicate an amount of something represented by some noun.
Medical translation is the translation of technical, regulatory, clinical or marketing documentation, software or training curriculum for the pharmaceutical, medical device or healthcare fields.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Metaphrase is a term referring to literal translation, i.e., "word by word and line by line" translation.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Michael Wood is professor emeritus of English at Princeton University.
Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni or more commonly known by his first name Michelangelo (6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564) was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet of the High Renaissance born in the Republic of Florence, who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The middle class is a class of people in the middle of a social hierarchy.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Mobile translation refers to any electronic device or software application that provides audio translation.
Many attempts have been made to translate the Bible into modern English, which in this context is defined as the form of English in use after 1800 (different from the linguistic meaning of Modern English).
A monk (from μοναχός, monachos, "single, solitary" via Latin monachus) is a person who practices religious asceticism by monastic living, either alone or with any number of other monks.
Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, man of letters, and political philosopher.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Mosesמֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Mūše; موسى; Mωϋσῆς was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions.
A mufti (مفتي) is an Islamic scholar who interprets and expounds Islamic law (Sharia and fiqh).
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Muḥammad 'Abduh (1849 – 11 July 1905) (also spelled Mohammed Abduh, محمد عبده) was an Egyptian Islamic jurist, religious scholar and liberal reformer, regarded as one of the key founding figures of Islamic Modernism, sometimes called Neo-Mu’tazilism after the medieval Islamic school of theology based on rationalism, Muʿtazila.
Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha (محمد علی پاشا المسعود بن آغا; محمد علي باشا / ALA-LC: Muḥammad ‘Alī Bāshā; Albanian: Mehmet Ali Pasha; Turkish: Kavalalı Mehmet Ali Paşa; 4 March 1769 – 2 August 1849) was an Ottoman Albanian commander in the Ottoman army, who rose to the rank of Pasha, and became Wāli, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan with the Ottomans' temporary approval.
Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers.
Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.
A musician is a person who plays a musical instrument or is musically talented.
The Society of the Muslim Brothers (جماعة الإخوان المسلمين), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood (الإخوان المسلمون), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna in 1928.
The Nahuas are a group of indigenous people of Mexico and El Salvador.
The Napoleonic Code (officially Code civil des Français, referred to as (le) Code civil) is the French civil code established under Napoléon I in 1804.
National Translation Mission (NTM) is a Government of India initiative to make knowledge texts accessible, in all Indian languages listed in the VIII schedule of the Constitution, through translation.
In neuropsychology, linguistics, and the philosophy of language, a natural language or ordinary language is any language that has evolved naturally in humans through use and repetition without conscious planning or premeditation.
A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.
Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
Newsweek is an American weekly magazine founded in 1933.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
A note is a string of text placed at the bottom of a page in a book or document or at the end of a chapter, volume or the whole text.
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
A novel is a relatively long work of narrative fiction, normally in prose, which is typically published as a book.
A novelist is an author or writer of novels, though often novelists also write in other genres of both fiction and non-fiction.
National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.
Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
Octavio Paz Lozano (March 31, 1914 – April 19, 1998) was a Mexican poet and diplomat.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
Oliver Leaman is a Professor of Philosophy and Zantker Professor of Judaic Studies.
Omar Khayyam (عمر خیّام; 18 May 1048 – 4 December 1131) was a Persian mathematician, astronomer, and poet.
Omniscience, mainly in religion, is the capacity to know everything that there is to know.
On Linguistic Aspects of Translation is an essay written by Russian linguist Roman Jakobson in 1959.
Onufry Kopczyński (30 November 1736 – 14 February 1817) was an important educator and grammarian of the Polish language during the Polish Enlightenment.
Opera (English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere) is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers.
Ossian (Irish Gaelic/Scottish Gaelic: Oisean) is the narrator and purported author of a cycle of epic poems published by the Scottish poet James Macpherson from 1760.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Publius Ovidius Naso (20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known as Ovid in the English-speaking world, was a Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface (support base).
In grammar, parallelism, also known as parallel structure or parallel construction, is a balance within one or more sentences of similar phrases or clauses that have the same grammatical structure.
A paraphrase is a restatement of the meaning of a text or passage using other words.
Passive voice is a grammatical voice common in many languages.
A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism, Eastern Orthodoxy, or particular branches of Islam, is regarded as the heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family or person.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
Perfection is, broadly, a state of completeness and flawlessness.
Eugene Perry Link, Jr. (born 1944) is Chancellorial Chair Professor for Innovative Teaching Comparative Literature and Foreign Languages in College of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences at the University of California, Riverside and Emeritus Professor of East Asian Studies at Princeton University.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
Francesco Petrarca (July 20, 1304 – July 18/19, 1374), commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was a scholar and poet of Renaissance Italy who was one of the earliest humanists.
Phono-semantic matching (PSM) is the incorporation of a word into one language from another, often creating a neologism), where the word's non-native quality is hidden by replacing it with phonetically and semantically similar words or roots from the adopting language. Thus, the approximate sound and meaning of the original expression in the source language are preserved, though the new expression (the PSM) in the target language may sound native. Phono-semantic matching is distinct from calquing, which includes (semantic) translation but does not include phonetic matching (i.e. retaining the approximate sound of the borrowed word through matching it with a similar-sounding pre-existent word or morpheme in the target language). At the same time, phono-semantic matching is also distinct from homophonic translation, which retains the sound of a word but not the meaning.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
In linguistics, speech synthesis, and music, the pitch contour of a sound is a function or curve that tracks the perceived pitch of the sound over time.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
A poet is a person who creates poetry.
Poetry (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.
The Polish Institute of Arts and Sciences of America is a Polish-American scholarly institution headquartered in Manhattan (New York City), at 208 East 30th Street.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Polysemy (or; from πολυ-, poly-, "many" and σῆμα, sêma, "sign") is the capacity for a sign (such as a word, phrase, or symbol) to have multiple meanings (that is, multiple semes or sememes and thus multiple senses), usually related by contiguity of meaning within a semantic field.
Pop-up ads or pop-ups are forms of online advertising on the World Wide Web.
Pope Martin V (Martinus V; January/February 1369 – 20 February 1431), born Otto (or Oddone) Colonna, was Pope from 11 November 1417 to his death in 1431.
Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry.
Post-editing (or postediting) is the process whereby humans amend machine-generated translation to achieve an acceptable final product.
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).
Preposition stranding, sometimes called P-stranding, is the syntactic construction in which a preposition with an object occurs somewhere other than immediately adjacent to its object; for example, at the end of a sentence.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template.
A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink.
In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (abbreviated) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.
In Islam, Al-sīra al-Nabawiyya (Prophetic biography), Sīrat Rasūl Allāh (Life of the Messenger of God), or just Al-sīra are the traditional Muslim biographies of Muhammad from which, in addition to the Quran and trustable Hadiths, most historical information about his life and the early period of Islam is derived.
Prose is a form of language that exhibits a natural flow of speech and grammatical structure rather than a rhythmic structure as in traditional poetry, where the common unit of verse is based on meter or rhyme.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
The pun, also called paronomasia, is a form of word play that exploits multiple meanings of a term, or of similar-sounding words, for an intended humorous or rhetorical effect.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Ramayana (रामायणम्) is an ancient Indian epic poem which narrates the struggle of the divine prince Rama to rescue his wife Sita from the demon king Ravana.
Reading is a complex "cognitive process" of decoding symbols in order to construct or derive meaning (reading comprehension).
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
A refrain (from Vulgar Latin refringere, "to repeat", and later from Old French refraindre) is the line or lines that are repeated in music or in verse; the "chorus" of a song.
In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
Religious texts (also known as scripture, or scriptures, from the Latin scriptura, meaning "writing") are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
A rhyme is a repetition of similar sounds (or the same sound) in two or more words, most often in the final syllables of lines in poems and songs.
Rhythm (from Greek ῥυθμός, rhythmos, "any regular recurring motion, symmetry") generally means a "movement marked by the regulated succession of strong and weak elements, or of opposite or different conditions".
Ribaldry, or blue comedy, is humorous entertainment that ranges from bordering on indelicacy to gross indecency.
The River Swift is a 14-mile (23 km) long tributary of the River Avon that rises in south Leicestershire, and flows through the town of Lutterworth before joining the Avon at its confluence in Warwickshire in the English Midlands.
Robert Dickson (July 23, 1944 – March 19, 2007).
Robert Lee Frost (March26, 1874January29, 1963) was an American poet.
Robert Reuven Stiller (25 January 1928 – 10 December 2016) was a Polish polyglot, writer, poet, translator, and editor.
Rochester is a city on the southern shore of Lake Ontario in western New York.
Roger Bacon (Rogerus or Rogerius Baconus, Baconis, also Rogerus), also known by the scholastic accolade Doctor, was an English philosopher and Franciscan friar who placed considerable emphasis on the study of nature through empiricism.
Le Roman de la Rose (English: The Romance of the Rose) is a medieval French poem styled as an allegorical dream vision.
Roman Osipovich Jakobson (Рома́н О́сипович Якобсо́н; October 11, 1896Kucera, Henry. 1983. "Roman Jakobson." Language: Journal of the Linguistic Society of America 59(4): 871–883. – July 18,, compiled by Stephen Rudy 1982) was a Russian–American linguist and literary theorist.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám is the title that Edward FitzGerald gave to his 1859 translation of a selection of quatrains (rubāʿiyāt) attributed to Omar Khayyam (1048–1131), dubbed "the Astronomer-Poet of Persia".
Rudolf Franz Flesch (Vienna, 8 May 1911 – New York, 5 October 1986) was an Austrian-born naturalised American author (noted for his book Why Johnny Can't Read), and also a readability expert and writing consultant who was a vigorous proponent of plain English in the United States.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Sacagawea (also Sakakawea or Sacajawea; May 1788 – December 20, 1812) was a Lemhi Shoshone woman who is known for her help to the Lewis and Clark Expedition in achieving their chartered mission objectives by exploring the Louisiana Territory.
Samuel Johnson LL.D. (18 September 1709 – 13 December 1784), often referred to as Dr.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
A scalpel, or lancet, is a small and extremely sharp bladed instrument used for surgery, anatomical dissection, podiatry and various arts and crafts (called a hobby knife).
A schism (pronounced, or, less commonly) is a division between people, usually belonging to an organization, movement, or religious denomination.
Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ("scholastics", or "schoolmen") of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
Seamus Justin Heaney (13 April 1939 – 30 August 2013) was an Irish poet, playwright and translator.
A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person.
Self-translation is a translation of a source text into a target text by the writer of the source text.
A sememe is a semantic language unit of meaning, analogous to a morpheme.
Semiotics (also called semiotic studies) is the study of meaning-making, the study of sign process (semiosis) and meaningful communication.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
In non-functional linguistics, a sentence is a textual unit consisting of one or more words that are grammatically linked.
The Septuagint or LXX (from the septuāgintā literally "seventy"; sometimes called the Greek Old Testament) is the earliest extant Greek translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew.
Sheikh (pronounced, or; شيخ, mostly pronounced, plural شيوخ)—also transliterated Sheik, Shykh, Shaik, Shayk, Shaykh, Cheikh, Shekh, and Shaikh—is an honorific title in the Arabic language.
Sheila Leah Fischman, (born 1 December 1937) is a Canadian translator who specializes in the translation of works of contemporary Quebec literature.
A short story is a piece of prose fiction that typically can be read in one sitting and focuses on a self-contained incident or series of linked incidents, with the intent of evoking a "single effect" or mood, however there are many exceptions to this.
Sign languages (also known as signed languages) are languages that use manual communication to convey meaning.
Sino-Xenic or Sinoxenic pronunciations are regular systems for reading Chinese characters in Japan, Korea and Vietnam, originating in medieval times and the source of large-scale borrowings of Chinese words into the Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese languages, none of which are genetically related to Chinese.
Skepticism (American English) or scepticism (British English, Australian English) is generally any questioning attitude or doubt towards one or more items of putative knowledge or belief.
Skopos theory (Skopostheorie) is a concept from the field of translation studies.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs, also small and medium enterprises) or small and medium-sized businesses (SMBs) are businesses whose personnel numbers fall below certain limits.
In sociology, the social organism is an ideological concept in which a society or social structure is viewed as a "living organism".
In translation, the source language is the language being translated from; it is the antonym of the target language, which is the language being translated to.
A source text is a text (sometimes oral) from which information or ideas are derived.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Speech is the vocalized form of communication used by humans and some animals, which is based upon the syntactic combination of items drawn from the lexicon.
A spoken language is a language produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to a written language.
In poetry, a stanza (from Italian stanza, "room") is a grouped set of lines within a poem, usually set off from other stanzas by a blank line or indentation.
StarDict, developed by Hu Zheng (胡正), is a free GUI released under the GPL for accessing StarDict dictionary files (a dictionary shell).
Stephen Jay Greenblatt (born November 7, 1943) is an American Shakespearean, literary historian, and author.
Karl Stig-Erland "Stieg" Larsson (15 August 1954 – 9 November 2004) was a Swedish journalist and writer.
Stuart Berg Flexner (1928–1990) was a lexicographer, editor and author, noted for his books on the origins of American words and expressions, including I Hear America Talking and Listening to America; as co-editor of the Dictionary of American Slang and as chief editor of the Random House Dictionary, Second Edition.
Stylistics, a branch of applied linguistics, is the study and interpretation of texts in regard to their linguistic and tonal style.
The subject in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John was hit by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, in this case 'John'.
Surtitles, also known as supertitles, are translated or transcribed lyrics/dialogue projected above a stage or displayed on a screen, commonly used in opera or other musical performances.
A sutra (Sanskrit: IAST: sūtra; Pali: sutta) is a religious discourse (teaching) in text form originating from the spiritual traditions of India, particularly Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism.
The Sykes–Picot Agreement, officially known as the Asia Minor Agreement, was a secret 1916 agreement between the United Kingdom and France, to which the Russian Empire assented.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
In linguistic typology, a synthetic language is a language with a high morpheme-per-word ratio, as opposed to a low morpheme-per-word ratio in what is described as an analytic language.
Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic.
The Tabernacle (מִשְׁכַּן, mishkan, "residence" or "dwelling place"), according to the Tanakh, was the portable earthly dwelling place of God amongst the children of Israel from the time of the Exodus from Egypt through the conquering of the land of Canaan.
Tadeusz Kamil Marcjan Żeleński (better known by his pen name, Tadeusz Boy-Żeleński; 21 December 1874 – 4 July 1941) was a Polish stage writer, poet, critic and, above all, the translator of over 100 French literary classics into Polish.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
In translation, the target language, also called the receptor language, is the language being translated to.
A target text (TT) is a translated text written in the intended target language, which is the result of a translation from a given source text.
Technical translation is a type of specialized translation involving the translation of documents produced by technical writers (owner's manuals, user guides, etc.), or more specifically, texts which relate to technological subject areas or texts which deal with the practical application of scientific and technological information.
Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".
Publius Terentius Afer (c. 195/185 – c. 159? BC), better known in English as Terence, was a Roman playwright during the Roman Republic, of Berber descent.
Terminology is the study of terms and their use.
The Canterbury Tales (Tales of Caunterbury) is a collection of 24 stories that runs to over 17,000 lines written in Middle English by Geoffrey Chaucer between 1387 and 1400.
"The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County" is an 1865 short story by Mark Twain.
The Consolation of Philosophy (De consolatione philosophiae) is a philosophical work by Boethius, written around the year 524.
The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo (original title in Män som hatar kvinnor; in English: Men Who Hate Women) is a psychological thriller novel by the late Swedish author and journalist Stieg Larsson (1954–2004), which was published posthumously in 2005 to become an international bestseller.
"The Knight's Tale" (The Knightes Tale) is the first tale from Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales.
The Little Prince (French: Le Petit Prince), first published in April 1943, is a novella, the most famous work of French aristocrat, writer, poet, and pioneering aviator Antoine de Saint-Exupéry.
The Manuscript Found in Saragossa (also known in English as The Saragossa Manuscript) is a frame-tale novel written in French at the turn of 18th and 19th century by Polish author Count Jan Potocki (1761–1815).
The New York Review of Books (or NYREV or NYRB) is a semi-monthly magazine with articles on literature, culture, economics, science and current affairs.
The Paris Review is a quarterly English language literary magazine established in Paris in 1953 by Harold L. Humes, Peter Matthiessen, and George Plimpton.
The Polish Review is an English-language academic journal published quarterly in New York City by the Polish Institute of Arts and Sciences of America.
is a classic work of Japanese literature written by the noblewoman and lady-in-waiting Murasaki Shikibu in the early years of the 11th century.
Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of fine art that uses live performers, typically actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place, often a stage.
In general usage, a thesaurus is a reference work that lists words grouped together according to similarity of meaning (containing synonyms and sometimes antonyms), in contrast to a dictionary, which provides definitions for words, and generally lists them in alphabetical order.
Sir Thomas Malory (c. 1415 – 14 March 1471) was an English writer, the author or compiler of Le Morte d'Arthur (originally titled, The Whole Book of King Arthur and His Noble Knights of the Round table).
Till Eulenspiegel (Low German: Dyl Ulenspegel) is the protagonist of a German chapbook published in 1515 (a first edition of c. 1510/12 is preserved fragmentarily) with a possible background in earlier Middle Low German folklore.
Timothy Harold Parks (born 19 December 1954 in Manchester) is a British novelist, translator, author and professor of literature.
Toledo is a city and municipality located in central Spain; it is the capital of the province of Toledo and the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
Tours is a city located in the centre-west of France.
Transcription in the linguistic sense is the systematic representation of language in written form.
Translating for legal equivalence is the production of translations that are acceptable by a legal jurisdiction.
Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text.
Translation criticism is the systematic study, evaluation, and interpretation of different aspects of translated works.
A Translation management system (TMS) (formerly globalization management system (GMS)) is a type of software for automating many parts of the human language translation process and maximizing translator efficiency.
A translation memory (TM) is a database that stores "segments", which can be sentences, paragraphs or sentence-like units (headings, titles or elements in a list) that have previously been translated, in order to aid human translators.
Translation studies is an academic interdiscipline dealing with the systematic study of the theory, description and application of translation, interpreting, and localization.
Like any supplier of goods or services, a translator potentially bears ethical and legal obligations toward his patron or employer.
Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e).
Linguistic transparency is a phrase which is used in multiple, overlapping subjects in the fields of linguistics and the philosophy of language.
Troilus and Criseyde is an epic poem by Geoffrey Chaucer which re-tells in Middle English the tragic story of the lovers Troilus and Criseyde set against a backdrop of war during the Siege of Troy.
The Tudor period is the period between 1485 and 1603 in England and Wales and includes the Elizabethan period during the reign of Elizabeth I until 1603.
The Turing test, developed by Alan Turing in 1950, is a test of a machine's ability to exhibit intelligent behavior equivalent to, or indistinguishable from, that of a human.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
The Tyndale Bible generally refers to the body of biblical translations by William Tyndale.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
The University of al-Qarawiyyin, also written Al Quaraouiyine or Al-Karaouine (Université Al Quaraouiyine), is a university located in Fez, Morocco.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
Untranslatability is a property of a text, or of any utterance, in one language, for which no equivalent text or utterance can be found in another language when translated.
Vasily Zhukovsky was the foremost Russian poet of the 1810s and a leading figure in Russian literature in the first half of the 19th century.
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).
A vernacular, or vernacular language, is the language or variety of a language used in everyday life by the common people of a specific population.
Verse–chorus form is a musical form common in popular music, used in blues and rock and roll since the 1950s, and predominant in rock music since the 1960s.
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.
Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov (Влади́мир Влади́мирович Набо́ков, also known by the pen name Vladimir Sirin; 2 July 1977) was a Russian-American novelist, poet, translator and entomologist.
A vocabulary is a set of familiar words within a person's language.
Vocal music is a type of music performed by one or more singers, either with instrumental accompaniment, or without instrumental accompaniment (a cappella), in which singing provides the main focus of the piece.
In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc.). When the subject is the agent or doer of the action, the verb is in the active voice.
François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.
The Vulgate is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible that became the Catholic Church's officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible during the 16th century.
William Stanley Merwin (born September 30, 1927) is an American poet, credited with over fifty books of poetry, translation and prose.
Wang Wei (699–759) was a Tang dynasty Chinese poet, musician, painter, and statesman.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Władysław Tatarkiewicz (3 April 1886, Warsaw – 4 April 1980, Warsaw) was a Polish philosopher, historian of philosophy, historian of art, esthetician, and ethicist.
The Wen Xuan, or Selections of Refined Literature, is one of the earliest and most important anthologies of Chinese poetry and literature, and is one of the world's oldest literary anthologies to be arranged by topic.
Wessex (Westseaxna rīce, the "kingdom of the West Saxons") was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom in the south of Great Britain, from 519 until England was unified by Æthelstan in the early 10th century.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
Western Christianity is the type of Christianity which developed in the areas of the former Western Roman Empire.
The Western Xia, also known as the Xi Xia Empire, to the Mongols as the Tangut Empire and to the Tangut people themselves and to the Tibetans as Mi-nyak,Stein (1972), pp.
Sir William Empson (27 September 1906 – 15 April 1984) was an English literary critic and poet, widely influential for his practice of closely reading literary works, a practice fundamental to New Criticism.
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
William Tyndale (sometimes spelled Tynsdale, Tindall, Tindill, Tyndall; &ndash) was an English scholar who became a leading figure in the Protestant Reformation in the years leading up to his execution.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
Woodblock printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns used widely throughout East Asia and originating in China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and later paper.
Woordenboek der Nederlandsche Taal (Dictionary of the Dutch language, commonly abbreviated WNT) is a dictionary of the Dutch language.
In linguistics, a word is the smallest element that can be uttered in isolation with objective or practical meaning.
In linguistics, word order typology is the study of the order of the syntactic constituents of a language, and how different languages can employ different orders.
In computational linguistics, word-sense disambiguation (WSD) is an open problem of natural language processing and ontology.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language and emotion with signs and symbols.
In literature, writing style often refers to the manner of expressing thought in language characteristic of an individual, period, school, or nation.
Wycliffe's Bible is the name now given to a group of Bible translations into Middle English that were made under the direction of John Wycliffe.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
Zdzisław Najder (born in Warsaw, Poland, 31 October 1930) is a Polish literary historian, critic, and political activist.
Accreditation of translators, Back translation, Back-translated, Back-translation, English translations, Fanyi, Language translation, Literary Translation, Literary translation, Literary translator, Mistranslate, Mistranslation, Modern translation, Spanish to english, Spanish translation, Tranlated, Translate, Translated, Translater, Translates, Translating, Translation historian, Translation process, Translation technology, Translational, Translator, Translators, Tranſlate, Tranſlation, Tranſlator, Xlation.