132 relations: Adenoviridae, Aerosol, African trypanosomiasis, Aggregate data, Anal sex, Arthropod, Ascaris lumbricoides, Athlete's foot, Bacteria, Bioaerosol, Biological life cycle, Biology, Blood-borne disease, Bordetella pertussis, Breastfeeding, Buchnera (bacterium), Bugchasing, Carl Flügge, Chagas disease, Chancre, Chickenpox, Childbirth, Chlamydia infection, Cholera, Common cold, Computer simulation, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, Cytomegalovirus, Dengue fever, Developing country, Diarrhea, Diphtheria, Disease surveillance, Epidemic, Epidemiology, Fecal–oral route, Feces, Fitness (biology), Flea, Fomite, Genital wart, Gonorrhea, Groundwater pollution, Growth hormone, Hajj, Hand washing, Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Herpes simplex, Herpes simplex virus, ..., Herpesviridae, HIV/AIDS, Hologenome theory of evolution, Host (biology), Housefly, Human metapneumovirus, Human microbiota, Human parainfluenza viruses, Human respiratory syncytial virus, Human waste, Hygiene, Iatrogenesis, Impetigo, Infection, Infection control, Infectious mononucleosis, Infectivity, Influenza, Influenza-like illness, Injection (medicine), Kiss, Leprosy, Louse, Lyme disease, Malaria, Maternal effect, Measles, Medicine, Meningitis, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Microorganism, Mosquito, Mumps, Notifiable disease, Open defecation, Oral sex, Organ transplantation, Organism, Parasitism, Pathogen, Penis, Poliomyelitis, Pork, Proxy (statistics), Public health, Rectum, Rhizobia, Rotavirus, Rubella, Salmonella, Sanitary sewer overflow, Sanitation, Seasonality, Secondary metabolism, Semen, Severe acute respiratory syndrome, Sewage, Sexual intercourse, Sexually transmitted infection, Slum, Soil, Streptococcal pharyngitis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Syphilis, Taenia solium, Tick, Toilet, Transmission (medicine), Transmission risks and rates, Trichomoniasis, Tuberculosis, Vagina, Vector (epidemiology), Vertically transmitted infection, Viral encephalitis, Virulence, Virus, Wart, Water pollution, Web search query, Whooping cough, Zoonosis. Expand index (82 more) » « Shrink index
Adenoviruses (members of the family Adenoviridae) are medium-sized (90–100 nm), nonenveloped (without an outer lipid bilayer) viruses with an icosahedral nucleocapsid containing a double stranded DNA genome.
An aerosol is a suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas.
African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, is an insect-borne parasitic disease of humans and other animals.
In statistics, aggregate data are data combined from several measurements.
Anal sex or anal intercourse is generally the insertion and thrusting of the erect penis into a person's anus, or anus and rectum, for sexual pleasure.
An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.
Ascaris lumbricoides is the "large roundworm" of humans, growing to a length of up to.
Athlete's foot, known medically as tinea pedis, is a common skin infection of the feet caused by fungus.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bioaerosols (short for biological aerosols) are a subcategory of particles released from terrestrial and marine ecosystems into the atmosphere.
In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
A bloodborne disease is a disease that can be spread through contamination by blood and other body fluids.
Bordetella pertussis is a Gram-negative, aerobic, pathogenic, encapsulated coccobacillus of the genus Bordetella, and the causative agent of pertussis or whooping cough.
Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.
Buchnera aphidicola, a member of the Proteobacteria, is the primary endosymbiont of aphids, and has been studied in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum.
Bugchasing, also known in slang as charging, is the practice of pursuing sexual activity with HIV-positive individuals in order to contract HIV.
Carl Georg Friedrich Wilhelm Flügge (12 September 1847 – 10 December 1923) was a German bacteriologist and hygienist.
Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a tropical parasitic disease caused by the protist Trypanosoma cruzi.
A chancre thefreedictionary is a painless genital ulcer most commonly formed during the primary stage of syphilis.
Chickenpox, also known as varicella, is a highly contagious disease caused by the initial infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV).
Childbirth, also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of a pregnancy by one or more babies leaving a woman's uterus by vaginal passage or C-section.
Chlamydia infection, often simply known as chlamydia, is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
The common cold, also known simply as a cold, is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract that primarily affects the nose.
Computer simulation is the reproduction of the behavior of a system using a computer to simulate the outcomes of a mathematical model associated with said system.
Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) is a universally fatal brain disorder.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (from the Greek cyto-, "cell", and megalo-, "large") is a genus of viruses in the order Herpesvirales, in the family Herpesviridae, in the subfamily Betaherpesvirinae.
Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
Disease surveillance is an epidemiological practice by which the spread of disease is monitored in order to establish patterns of progression.
An epidemic (from Greek ἐπί epi "upon or above" and δῆμος demos "people") is the rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time, usually two weeks or less.
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
The fecal–oral route (or oral–fecal route or fecal oral route) describes a particular route of transmission of a disease.
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
Fitness (often denoted w or ω in population genetics models) is the quantitative representation of natural and sexual selection within evolutionary biology.
Fleas are small flightless insects that form the order Siphonaptera.
A fomes (pronounced) or fomite is any nonliving object or substance capable of carrying infectious organisms, such as viruses or bacteria, and hence transferring them from one individual to another.
Genital warts are a sexually transmitted infection caused by certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV).
Gonorrhea, also spelled gonorrhoea, is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
Groundwater pollution (also called groundwater contamination) occurs when pollutants are released to the ground and make their way down into groundwater.
Growth hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin (or as human growth hormone in its human form), is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals.
The Hajj (حَجّ "pilgrimage") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.
Hand washing, also known as hand hygiene, is the act of cleaning hands for the purpose of removing soil, dirt, and microorganisms.
Hepatitis A is an infectious disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV).
Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects the liver.
Herpes simplex is a viral disease caused by the herpes simplex virus.
Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), also known as human herpesvirus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and HHV-2), are two members of the herpesvirus family, Herpesviridae, that infect humans.
Herpesviridae is a large family of DNA viruses that cause diseases in animals, including humans.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
The hologenome theory of evolution recasts the individual animal or plant (and other multicellular organisms) as a community or a "holobiont" – the host plus all of its symbiotic microbes.
In biology and medicine, a host is an organism that harbours a parasitic, a mutualistic, or a commensalist guest (symbiont), the guest typically being provided with nourishment and shelter.
The housefly (Musca domestica) is a fly of the suborder Cyclorrhapha.
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus of the family Pneumoviridae and is closely related to the avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) subgroup C. It was isolated for the first time in 2001 in the Netherlands by using the RAP-PCR (RNA arbitrarily primed PCR) technique for identification of unknown viruses growing in cultured cells.
The human microbiota is the aggregate of microorganisms that resides on or within any of a number of human tissues and biofluids, including the skin, mammary glands, placenta, seminal fluid, uterus, ovarian follicles, lung, saliva, oral mucosa, conjunctiva, biliary and gastrointestinal tracts.
Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are the viruses that cause human parainfluenza.
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a syncytial virus that causes respiratory tract infections.
Human waste (or human excreta) is a waste type usually used to refer to byproducts of digestion, such as feces and urine.
Hygiene is a set of practices performed to preserve health.
Iatrogenesis (from the Greek for "brought forth by the healer") refers to any effect on a person resulting from any activity of one or more persons acting as healthcare professionals or promoting products or services as beneficial to health that does not support a goal of the person affected.
Impetigo is a bacterial infection that involves the superficial skin.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Infection control is the discipline concerned with preventing nosocomial or healthcare-associated infection, a practical (rather than academic) sub-discipline of epidemiology.
Infectious mononucleosis (IM, mono), also known as glandular fever, is an infection usually caused by the Epstein–Barr virus (EBV).
In epidemiology, infectivity is the ability of a pathogen to establish an infection.
Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
Influenza-like illness (ILI), also known as acute respiratory infection (ARI) and flu-like syndrome/symptoms, is a medical diagnosis of possible influenza or other illness causing a set of common symptoms.
Injection (often referred to as a "shot" in US English, or a "jab" in UK English) is the act of putting a liquid, especially a drug, into a person's body using a needle (usually a hypodermic needle) and a syringe.
A kiss is the touch or pressing of one's lips against another person or an object.
Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease (HD), is a long-term infection by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae or Mycobacterium lepromatosis.
Louse (plural: lice) is the common name for members of the order Phthiraptera, which contains nearly 5,000 species of wingless insect.
Lyme disease, also known as Lyme borreliosis, is an infectious disease caused by bacteria of the Borrelia type which is spread by ticks.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
A maternal effect is a situation where the phenotype of an organism is determined not only by the environment it experiences and its genotype, but also by the environment and genotype of its mother.
Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) refers to a group of gram-positive bacteria that are genetically distinct from other strains of Staphylococcus aureus.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that constitute the family Culicidae.
Mumps is a viral disease caused by the mumps virus.
A notifiable disease is any disease that is required by law to be reported to government authorities.
Open defecation is the human practice of defecating outside (in the open environment) rather than into a toilet.
Oral sex, sometimes referred to as oral intercourse, is sexual activity involving the stimulation of the genitalia of a person by another person using the mouth (including the lips, tongue or teeth) or throat.
Organ transplantation is a medical procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
A penis (plural penises or penes) is the primary sexual organ that male animals use to inseminate sexually receptive mates (usually females and hermaphrodites) during copulation.
Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an infectious disease caused by the poliovirus.
Pork is the culinary name for meat from a domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).
In statistics, a proxy or proxy variable is a variable that is not in itself directly relevant, but that serves in place of an unobservable or immeasurable variable.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals, and the gut in others.
Rhizobia are bacteria that fix nitrogen (diazotrophs) after becoming established inside root nodules of legumes (Fabaceae).
Rotavirus is the most common cause of diarrhoeal disease among infants and young children.
Rubella, also known as German measles or three-day measles, is an infection caused by the rubella virus.
Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped (bacillus) Gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae.
Sanitary sewer overflow (SSO) is a condition in which untreated sewage is discharged from a sanitary sewer into the environment prior to reaching sewage treatment facilities.
Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.
In time series data, seasonality is the presence of variations that occur at specific regular intervals less than a year, such as weekly, monthly, or quarterly.
Secondary metabolism (also called specialized metabolism) is a term for pathways and small molecule products of metabolism that are not absolutely required for the survival of the organism.
Semen, also known as seminal fluid, is an organic fluid that may contain spermatozoa.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory disease of zoonotic origin caused by the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV).
Sewage (or domestic wastewater or municipal wastewater) is a type of wastewater that is produced from a community of people.
Sexual intercourse (or coitus or copulation) is principally the insertion and thrusting of the penis, usually when erect, into the vagina for sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.
Sexually transmitted infections (STI), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STD) or venereal diseases (VD), are infections that are commonly spread by sexual activity, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex.
A slum is a highly populated urban residential area consisting mostly of closely packed, decrepit housing units in a situation of deteriorated or incomplete infrastructure, inhabited primarily by impoverished persons.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
Streptococcal pharyngitis, also known as strep throat, is an infection of the back of the throat including the tonsils caused by group A streptococcus (GAS).
Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic (under aerobic conditions) or beta-hemolytic (under anaerobic conditions), facultative anaerobic member of the genus Streptococcus.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.
Taenia solium is the pork tapeworm belonging to cyclophyllid cestodes in the family Taeniidae.
Ticks are small arachnids, part of the order Parasitiformes.
A toilet is a piece of hardware used for the collection or disposal of human urine and feces.
In medicine, public health, and biology, transmission is the passing of a pathogen causing communicable disease from an infected host individual or group to a particular individual or group, regardless of whether the other individual was previously infected.
Transmission of an infection requires three conditions.
Trichomoniasis (trich) is an infectious disease caused by the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
In mammals, the vagina is the elastic, muscular part of the female genital tract.
In epidemiology, a disease vector is any agent that carries and transmits an infectious pathogen into another living organism; most agents regarded as vectors are organisms, such as intermediate parasites or microbes, but it could be an inanimate medium of infection such as dust particles.
A vertically transmitted infection is an infection caused by pathogens (such as bacteria and viruses) that uses mother-to-child transmission, that is, transmission directly from the mother to an embryo, fetus, or baby during pregnancy or childbirth.
Viral encephalitis is a type of encephalitis caused by a virus.
Virulence is a pathogen's or microbe's ability to infect or damage a host.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Warts are typically small, rough, and hard growths that are similar in color to the rest of the skin.
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities.
A web search query is a query that a user enters into a web search engine to satisfy his or her information needs.
Whooping cough (also known as pertussis or 100-day cough) is a highly contagious bacterial disease.
Zoonoses are infectious diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans.
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