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Translation (biology)

Index Translation (biology)

In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus. [1]

89 relations: A-site, Activation energy, Amino acid, Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase, Aminoacyl-tRNA, Anisomycin, Antibiotic, Ascidiacea, Base pair, Biomolecular structure, Blepharisma, C-terminus, Cell (biology), Cell nucleus, Chloramphenicol, Chlorophyceae, Ciliate, Covalent bond, Cycloheximide, Cytosol, Dasycladaceae, Directionality (molecular biology), DNA, DNA codon table, E-site, Echinoderm, EEF2, EF-G, EF-Tu, Endoplasmic reticulum, Enzyme, Erythromycin, Ester, Eukaryote, Eukaryotic small ribosomal subunit (40S), Expanded genetic code, Flatworm, GenBank, Gene expression, Genetic code, Genetics, Hexamita, Host (biology), Hydrophile, Hydrophobe, Infection, Initiation factor, Invertebrate, Leucine, Messenger RNA, ..., Methionine, Mitochondrion, Mold, Molecular biology, Mycoplasma, National Center for Biotechnology Information, Nucleotide, P-site, Peptide, Plastid, Prokaryote, Protein folding, Protein methods, Protein production, Protein structure prediction, Protein targeting, Protozoa, Puromycin, Radiata, Reading frame, Release factor, Ribosomal RNA, Ribosome, RNA, Scenedesmus obliquus, Secretion, Selenocysteine, Spiroplasma, Start codon, Streptomycin, Structural formula, Tetracycline, Transcription (biology), Transfer RNA, Translocase, Trematoda, Vesicle (biology and chemistry), W. H. Freeman and Company, Yeast. Expand index (39 more) »


The A-site (A for aminoacyl) of a ribosome is a binding site for charged t-RNA molecules during protein synthesis.

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Activation energy

In chemistry and physics, activation energy is the energy which must be available to a chemical or nuclear system with potential reactants to result in: a chemical reaction, nuclear reaction, or other various other physical phenomena.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase

An aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS or ARS), also called tRNA-ligase, is an enzyme that attaches the appropriate amino acid onto its tRNA.

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Aminoacyl-tRNA (also aa-tRNA or charged tRNA) is tRNA to which its cognated amino acid is chemically bonded (charged).

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Anisomycin, also known as flagecidin, is an antibiotic produced by Streptomyces griseolus which inhibits eukaryotic protein synthesis.

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An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.

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Ascidiacea (commonly known as the ascidians or sea squirts) is a paraphyletic class in the subphylum Tunicata of sac-like marine invertebrate filter feeders.

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Base pair

A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.

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Biomolecular structure

Biomolecular structure is the intricate folded, three-dimensional shape that is formed by a molecule of protein, DNA, or RNA, and that is important to its function.

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Blepharisma is a genus of unicellular ciliate protists found in fresh and salt water.

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The C-terminus (also known as the carboxyl-terminus, carboxy-terminus, C-terminal tail, C-terminal end, or COOH-terminus) is the end of an amino acid chain (protein or polypeptide), terminated by a free carboxyl group (-COOH).

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cell nucleus

In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.

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The Chlorophyceae are one of the classes of green algae, distinguished mainly on the basis of ultrastructural morphology.

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The ciliates are a group of protozoans characterized by the presence of hair-like organelles called cilia, which are identical in structure to eukaryotic flagella, but are in general shorter and present in much larger numbers, with a different undulating pattern than flagella.

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Covalent bond

A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.

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Cycloheximide is a eukaryote protein synthesis inhibitor, produced by the bacterium Streptomyces griseus.

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The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.

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The Dasycladaceae is one of the two extant families of green algae of the order Dasycladales.

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Directionality (molecular biology)

Directionality, in molecular biology and biochemistry, is the end-to-end chemical orientation of a single strand of nucleic acid.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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DNA codon table

The genetic code is traditionally represented as an RNA codon table because, when proteins are made in a cell by ribosomes, it is mRNA that directs protein synthesis.

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The E-site is the third and final binding site for t-RNA in the ribosome during protein synthesis.

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Echinoderm is the common name given to any member of the phylum Echinodermata (from Ancient Greek, ἐχῖνος, echinos – "hedgehog" and δέρμα, derma – "skin") of marine animals.

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Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EEF2 gene.

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EF-G (elongation factor G, historically known as translocase) is a prokaryotic elongation factor involved in protein translation.

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EF-Tu (elongation factor thermo unstable) is a prokaryotic elongation factor responsible for catalyzing the binding of an aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA) to the ribosome.

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Endoplasmic reticulum

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Erythromycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.

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In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.

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Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).

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Eukaryotic small ribosomal subunit (40S)

The eukaryotic small ribosomal subunit (40S) is the smaller subunit of the eukaryotic 80S ribosomes, with the other major component being the large ribosomal subunit (60S).

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Expanded genetic code

An expanded genetic code is an artificially modified genetic code in which one or more specific codons have been re-allocated to encode an amino acid that is not among the 20 common naturally-encoded proteinogenic amino acids.

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The flatworms, flat worms, Platyhelminthes, Plathelminthes, or platyhelminths (from the Greek πλατύ, platy, meaning "flat" and ἕλμινς (root: ἑλμινθ-), helminth-, meaning "worm") are a phylum of relatively simple bilaterian, unsegmented, soft-bodied invertebrates.

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The GenBank sequence database is an open access, annotated collection of all publicly available nucleotide sequences and their protein translations.

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Gene expression

Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.

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Genetic code

The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.

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Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.

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Hexamita is a genus of parasitic diplomonads.

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Host (biology)

In biology and medicine, a host is an organism that harbours a parasitic, a mutualistic, or a commensalist guest (symbiont), the guest typically being provided with nourishment and shelter.

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A hydrophile is a molecule or other molecular entity that is attracted to water molecules and tends to be dissolved by water.

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In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.

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Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.

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Initiation factor

Initiation factors are proteins that bind to the small subunit of the ribosome during the initiation of translation, a part of protein biosynthesis.

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Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.

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Leucine (symbol Leu or L) is an essential amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Messenger RNA

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.

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Methionine (symbol Met or M) is an essential amino acid in humans.

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The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.

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A mold or mould (is a fungus that grows in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae.

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Molecular biology

Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.

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Mycoplasma is a genus of bacteria that lack a cell wall around their cell membrane.

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National Center for Biotechnology Information

The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is part of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), a branch of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

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Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.

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The P-site (for peptidyl) is the second binding site for tRNA in the ribosome.

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Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.

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The plastid (Greek: πλαστός; plastós: formed, molded – plural plastids) is a double-membrane organelle found in the cells of plants, algae, and some other eukaryotic organisms.

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A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.

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Protein folding

Protein folding is the physical process by which a protein chain acquires its native 3-dimensional structure, a conformation that is usually biologically functional, in an expeditious and reproducible manner.

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Protein methods

Protein methods are the techniques used to study proteins.

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Protein production

Protein production is the biotechnological process of generating a specific protein.

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Protein structure prediction

Protein structure prediction is the inference of the three-dimensional structure of a protein from its amino acid sequence—that is, the prediction of its folding and its secondary and tertiary structure from its primary structure.

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Protein targeting

Protein targeting or protein sorting is the biological mechanism by which proteins are transported to the appropriate destinations in the cell or outside it.

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Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.

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Puromycin is an antibiotic protein synthesis inhibitor which causes premature chain termination during translation.

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Radiata or Radiates is a historical taxonomic rank that was used to classify animals with radially symmetric body plans, and is no longer accepted.

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Reading frame

In molecular biology, a reading frame is a way of dividing the sequence of nucleotides in a nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) molecule into a set of consecutive, non-overlapping triplets.

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Release factor

A release factor is a protein that allows for the termination of translation by recognizing the termination codon or stop codon in an mRNA sequence.

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Ribosomal RNA

Ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) is the RNA component of the ribosome, and is essential for protein synthesis in all living organisms.

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The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).

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Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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Scenedesmus obliquus

Scenedesmus obliquus is a green algae species of the genus Scenedesmus notable for the genetic coding of its mitochondria which translate TCA as a stop codon and TAG as Leucine.

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Secretion is the movement of material from one point to another, e.g. secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland.

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Selenocysteine (symbol Sec or U, in older publications also as Se-Cys) is the 21st proteinogenic amino acid.

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Spiroplasma is a genus of Mollicutes, a group of small bacteria without cell walls.

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Start codon

The start codon is the first codon of a messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript translated by a ribosome.

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Streptomycin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.

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Structural formula

The structural formula of a chemical compound is a graphic representation of the molecular structure, showing how the atoms are arranged.

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Tetracycline, sold under the brand name Sumycin among others, is an antibiotic used to treat a number of infections.

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Transcription (biology)

Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.

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Transfer RNA

A transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA and formerly referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins.

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Translocase is a general term for a protein that assists in moving another molecule, usually across a membrane.

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Trematoda is a class within the phylum Platyhelminthes.

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Vesicle (biology and chemistry)

In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer.

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W. H. Freeman and Company


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Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.

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DNA Translation, Gene translation, Local mRNA translation, MRNA translation, Mrna translation, Peptide chain elongation, translational, Peptide chain initiation, translational, Peptide chain termination, translational, Peptide initiation factor, Peptide termination factor, Protein translation, Proteinogenesis, RNA translation, Translation (genetics), Translation(rna), Translational errors.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Translation_(biology)

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