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Transmission electron microscopy

Index Transmission electron microscopy

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, also sometimes conventional transmission electron microscopy or CTEM) is a microscopy technique in which a beam of electrons is transmitted through a specimen to form an image. [1]

171 relations: Adsorption, Airlock, Albert Crewe, Amorphous carbon, Amorphous ice, Amorphous solid, Amplitude, Annular dark-field imaging, Astigmatism (optical systems), Atomic number, August Köhler, Autocorrelation, Bodo von Borries, Boron nitride, Boundary value problem, Bragg's law, Cancer research, Cardinal point (optics), Cellulose acetate film, Charge-coupled device, Chromatic aberration, Cold trap, Contrast (vision), Contrast transfer function, Cotton, Cross section (physics), Cryogenic electron microscopy, Crystallite, Crystallographic defect, Delft, Diaphragm pump, Diffraction, Diffraction-limited system, Diffusion pump, Elastic scattering, Electric field, Electric light, Electric potential, Electromagnet, Electromagnetism, Electron, Electron beam-induced deposition, Electron diffraction, Electron energy loss spectroscopy, Electron microscope, Electronvolt, Electrostatic lens, Energy filtered transmission electron microscopy, Ernst Abbe, Ernst Ruska, ..., Faraday cup, FEI Company, Field electron emission, Field emission gun, Finite element method, Fleming's left-hand rule for motors, Fluorescence, Focus (optics), Focused ion beam, Frequency domain, Getter, Gold, Hans Busch (physicist), Heavy metals, Heterogeneous catalysis, High-resolution transmission electron microscopy, IG Farben, Image registration, Immunogold labelling, Invariant mass, Ion pump (physics), Isosurface, James Hillier, JEOL, Joystick, Julius Plücker, Karl Ferdinand Braun, Kikuchi line, Lanthanum hexaboride, Lead, Lens (optics), Liquid helium, Liquid nitrogen, Liquid-Phase Electron Microscopy, Louis de Broglie, Low-voltage electron microscope, Macromolecular assembly, Magnetic hysteresis, Materials science, Matter wave, Max Knoll, Mean free path, Microscopy, Microtome, Miniature snap-action switch, Monochromator, Moritz von Rohr, Multislice, Nanometre, Nanotechnology, Negative stain, Neutron, Numerical aperture, Optical aberration, Optical axis, Optical microscope, Optical resolution, Optical transfer function, Oscilloscope, Osmium, Owen Willans Richardson, Pascal (unit), Permalloy, Permeability (electromagnetism), Phase (waves), Phase retrieval, Phase-contrast imaging, Photographic film, Photon, Picometre, Planck constant, Plasma (physics), Pollution, Precession electron diffraction, Projection-slice theorem, Radon transform, Refractive index, Reinhold Rudenberg, Rotary vane pump, Saturation (magnetic), Scanning confocal electron microscopy, Scanning electron microscope, Scanning transmission electron microscopy, Sector mass spectrometer, Semiconductor, Semiconductor device, Sextupole magnet, Siemens, Single crystal, Single particle analysis, Space group, Spatial frequency, Spherical aberration, Stepper motor, Stigmator, Strategic bombing, Sublimation (phase transition), Technical University of Berlin, Thermionic emission, Trackball, Transmission Electron Aberration-Corrected Microscope, Tungsten, Tunnel magnetoresistance, Turbomolecular pump, Ultraviolet, University of Chicago, University of Toronto, Uranium, Uranyl acetate, Virology, Visible spectrum, Volt, Walter Hoppe, Washington State University, Wavelength, Wehnelt cylinder, Work function, World War II, X-ray, Yttrium aluminium garnet, Zinc sulfide. Expand index (121 more) »

Adsorption

Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions or molecules from a gas, liquid or dissolved solid to a surface.

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Airlock

An airlock is a device which permits the passage of people and objects between a pressure vessel and its surroundings while minimizing the change of pressure in the vessel and loss of air from it.

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Albert Crewe

Albert Victor Crewe (February 18, 1927 – November 18, 2009) was a British born American physicist and inventor of the modern scanning transmission electron microscope capable of taking still and motion pictures of atoms, a technology that provided new insights into atomic interaction and enabled significant advances in and had wide-reaching implications for the biomedical, semiconductor, and computing industries.

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Amorphous carbon

Amorphous carbon is free, reactive carbon that does not have any crystalline structure (also called diamond-like carbon).

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Amorphous ice

Amorphous ice (non-crystalline ("vitreous") ice) is an amorphous solid form of water.

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Amorphous solid

In condensed matter physics and materials science, an amorphous (from the Greek a, without, morphé, shape, form) or non-crystalline solid is a solid that lacks the long-range order that is characteristic of a crystal.

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Amplitude

The amplitude of a periodic variable is a measure of its change over a single period (such as time or spatial period).

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Annular dark-field imaging

Annular dark-field imaging is a method of mapping samples in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM).

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Astigmatism (optical systems)

An optical system with astigmatism is one where rays that propagate in two perpendicular planes have different foci.

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Atomic number

The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.

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August Köhler

August Karl Johann Valentin Köhler (March 4, 1866 – March 12, 1948) was a German professor and early staff member of Carl Zeiss AG in Jena, Germany.

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Autocorrelation

Autocorrelation, also known as serial correlation, is the correlation of a signal with a delayed copy of itself as a function of delay.

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Bodo von Borries

Bodo von Borries (born 22 May 1905 in Herford, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany — died 17 July 1956 in Aachen, North Rhine-Westphalia) was a German physicist.

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Boron nitride

Boron nitride is a heat and chemically resistant refractory compound of boron and nitrogen with the chemical formula BN.

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Boundary value problem

In mathematics, in the field of differential equations, a boundary value problem is a differential equation together with a set of additional constraints, called the boundary conditions.

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Bragg's law

In physics, Bragg's law, or Wulff–Bragg's condition, a special case of Laue diffraction, gives the angles for coherent and incoherent scattering from a crystal lattice.

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Cancer research

Cancer research is research into cancer to identify causes and develop strategies for prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and cure.

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Cardinal point (optics)

In Gaussian optics, the cardinal points consist of three pairs of points located on the optical axis of a rotationally symmetric, focal, optical system.

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Cellulose acetate film

Cellulose acetate film, or safety film, is used in photography as a base material for photographic emulsions.

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Charge-coupled device

A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value.

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Chromatic aberration

In optics, chromatic aberration (abbreviated CA; also called chromatic distortion and spherochromatism) is an effect resulting from dispersion in which there is a failure of a lens to focus all colors to the same convergence point.

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Cold trap

In vacuum applications, a cold trap is a device that condenses all vapors except the permanent gases into a liquid or solid.

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Contrast (vision)

Contrast is the difference in luminance or colour that makes an object (or its representation in an image or display) distinguishable.

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Contrast transfer function

The contrast transfer function (CTF) mathematically describes how aberrations in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) modify the image of a sample.

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Cotton

Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.

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Cross section (physics)

When two particles interact, their mutual cross section is the area transverse to their relative motion within which they must meet in order to scatter from each other.

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Cryogenic electron microscopy

Electron cryomicroscopy (CryoEM) is an electron microscopy (EM) technique where the sample is cooled to cryogenic temperatures.

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Crystallite

A crystallite is a small or even microscopic crystal which forms, for example, during the cooling of many materials.

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Crystallographic defect

Crystalline solids exhibit a periodic crystal structure.

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Delft

Delft is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands.

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Diaphragm pump

A diaphragm pump (also known as a Membrane pump) is a positive displacement pump that uses a combination of the reciprocating action of a rubber, thermoplastic or teflon diaphragm and suitable valves on either side of the diaphragm (check valve, butterfly valves, flap valves, or any other form of shut-off valves) to pump a fluid.

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Diffraction

--> Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit.

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Diffraction-limited system

The resolution of an optical imaging system a microscope, telescope, or camera can be limited by factors such as imperfections in the lenses or misalignment.

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Diffusion pump

Diffusion pumps use a high speed jet of vapor to direct gas molecules in the pump throat down into the bottom of the pump and out the exhaust.

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Elastic scattering

Elastic scattering is a form of particle scattering in scattering theory, nuclear physics and particle physics.

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Electric field

An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.

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Electric light

An electric light is a device that produces visible light from electric current.

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Electric potential

An electric potential (also called the electric field potential, potential drop or the electrostatic potential) is the amount of work needed to move a unit positive charge from a reference point to a specific point inside the field without producing any acceleration.

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Electromagnet

An electromagnet is a type of magnet in which the magnetic field is produced by an electric current.

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Electromagnetism

Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.

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Electron

The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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Electron beam-induced deposition

Electron beam-induced deposition (EBID) is a process of decomposing gaseous molecules by an electron beam leading to deposition of non-volatile fragments onto a nearby substrate.

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Electron diffraction

Electron diffraction refers to the wave nature of electrons.

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Electron energy loss spectroscopy

In electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) a material is exposed to a beam of electrons with a known, narrow range of kinetic energies.

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Electron microscope

An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.

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Electronvolt

In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).

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Electrostatic lens

An electrostatic lens is a device that assists in the transport of charged particles.

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Energy filtered transmission electron microscopy

Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) is a technique used in transmission electron microscopy, in which only electrons of particular kinetic energies are used to form the image or diffraction pattern.

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Ernst Abbe

Ernst Karl Abbe HonFRMS (23 January 1840 – 14 January 1905) was a German physicist, optical scientist, entrepreneur, and social reformer.

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Ernst Ruska

Ernst August Friedrich Ruska (25 December 1906 – 27 May 1988) was a German physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1986 for his work in electron optics, including the design of the first electron microscope.

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Faraday cup

A Faraday cup is a metal (conductive) cup designed to catch charged particles in vacuum.

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FEI Company

FEI Company (Field Electron and Ion Company, FEI) is an American company that designs, manufactures, and supports microscope technology.

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Field electron emission

Field electron emission (also known as field emission (FE) and electron field emission) is emission of electrons induced by an electrostatic field.

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Field emission gun

A field emission gun is a type of electron gun in which a sharply pointed Müller-type emitter is held at several kilovolts negative potential relative to a nearby electrode, so that there is sufficient potential gradient at the emitter surface to cause field electron emission.

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Finite element method

The finite element method (FEM), is a numerical method for solving problems of engineering and mathematical physics.

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Fleming's left-hand rule for motors

Fleming's left-hand rule for motors is one of a pair of visual mnemonics, the other being Fleming's right-hand rule (for generators).

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Fluorescence

Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.

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Focus (optics)

In geometrical optics, a focus, also called an image point, is the point where light rays originating from a point on the object converge.

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Focused ion beam

Focused ion beam, also known as FIB, is a technique used particularly in the semiconductor industry, materials science and increasingly in the biological field for site-specific analysis, deposition, and ablation of materials.

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Frequency domain

In electronics, control systems engineering, and statistics, the frequency domain refers to the analysis of mathematical functions or signals with respect to frequency, rather than time.

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Getter

A getter is a deposit of reactive material that is placed inside a vacuum system, for the purpose of completing and maintaining the vacuum.

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Gold

Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.

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Hans Busch (physicist)

Hans Busch (27 February 1884 in Jüchen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany – 16 February 1973 in Darmstadt, Hesse) was a German physicist.

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Heavy metals

Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.

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Heterogeneous catalysis

In chemistry, heterogeneous catalysis refers to the form of catalysis where the phase of the catalyst differs from that of the reactants.

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High-resolution transmission electron microscopy

High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) (or HREM) is an imaging mode of the transmission electron microscope (TEM) that allows for direct imaging of the atomic structure of the sample.

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IG Farben

IG Farben was a German chemical and pharmaceutical industry conglomerate.

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Image registration

Image registration is the process of transforming different sets of data into one coordinate system.

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Immunogold labelling

Immunogold labeling or Immunogold staining (IGS) is a staining technique used in electron microscopy.

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Invariant mass

The invariant mass, rest mass, intrinsic mass, proper mass, or in the case of bound systems simply mass, is the portion of the total mass of an object or system of objects that is independent of the overall motion of the system.

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Ion pump (physics)

An ion pump (also referred to as a sputter ion pump) is a type of vacuum pump capable of reaching pressures as low as 10−11 mbar under ideal conditions.

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Isosurface

An isosurface is a three-dimensional analog of an isoline.

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James Hillier

James Hillier, (August 22, 1915 – January 15, 2007) was a Canadian-American scientist and inventor who designed and built, with Albert Prebus, the first successful high-resolution electron microscope in North America in 1938.

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JEOL

is a major developer and manufacturer of electron microscopes and other scientific instruments, industrial equipment and medical equipment.

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Joystick

A joystick is an input device consisting of a stick that pivots on a base and reports its angle or direction to the device it is controlling.

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Julius Plücker

Julius Plücker (16 June 1801 – 22 May 1868) was a German mathematician and physicist.

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Karl Ferdinand Braun

Karl Ferdinand Braun (6 June 1850 – 20 April 1918) was a German inventor, physicist and Nobel laureate in physics.

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Kikuchi line

Kikuchi lines pair up to form bands in electron diffraction from single crystal specimens, there to serve as "roads in orientation-space" for microscopists not certain what they are looking at.

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Lanthanum hexaboride

Lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6, also called lanthanum boride and LaB) is an inorganic chemical, a boride of lanthanum.

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Lead

Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.

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Lens (optics)

A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction.

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Liquid helium

At standard pressure, the chemical element helium exists in a liquid form only at the extremely low temperature of −270 °C (about 4 K or −452.2 °F).

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Liquid nitrogen

Liquid nitrogen is nitrogen in a liquid state at an extremely low temperature.

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Liquid-Phase Electron Microscopy

Liquid-phase electron microscopy (LP EM) refers to a class of methods for imaging specimens in liquid with nanometer spatial resolution using electron microscopy.

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Louis de Broglie

Louis Victor Pierre Raymond de Broglie, duke de Broglie (or; 15 August 1892 – 19 March 1987) was a French physicist who made groundbreaking contributions to quantum theory.

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Low-voltage electron microscope

Low-voltage electron microscope (LVEM) is an electron microscope which operates at accelerating voltages of a few kiloelectronvolts or less.

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Macromolecular assembly

The term macromolecular assembly (MA) refers to massive chemical structures such as viruses and non-biologic nanoparticles, cellular organelles and membranes and ribosomes, etc.

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Magnetic hysteresis

Magnetic hysteresis occurs when an external magnetic field is applied to a ferromagnet such as iron and the atomic dipoles align themselves with it.

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Materials science

The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids.

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Matter wave

Matter waves are a central part of the theory of quantum mechanics, being an example of wave–particle duality.

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Max Knoll

Max Knoll (17 July 1897 – 6 November 1969) was a German electrical engineer.

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Mean free path

In physics, the mean free path is the average distance traveled by a moving particle (such as an atom, a molecule, a photon) between successive impacts (collisions), which modify its direction or energy or other particle properties.

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Microscopy

Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye).

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Microtome

A microtome (from the Greek mikros, meaning "small", and temnein, meaning "to cut") is a tool used to cut extremely thin slices of material, known as sections.

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Miniature snap-action switch

A miniature snap-action switch, also trademarked and frequently known as a micro switch, is an electric switch that is actuated by very little physical force, through the use of a tipping-point mechanism, sometimes called an "over-center" mechanism.

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Monochromator

A monochromator is an optical device that transmits a mechanically selectable narrow band of wavelengths of light or other radiation chosen from a wider range of wavelengths available at the input.

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Moritz von Rohr

Moritz von Rohr (4 April 1868 – 20 June 1940) was an optical scientist at Carl Zeiss in Jena, Germany.

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Multislice

The multislice algorithm is a method for the simulation of the interaction of an electron beam with matter, including all multiple elastic scattering effects.

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Nanometre

The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).

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Nanotechnology

Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale.

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Negative stain

Negative staining is an established method, often used in diagnostic microscopy, for contrasting a thin specimen with an optically opaque fluid.

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Neutron

| magnetic_moment.

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Numerical aperture

In optics, the numerical aperture (NA) of an optical system is a dimensionless number that characterizes the range of angles over which the system can accept or emit light.

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Optical aberration

Aberration in optics refers to a defect in a lens such that light is not focused to a point, but is spread out over some region of space, and hence an image formed by a lens with aberration is blurred or distorted, with the nature of the distortion depending on the type of aberration.

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Optical axis

An optical axis is a line along which there is some degree of rotational symmetry in an optical system such as a camera lens or microscope.

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Optical microscope

The optical microscope, often referred to as the light microscope, is a type of microscope that uses visible light and a system of lenses to magnify images of small subjects.

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Optical resolution

Optical resolution describes the ability of an imaging system to resolve detail in the object that is being imaged.

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Optical transfer function

The optical transfer function (OTF) of an optical system such as a camera, microscope, human eye, or projector specifies how different spatial frequencies are handled by the system.

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Oscilloscope

An oscilloscope, previously called an oscillograph, and informally known as a scope or o-scope, CRO (for cathode-ray oscilloscope), or DSO (for the more modern digital storage oscilloscope), is a type of electronic test instrument that allows observation of varying signal voltages, usually as a two-dimensional plot of one or more signals as a function of time.

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Osmium

Osmium (from Greek ὀσμή osme, "smell") is a chemical element with symbol Os and atomic number 76.

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Owen Willans Richardson

Sir Owen Willans Richardson, FRS (26 April 1879 – 15 February 1959) was a British physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1928 for his work on thermionic emission, which led to Richardson's law.

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Pascal (unit)

The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.

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Permalloy

Permalloy is a nickel–iron magnetic alloy, with about 80% nickel and 20% iron content.

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Permeability (electromagnetism)

In electromagnetism, permeability is the measure of the ability of a material to support the formation of a magnetic field within itself.

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Phase (waves)

Phase is the position of a point in time (an instant) on a waveform cycle.

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Phase retrieval

Phase retrieval is the process of algorithmically finding solutions to the phase problem.

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Phase-contrast imaging

Phase-contrast imaging is a method of imaging that has a range of different applications.

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Photographic film

Photographic film is a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film base coated on one side with a gelatin emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals.

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Photon

The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).

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Picometre

The picometre (international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: pm) or picometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to, or one trillionth of a metre, which is the SI base unit of length.

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Planck constant

The Planck constant (denoted, also called Planck's constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of action, central in quantum mechanics.

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Plasma (physics)

Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.

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Pollution

Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.

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Precession electron diffraction

Precession electron diffraction (PED) is a specialized method to collect electron diffraction patterns in a transmission electron microscope (TEM).

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Projection-slice theorem

In mathematics, the projection-slice theorem, central slice theorem or Fourier slice theorem in two dimensions states that the results of the following two calculations are equal.

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Radon transform

In mathematics, the Radon transform is the integral transform which takes a function f defined on the plane to a function Rf defined on the (two-dimensional) space of lines in the plane, whose value at a particular line is equal to the line integral of the function over that line.

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Refractive index

In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.

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Reinhold Rudenberg

Reinhold Rudenberg (or Rüdenberg; February 4, 1883 – December 25, 1961) was a German-American electrical engineer and inventor, credited with many innovations in the electric power and related fields.

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Rotary vane pump

A rotary vane pump is a positive-displacement pump that consists of vanes mounted to a rotor that rotates inside of a cavity.

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Saturation (magnetic)

Seen in some magnetic materials, saturation is the state reached when an increase in applied external magnetic field H cannot increase the magnetization of the material further, so the total magnetic flux density B more or less levels off.

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Scanning confocal electron microscopy

Scanning confocal electron microscopy (SCEM) is an electron microscopy technique analogous to scanning confocal optical microscopy (SCOM).

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Scanning electron microscope

A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope that produces images of a sample by scanning the surface with a focused beam of electrons.

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Scanning transmission electron microscopy

A scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is a type of transmission electron microscope (TEM).

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Sector mass spectrometer

A sector instrument is a general term for a class of mass spectrometer that uses a static electric or magnetic sector or some combination of the two (separately in space) as a mass analyzer.

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Semiconductor

A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.

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Semiconductor device

Semiconductor devices are electronic components that exploit the electronic properties of semiconductor materials, principally silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide, as well as organic semiconductors.

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Sextupole magnet

A Sextupole magnet (also known as a hexapole magnet) consist of six magnetic poles set out in an arrangement of alternating north and south poles arranged around an axis.

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Siemens

Siemens AG is a German conglomerate company headquartered in Berlin and Munich and the largest industrial manufacturing company in Europe with branch offices abroad.

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Single crystal

A single crystal or monocrystalline solid is a material in which the crystal lattice of the entire sample is continuous and unbroken to the edges of the sample, with no grain boundaries.

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Single particle analysis

Single particle analysis is a group of related computerized image processing techniques used to analyze images from transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

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Space group

In mathematics, physics and chemistry, a space group is the symmetry group of a configuration in space, usually in three dimensions.

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Spatial frequency

In mathematics, physics, and engineering, spatial frequency is a characteristic of any structure that is periodic across position in space.

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Spherical aberration

Spherical aberration is an optical effect observed in an optical device (lens, mirror, etc.) that occurs due to the increased refraction of light rays when they strike a lens or a reflection of light rays when they strike a mirror near its edge, in comparison with those that strike close to the centre.

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Stepper motor

A stepper motor or step motor or stepping motor is a brushless DC electric motor that divides a full rotation into a number of equal steps.

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Stigmator

A stigmator is a component of electron microscopes that reduces astigmatism of the beam by imposing a weak electric or magnetic quadrupole field on the electron beam.

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Strategic bombing

Strategic bombing is a military strategy used in a total war with the goal of defeating the enemy by destroying its morale or its economic ability to produce and transport materiel to the theatres of military operations, or both.

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Sublimation (phase transition)

Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase, without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.

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Technical University of Berlin

The Technical University of Berlin (official name Technische Universität Berlin, known as TU Berlin) is a research university located in Berlin, Germany.

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Thermionic emission

Thermionic emission is the thermally induced flow of charge carriers from a surface or over a potential-energy barrier.

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Trackball

A trackball is a pointing device consisting of a ball held by a socket containing sensors to detect a rotation of the ball about two axes—like an upside-down mouse with an exposed protruding ball.

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Transmission Electron Aberration-Corrected Microscope

Transmission Electron Aberration-Corrected Microscope (TEAM) is a collaborative research project between four US laboratories and two companies.

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Tungsten

Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.

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Tunnel magnetoresistance

Tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) is a magnetoresistive effect that occurs in a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), which is a component consisting of two ferromagnets separated by a thin insulator.

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Turbomolecular pump

A turbomolecular pump is a type of vacuum pump, superficially similar to a turbopump, used to obtain and maintain high vacuum.

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Ultraviolet

Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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University of Chicago

The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.

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University of Toronto

The University of Toronto (U of T, UToronto, or Toronto) is a public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada on the grounds that surround Queen's Park.

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Uranium

Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.

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Uranyl acetate

Uranyl acetate (UO2(CH3COO)2·2H2O) is the acetate salt of uranyl and is a yellow-green crystalline solid made up of yellow-green rhombic crystals and has a slight acetic odor.

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Virology

Virology is the study of viruses – submicroscopic, parasitic particles of genetic material contained in a protein coat – and virus-like agents.

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Visible spectrum

The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.

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Volt

The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.

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Walter Hoppe

Walter Hoppe (March 21, 1917 – November 3, 1986) was a German physicist and electron microscopist.

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Washington State University

Washington State University (WSU) is a public research university in Pullman, Washington, in the Palouse region of the northwest United States. Founded in 1890, WSU (colloquially "Wazzu") is a land-grant university with programs in a broad range of academic disciplines. It is ranked in the top 140 universities in America with high research activity, as determined by U.S. News & World Report. With an undergraduate enrollment of 24,470 and a total enrollment of 29,686, it is the second largest institution of higher education in Washington state behind the University of Washington. The university also operates campuses across Washington known as WSU Spokane, WSU Tri-Cities, WSU Everett and WSU Vancouver, all founded in 1989. In 2012, WSU launched an Internet-based Global Campus, which includes its online degree program, WSU Online. These campuses award primarily bachelor's and master's degrees. Freshmen and sophomores were first admitted to the Vancouver campus in 2006 and to the Tri-Cities campus in 2007. Enrollment for the four campuses and WSU Online exceeds 29,686 students. This includes 1,751 international students. WSU's athletic teams are called the Cougars and the school colors are crimson and gray. Six men's and nine women's varsity teams compete in NCAA Division I in the Pac-12 Conference. Both men's and women's indoor track teams compete in the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation.

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Wavelength

In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.

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Wehnelt cylinder

A Wehnelt cylinder (also known as Wehnelt cap, grid cap or simply Wehnelt) is an electrode in the electron gun assembly of some thermionic devices, used for focusing and control of the electron beam.

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Work function

In solid-state physics, the work setting (sometimes spelled workfunction) is the minimum thermodynamic work (i.e. energy) needed to remove an electron from a solid to a point in the vacuum immediately outside the solid surface.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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X-ray

X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.

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Yttrium aluminium garnet

Yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG, Y3Al5O12) is a synthetic crystalline material of the garnet group.

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Zinc sulfide

Zinc sulfide (or zinc sulphide) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula of ZnS.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission_electron_microscopy

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