145 relations: Address Resolution Protocol, Alacritech, ARPANET, Asynchronous transfer mode, Bandwidth-delay product, BBN Technologies, Berkeley sockets, Bit, Bob Kahn, Charles Babbage Institute, Checksum, Communication protocol, Connection-oriented communication, Connectionless communication, CYCLADES, Cyclic redundancy check, Data link layer, Datagram, Deadlock, Denial-of-service attack, Domain Name System, Domain Name System Security Extensions, Email, Embedded system, Encapsulation (networking), End-to-end principle, Ephemeral port, Error detection and correction, Ethernet, Explicit Congestion Notification, FAST TCP, Fibre Channel, Fibre Channel Protocol, File sharing, File transfer, File Transfer Protocol, Flow control (data), Forward error correction, Google, Handshaking, HP-UX, HTTPS, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Interference (communication), Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, Internet Engineering Task Force, Internet layer, Internet Protocol, Internet protocol suite, ..., Internetworking, IP address, IP address spoofing, IP fragmentation, IPv4, IPv6, Karn's algorithm, Latency (engineering), Linux, List of IP protocol numbers, List of TCP and UDP port numbers, LWN.net, Man-in-the-middle attack, Mangled packet, Max-min fairness, Maximum segment lifetime, Maximum segment size, Maximum transmission unit, Micro-bursting (networking), Multipath TCP, Multiplexing, Multipurpose Transaction Protocol, Nagle's algorithm, Netstat, Network address translation, Network booting, Network congestion, Network interface controller, Network socket, Octet (computing), Out-of-band data, Out-of-order delivery, Packet analyzer, Packet loss, Packet switching, Path MTU Discovery, Peer-to-peer, Phrack, Point-to-Point Protocol, Port (computer networking), Proprietary protocol, Protocol data unit, Protocol stack, PUSH and ACK floods, Radio Link Protocol, Real-time Transport Protocol, Reliability (computer networking), Remote administration, Retransmission (data networks), Round-trip delay time, Secure Shell, Signed number representations, Silly window syndrome, Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, Sliding window protocol, Sockstress, State (computer science), Storage area network, Stream Control Transmission Protocol, Streaming media, String interpolation, STUN, Subnetwork, SYN cookies, SYN flood, T/TCP, TCP congestion control, TCP Cookie Transactions, TCP Fast Open, TCP global synchronization, TCP half-open, TCP offload engine, TCP pacing, TCP reset attack, TCP sequence prediction attack, TCP tuning, TCP Vegas, TCP Westwood, TCP window scale option, Tcpcrypt, Telnet, Transmission Control Protocol, Transport layer, Transport Layer Security, UDP-based Data Transfer Protocol, User Datagram Protocol, User space, Van Jacobson, Venturi Transport Protocol, Vint Cerf, Voice over IP, Word (computer architecture), Word-sense disambiguation, World Wide Web, WTCP. Expand index (95 more) » « Shrink index
The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a communication protocol used for discovering the link layer address, such as a MAC address, associated with a given network layer address, typically an IPv4 address.
Alacritech was a Silicon Valley company which marketed "intelligent" network interface cards (NICs) to offload TCP/IP processing from the CPU of computer systems to dedicated hardware on the NIC: a concept now known as a "TCP offload engine" (TOE).
The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was an early packet switching network and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP.
Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is, according to the ATM Forum, "a telecommunications concept defined by ANSI and ITU (formerly CCITT) standards for carriage of a complete range of user traffic, including voice, data, and video signals".
In data communications, bandwidth-delay product is the product of a data link's capacity (in bits per second) and its round-trip delay time (in seconds).
BBN Technologies (originally Bolt, Beranek and Newman) is an American high-technology company which provides research and development services.
Berkeley sockets is an application programming interface (API) for Internet sockets and Unix domain sockets, used for inter-process communication (IPC).
The bit (a portmanteau of binary digit) is a basic unit of information used in computing and digital communications.
Robert Elliot Kahn (born December 23, 1938) is an American electrical engineer, who, along with Vint Cerf, invented the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), the fundamental communication protocols at the heart of the Internet.
The Charles Babbage Institute is a research center at the University of Minnesota specializing in the history of information technology, particularly the history of digital computing, programming/software, and computer networking since 1935.
A checksum is a small-sized datum derived from a block of digital data for the purpose of detecting errors which may have been introduced during its transmission or storage.
In telecommunication, a communication protocol is a system of rules that allow two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity.
Connection-oriented communication is a network communication mode in telecommunications and computer networking, where a communication session or a semi-permanent connection is established before any useful data can be transferred, and where a stream of data is delivered in the same order as it was sent.
Connectionless communication, often referred to as CL-mode communication,Information Processing Systems - Open Systems Interconnection, "Transport Service Definition - Addendum 1: Connectionless-mode Transmission", International Organization for Standardization, International Standard 8072/AD 1, December 1986.
The CYCLADES computer network was a French research network created in the early 1970s.
A cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is an error-detecting code commonly used in digital networks and storage devices to detect accidental changes to raw data.
The data link layer, or layer 2, is the second layer of the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking.
A datagram is a basic transfer unit associated with a packet-switched network.
In concurrent computing, a deadlock is a state in which each member of a group is waiting for some other member to take action, such as sending a message or more commonly releasing a lock.
In computing, a denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) is a cyber-attack in which the perpetrator seeks to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users by temporarily or indefinitely disrupting services of a host connected to the Internet.
The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical decentralized naming system for computers, services, or other resources connected to the Internet or a private network.
The Domain Name System Security Extensions (DNSSEC) is a suite of Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) specifications for securing certain kinds of information provided by the Domain Name System (DNS) as used on Internet Protocol (IP) networks.
Electronic mail (email or e-mail) is a method of exchanging messages ("mail") between people using electronic devices.
An embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.
In computer networking, encapsulation is a method of designing modular communication protocols in which logically separate functions in the network are abstracted from their underlying structures by inclusion or information hiding within higher level objects.
The end-to-end principle is a design framework in computer networking.
An ephemeral port is a short-lived transport protocol port for Internet Protocol (IP) communications.
In information theory and coding theory with applications in computer science and telecommunication, error detection and correction or error control are techniques that enable reliable delivery of digital data over unreliable communication channels.
Ethernet is a family of computer networking technologies commonly used in local area networks (LAN), metropolitan area networks (MAN) and wide area networks (WAN).
Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) is an extension to the Internet Protocol and to the Transmission Control Protocol and is defined in RFC 3168 (2001).
FAST TCP (also written FastTCP) is a TCP congestion avoidance algorithm especially targeted at long-distance, high latency links, developed at the Netlab, California Institute of Technology and now being commercialized by FastSoft.
Fibre Channel, or FC, is a high-speed network technology (commonly running at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 128 gigabit per second rates) providing in-order, lossless delivery of raw block data, primarily used to connect computer data storage to servers.
Fibre Channel Protocol (FCP) is the SCSI interface protocol utilising an underlying Fibre Channel connection.
File sharing is the practice of distributing or providing access to digital media, such as computer programs, multimedia (audio, images and video), documents or electronic books.
File transfer is the transmission of a computer file through a communication channel from one computer system to another.
The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used for the transfer of computer files between a client and server on a computer network.
In data communications, flow control is the process of managing the rate of data transmission between two nodes to prevent a fast sender from overwhelming a slow receiver.
In telecommunication, information theory, and coding theory, forward error correction (FEC) or channel coding is a technique used for controlling errors in data transmission over unreliable or noisy communication channels.
Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.
In telecommunications, a handshake is an automated process of negotiation between two communicating participants (example "Alice and Bob") through the exchange of information that establishes the protocols of a communication link at the start of the communication, before full communication begins.
HP-UX (from "Hewlett Packard Unix") is Hewlett Packard Enterprise's proprietary implementation of the Unix operating system, based on UNIX System V (initially System III) and first released in 1984.
HTTP Secure (HTTPS) is an extension of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) for secure communication over a computer network, and is widely used on the Internet.
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, and hypermedia information systems.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey.
In communications and electronics, especially in telecommunications, interference is anything which modifies, or disrupts a signal as it travels along a channel between a source and a receiver.
The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is a function of ICANN, a nonprofit private American corporation that oversees global IP address allocation, autonomous system number allocation, root zone management in the Domain Name System (DNS), media types, and other Internet Protocol-related symbols and Internet numbers.
The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) develops and promotes voluntary Internet standards, in particular the standards that comprise the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP).
The internet layer is a group of internetworking methods, protocols, and specifications in the Internet protocol suite that are used to transport datagrams (packets) from the originating host across network boundaries, if necessary, to the destination host specified by an IP address.
The Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries.
The Internet protocol suite is the conceptual model and set of communications protocols used on the Internet and similar computer networks.
Internetworking is the practice of connecting a computer network with other networks through the use of gateways that provide a common method of routing information packets between the networks.
An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication.
In computer networking, IP address spoofing or IP spoofing is the creation of Internet Protocol (IP) packets with a false source IP address, for the purpose of hiding the identity of the sender or impersonating another computing system.
An example of the fragmentation of a protocol data unit in a given layer into smaller fragments. IP fragmentation is an Internet Protocol (IP) process that breaks packets into smaller pieces (fragments), so that the resulting pieces can pass through a link with a smaller maximum transmission unit (MTU) than the original packet size.
Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is the fourth version of the Internet Protocol (IP).
Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the most recent version of the Internet Protocol (IP), the communications protocol that provides an identification and location system for computers on networks and routes traffic across the Internet.
Karn's algorithm addresses the problem of getting accurate estimates of the round-trip time for messages when using the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) in computer networking.
Latency is a time interval between the stimulation and response, or, from a more general point of view, a time delay between the cause and the effect of some physical change in the system being observed.
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.
Below are the Assigned Internet Protocol Numbers found in the Protocol field of the IPv4 header and the Next Header field of the IPv6 header.
This is a list of TCP and UDP port numbers used by protocols of the application layer of the Internet protocol suite for the establishment of host-to-host connectivity.
LWN.net is a computing webzine with an emphasis on free software and software for Linux and other Unix-like operating systems.
In cryptography and computer security, a man-in-the-middle attack (MITM) is an attack where the attacker secretly relays and possibly alters the communication between two parties who believe they are directly communicating with each other.
In computer networking, a mangled or invalid packet is a packet — especially IP packet — that either lacks order or self-coherence, or contains code aimed to confuse or disrupt computers, firewalls, routers, or any service present on the network.
In communication networks, multiplexing and the division of scarce resources, max-min fairness is said to be achieved by an allocation if and only if the allocation is feasible and an attempt to increase the allocation of any participant necessarily results in the decrease in the allocation of some other participant with an equal or smaller allocation.
Maximum segment lifetime is the time a TCP segment can exist in the internetwork system.
The maximum segment size (MSS) is a parameter of the options field of the TCP header that specifies the largest amount of data, specified in bytes, that a computer or communications device can receive in a single TCP segment.
In computer networking, the maximum transmission unit (MTU) is the size of the largest protocol data unit (PDU) that can be communicated in a single network layer transaction.
In computer networking, micro-bursting is a behavior seen on fast packet-switched networks, where rapid bursts of data packets are sent in quick succession, leading to periods of full line-rate transmission that can overflow packet buffers of the network stack, both in network endpoints and routers and switches inside the network.
Multipath TCP (MPTCP) is an ongoing effort of the Internet Engineering Task Force's (IETF) Multipath TCP working group, that aims at allowing a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) connection to use multiple paths to maximize resource usage and increase redundancy.
In telecommunications and computer networks, multiplexing (sometimes contracted to muxing) is a method by which multiple analog or digital signals are combined into one signal over a shared medium.
Multipurpose Transaction Protocol (MTP) software is a proprietary transport protocol (OSI Layer 4) developed and marketed by (DEI).
Nagle's algorithm is a means of improving the efficiency of TCP/IP networks by reducing the number of packets that need to be sent over the network.
In computing, netstat (network statistics) is a command-line network utility tool that displays network connections for the Transmission Control Protocol (both incoming and outgoing), routing tables, and a number of network interface (network interface controller or software-defined network interface) and network protocol statistics.
Network address translation (NAT) is a method of remapping one IP address space into another by modifying network address information in the IP header of packets while they are in transit across a traffic routing device.
Network booting, shortened netboot, is the process of booting a computer from a network rather than a local drive.
Network congestion in data networking and queueing theory is the reduced quality of service that occurs when a network node or link is carrying more data than it can handle.
A network interface controller (NIC, also known as a network interface card, network adapter, LAN adapter or physical network interface, and by similar terms) is a computer hardware component that connects a computer to a computer network.
A network socket is an internal endpoint for sending or receiving data within a node on a computer network.
The octet is a unit of digital information in computing and telecommunications that consists of eight bits.
In computer networking, out-of-band data is the data transferred through a stream that is independent from the main in-band data stream.
In computer networking, out-of-order delivery is the delivery of data packets in a different order from which they were sent.
A packet analyzer (also known as a packet sniffer) is a computer program or piece of computer hardware that can intercept and log traffic that passes over a digital network or part of a network.
Packet loss occurs when one or more packets of data travelling across a computer network fail to reach their destination.
Packet switching is a method of grouping data which is transmitted over a digital network into packets which are made of a header and a payload.
Path MTU Discovery (PMTUD) is a standardized technique in computer networking for determining the maximum transmission unit (MTU) size on the network path between two Internet Protocol (IP) hosts, usually with the goal of avoiding IP fragmentation.
Peer-to-peer (P2P) computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers.
Phrack is an ezine written by and for hackers, first published November 17, 1985.
In computer networking, Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) is a data link layer (layer 2) communications protocol used to establish a direct connection between two nodes.
In computer networking, a port is an endpoint of communication in an operating system, which identifies a specific process or a type of network service running on that system.
In telecommunications, a proprietary protocol is a communications protocol owned by a single organization or individual.
In telecommunications, a protocol data unit (PDU) is information that is transmitted as a single unit among peer entities of a computer network.
The protocol stack or network stack is an implementation of a computer networking protocol suite or protocol family.
PUSH floods and ACK floods are denial of service attacks based on the PSH and ACK flags.
Radio Link Protocol (RLP) is an automatic repeat request (ARQ) fragmentation protocol used over a wireless (typically cellular) air interface.
The Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) is a network protocol for delivering audio and video over IP networks.
In computer networking, a reliable protocol provides notifications to the sender as to the delivery of transmitted data, as opposed to an unreliable protocol, which does not provide assurance of the delivery of data to the intended recipient(s).
Remote administration refers to any method of controlling a computer from a remote location.
Retransmission, essentially identical with Automatic repeat request (ARQ), is the resending of packets which have been either damaged or lost.
In telecommunications, the round-trip delay time (RTD) or round-trip time (RTT) is the length of time it takes for a signal to be sent plus the length of time it takes for an acknowledgement of that signal to be received.
Secure Shell (SSH) is a cryptographic network protocol for operating network services securely over an unsecured network.
In computing, signed number representations are required to encode negative numbers in binary number systems.
Silly window syndrome is a problem in computer networking caused by poorly implemented TCP flow control.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is an Internet standard for electronic mail (email) transmission.
A sliding window protocol is a feature of packet-based data transmission protocols.
Sockstress is a method that is used to attack servers on the Internet and other networks utilizing TCP, including Windows, Mac, Linux, BSD and any router or other internet appliance that accepts TCP connections.
In information technology and computer science, a program is described as stateful if it is designed to remember preceding events or user interactions; the remembered information is called the state of the system.
A storage area network (SAN) is a Computer network which provides access to consolidated, block level data storage.
The Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a computer networking communications protocol which operates at the transport layer and serves a role similar to the popular protocols TCP and UDP.
Streaming media is multimedia that is constantly received by and presented to an end-user while being delivered by a provider.
In computer programming, string interpolation (or variable interpolation, variable substitution, or variable expansion) is the process of evaluating a string literal containing one or more placeholders, yielding a result in which the placeholders are replaced with their corresponding values.
Session Traversal Utilities for NAT (STUN) is a standardized set of methods, including a network protocol, for traversal of network address translator (NAT) gateways in applications of real-time voice, video, messaging, and other interactive communications.
A subnetwork or subnet is a logical subdivision of an IP network.
SYN cookie is a technique used to resist SYN flood attacks.
A SYN flood is a form of denial-of-service attack in which an attacker sends a succession of SYN requests to a target's system in an attempt to consume enough server resources to make the system unresponsive to legitimate traffic.
T/TCP (Transactional Transmission Control Protocol) is a variant of the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) uses a network congestion-avoidance algorithm that includes various aspects of an additive increase/multiplicative decrease (AIMD) scheme, with other schemes such as slow-start and congestion window to achieve congestion avoidance.
TCP Cookie Transactions (TCPCT) is specified in RFC 6013 (experimental status) as an extension of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) intended to secure it against denial-of-service attacks, such as resource exhaustion by SYN flooding and malicious connection termination by third parties.
In computer networking, TCP Fast Open (TFO) is an extension to speed up the opening of successive Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) connections between two endpoints.
TCP global synchronization in computer networks can happen to TCP/IP flows during periods of congestion because each sender will reduce their transmission rate at the same time when packet loss occurs.
The term half-open refers to TCP connections whose state is out of synchronization between the two communicating hosts, possibly due to a crash of one side.
TCP offload engine or TOE is a technology used in network interface cards (NIC) to offload processing of the entire TCP/IP stack to the network controller.
In the field of computer networking, TCP pacing is the denomination of a set of techniques to make the pattern of packet transmission generated by the Transmission Control Protocol less bursty.
TCP reset attack, also known as "forged TCP resets", "spoofed TCP reset packets" or "TCP reset attacks", is a way to tamper and terminate the Internet connection by sending forged TCP reset packet.
A TCP sequence prediction attack is an attempt to predict the sequence number used to identify the packets in a TCP connection, which can be used to counterfeit packets.
TCP tuning techniques adjust the network congestion avoidance parameters of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) connections over high-bandwidth, high-latency networks.
TCP Vegas is a TCP congestion avoidance algorithm that emphasizes packet delay, rather than packet loss, as a signal to help determine the rate at which to send packets.
TCP Westwood (TCPW) is a sender-side-only modification to TCP New Reno that is intended to better handle large bandwidth-delay product paths (large pipes), with potential packet loss due to transmission or other errors (leaky pipes), and with dynamic load (dynamic pipes).
The TCP window scale option is an option to increase the receive window size allowed in Transmission Control Protocol above its former maximum value of 65,535 bytes.
In computer networking, tcpcrypt is a transport layer communication encryption protocol.
Telnet is a protocol used on the Internet or local area network to provide a bidirectional interactive text-oriented communication facility using a virtual terminal connection.
The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the main protocols of the Internet protocol suite.
In computer networking, the transport layer is a conceptual division of methods in the layered architecture of protocols in the network stack in the Internet Protocol Suite and the OSI model.
Transport Layer Security (TLS) – and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), which is now deprecated by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) – are cryptographic protocols that provide communications security over a computer network.
UDP-based Data Transfer Protocol (UDT), is a high-performance data transfer protocol designed for transferring large volumetric datasets over high-speed wide area networks.
In computer networking, the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core members of the Internet protocol suite.
A modern computer operating system usually segregates virtual memory into kernel space and user space.
Van Jacobson (born 1950) is an American computer scientist, renowned for his work on TCP/IP network performance and scaling.
Venturi Transport Protocol (VTP) is a patented proprietary transport layer protocol that is designed to transparently replace TCP in order to overcome inefficiencies in the design of TCP related to wireless data transport.
Vinton Gray Cerf ForMemRS, (born June 23, 1943) is an American Internet pioneer, who is recognized as one of "the fathers of the Internet", sharing this title with TCP/IP co-inventor Bob Kahn.
Voice over Internet Protocol (also voice over IP, VoIP or IP telephony) is a methodology and group of technologies for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as the Internet.
In computing, a word is the natural unit of data used by a particular processor design.
In computational linguistics, word-sense disambiguation (WSD) is an open problem of natural language processing and ontology.
The World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or the Web) is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links, and accessible via the Internet.
WTCP ("Wireless Transmission Control Protocol") is a proxy-based modification of TCP that preserves the end-to-end semantics of TCP.
3 way handshake, ACK (TCP), ACK flag, ACK packet, CLOSE WAIT, CLOSE-WAIT, Cumulative ACK, Cumulative ack, FIN (TCP), FIN WAIT, FIN WAIT 1, FIN WAIT 2, FIN-WAIT-1, Forcing Data Delivery, LAST ACK, LAST-ACK, Protect Against Wrapped Sequence numbers, Protection Against Wrapped Sequence Numbers, SACK, SYN (TCP), SYN Packet, SYN Packets, SYN RECEIVED, SYN SENT, SYN packet, SYN+ACK, SYN-ACK, SYN-RECEIVED, SYN-SENT, SYN/ACK, Sequence number, TCP Header, TCP SACK, TCP SYN, TCP SYNACK, TCP checksum offload, TCP connection, TCP connection state, TCP handshake, TCP header, TCP packet, TCP protocol, TCP protocols, TCP receive window, TCP segment, TCP window, TCP windowing, TCP/IP port, TCP/IP port number, TCPSTACK, TIME WAIT, TIME-WAIT, Tcp checksum offload, Tcp handshake, Tcp protocol, Tcp receive window, Three way handshake, Three-way handshake, Transfer Control Protocol, Transmission control protocol, Transport Control Protocol.