131 relations: Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), Adjacent-channel interference, Aluminium oxide, Amorphous solid, Anisotropy, Atom, Atomic nucleus, Atomic number, Atomic orbital, Attenuation, Birefringence, Borosilicate glass, Bravais lattice, Brillouin scattering, Brownian motion, Buoyancy, Camouflage, Cell (biology), Ceramic, Chemical bond, Chemical composition, Cladding (fiber optics), Cod, Colloidal crystal, Color, Colour centre (disambiguation), Compton scattering, Core (optical fiber), Crypsis, Crystal, Crystallite, Crystallographic defect, Cycle per second, Cylinder, Dielectric, Diffuse reflection, Dimension, Dipole, Dragonfly, Electric charge, Electromagnetic spectrum, Electron, Energy level, Fiber, Fluorescence, Frequency, Glass, Glass frog, Grain boundary, Guided ray, ..., Haze (optics), Heat, Insect, Insulator (electricity), Invisibility, Ionic bonding, Ithomiini, Jellyfish, Laser, Lattice model (physics), Light-emitting diode, Luminescence, Marine biology, Mean, Mesoglea, Metal, Metallic bonding, Micrometer, Microscope, Molecular vibration, Multi-mode optical fiber, Nanometre, Nanotechnology, Normal mode, Opacity (optics), Optical communication, Optical fiber, Optical medium, Optics, Oscillation, Pellicle mirror, Periodic table, Phosphorescence, Photoelectric effect, Photon, Photonic crystal, Physical property, Pigment, Plankton, Plate glass, Position (vector), Quantum, Quartz, Radiant energy, Rayleigh scattering, Reflection (physics), Refraction, Refractive index, Relative direction, Resonance, Sapphire, Scattering, Sea, Selection rule, Silicon dioxide, Snell's law, Sol–gel process, Spectrum, Speed of light, Stress (mechanics), Symmetry, Symmetry group, Thermal energy, Total internal reflection, Transmit (file transfer tool), Transmittance, Transparency and translucency, Transparency meter, Transparent ceramics, Transparent conducting film, Turbidity, Ultraviolet, Valence and conduction bands, Valence electron, Vibration, Visible spectrum, Water, Waveguide, Wavelength, Yttrium aluminium garnet, Yttrium(III) oxide. Expand index (81 more) » « Shrink index
In physics, absorption of electromagnetic radiation is the way in which the energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typically the electrons of an atom.
Adjacent-channel interference (ACI) is interference caused by extraneous power from a signal in an adjacent channel.
Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.
In condensed matter physics and materials science, an amorphous (from the Greek a, without, morphé, shape, form) or non-crystalline solid is a solid that lacks the long-range order that is characteristic of a crystal.
Anisotropy, is the property of being directionally dependent, which implies different properties in different directions, as opposed to isotropy.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.
In physics, attenuation or, in some contexts, extinction is the gradual loss of flux intensity through a medium.
Birefringence is the optical property of a material having a refractive index that depends on the polarization and propagation direction of light.
Borosilicate glass is a type of glass with silica and boron trioxide as the main glass-forming constituents.
In geometry and crystallography, a Bravais lattice, named after, is an infinite array of discrete points in three dimensional space generated by a set of discrete translation operations described by: where ni are any integers and ai are known as the primitive vectors which lie in different directions and span the lattice.
Brillouin scattering, named after Léon Brillouin, refers to the interaction of light and material waves within a medium.
Brownian motion or pedesis (from πήδησις "leaping") is the random motion of particles suspended in a fluid (a liquid or a gas) resulting from their collision with the fast-moving molecules in the fluid.
In physics, buoyancy or upthrust, is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object.
Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see (crypsis), or by disguising them as something else (mimesis).
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.
A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.
Chemical composition refers to the identity and relative number of the chemical elements that make up any particular compound.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Cladding in optical fibers is one or more layers of materials of lower refractive index, in intimate contact with a core material of higher refractive index.
Cod is the common name for the demersal fish genus Gadus, belonging to the family Gadidae.
A colloidal crystal is an ordered array of colloid particles, analogous to a standard crystal whose repeating subunits are atoms or molecules.
Color (American English) or colour (Commonwealth English) is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, or purple.
colour centre may refer to.
Compton scattering, discovered by Arthur Holly Compton, is the scattering of a photon by a charged particle, usually an electron.
The core of a conventional optical fiber is a cylinder of glass or plastic that runs along the fiber's length.
In ecology, crypsis is the ability of an animal to avoid observation or detection by other animals.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
A crystallite is a small or even microscopic crystal which forms, for example, during the cooling of many materials.
Crystalline solids exhibit a periodic crystal structure.
The cycle per second was a once-common English name for the unit of frequency now known as the hertz.
A cylinder (from Greek κύλινδρος – kulindros, "roller, tumbler"), has traditionally been a three-dimensional solid, one of the most basic of curvilinear geometric shapes.
A dielectric (or dielectric material) is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field.
Diffuse reflection is the reflection of light or other waves or particles from a surface such that a ray incident on the surface is scattered at many angles rather than at just one angle as in the case of specular reflection.
In physics and mathematics, the dimension of a mathematical space (or object) is informally defined as the minimum number of coordinates needed to specify any point within it.
In electromagnetism, there are two kinds of dipoles.
A dragonfly is an insect belonging to the order Odonata, infraorder Anisoptera (from Greek ἄνισος anisos, "uneven" and πτερόν pteron, "wing", because the hindwing is broader than the forewing).
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
A quantum mechanical system or particle that is bound—that is, confined spatially—can only take on certain discrete values of energy.
Fiber or fibre (see spelling differences, from the Latin fibra) is a natural or synthetic substance that is significantly longer than it is wide.
Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
The glass frogs are frogs of the amphibian family Centrolenidae (order Anura).
A grain boundary is the interface between two grains, or crystallites, in a polycrystalline material.
A guided ray (also bound ray or trapped ray) is a ray of light in a multi-mode optical fiber, which is confined by the core.
There are two different types of haze that can occur in materials.
In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely; very little electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field.
Invisibility is the state of an object that cannot be seen.
Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds.
Ithomiini is a butterfly tribe in the nymphalid subfamily Danainae.
Jellyfish or sea jelly is the informal common name given to the medusa-phase of certain gelatinous members of the subphylum Medusozoa, a major part of the phylum Cnidaria.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
In physics, a lattice model is a physical model that is defined on a lattice, as opposed to the continuum of space or spacetime.
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source.
Luminescence is emission of light by a substance not resulting from heat; it is thus a form of cold-body radiation.
Marine biology is the scientific study of marine life, organisms in the sea.
In mathematics, mean has several different definitions depending on the context.
Mesoglea, also known as mesohyl, is the translucent, non-living, jelly-like substance found between the two epithelial cell layers (i.e., between the ectoderm and endoderm) in the bodies of cnidarians and sponges.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Metallic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that arises from the electrostatic attractive force between conduction electrons (in the form of an electron cloud of delocalized electrons) and positively charged metal ions.
A micrometer, sometimes known as a micrometer screw gauge, is a device incorporating a calibrated screw widely used for precise measurement of components in mechanical engineering and machining as well as most mechanical trades, along with other metrological instruments such as dial, vernier, and digital calipers.
A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.
A molecular vibration occurs when atoms in a molecule are in periodic motion while the molecule as a whole has constant translational and rotational motion.
Multi-mode optical fiber is a type of optical fiber mostly used for communication over short distances, such as within a building or on a campus.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
A normal mode of an oscillating system is a pattern of motion in which all parts of the system move sinusoidally with the same frequency and with a fixed phase relation.
Opacity is the measure of impenetrability to electromagnetic or other kinds of radiation, especially visible light.
Optical communication, also known as optical telecommunication, is communication at a distance using light to carry information.
An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.
An optical medium is material through which electromagnetic waves propagate.
Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states.
A pellicle mirror (diminutive of pellis, a skin or film) is an ultra-thin, ultra-lightweight semi-transparent mirror employed in the light path of an optical instrument, splitting the light beam into two separate beams, both of reduced light intensity.
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.
Phosphorescence is a type of photoluminescence related to fluorescence.
The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons or other free carriers when light shines on a material.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
A photonic crystal is a periodic optical nanostructure that affects the motion of photons in much the same way that ionic lattices affect electrons in solids.
A physical property is any property that is measurable, whose value describes a state of a physical system.
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
Plankton (singular plankter) are the diverse collection of organisms that live in large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current.
Plate glass, flat glass or sheet glass is a type of glass, initially produced in plane form, commonly used for windows, glass doors, transparent walls, and windscreens.
In geometry, a position or position vector, also known as location vector or radius vector, is a Euclidean vector that represents the position of a point P in space in relation to an arbitrary reference origin O. Usually denoted x, r, or s, it corresponds to the straight-line from O to P. The term "position vector" is used mostly in the fields of differential geometry, mechanics and occasionally vector calculus.
In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is the minimum amount of any physical entity (physical property) involved in an interaction.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
In physics, and in particular as measured by radiometry, radiant energy is the energy of electromagnetic and gravitational radiation.
Rayleigh scattering (pronounced), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic scattering of light or other electromagnetic radiation by particles much smaller than the wavelength of the radiation.
Reflection is the change in direction of a wavefront at an interface between two different media so that the wavefront returns into the medium from which it originated.
Refraction is the change in direction of wave propagation due to a change in its transmission medium.
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.
The most common relative directions are left, right, forward(s), backward(s), up, and down.
In physics, resonance is a phenomenon in which a vibrating system or external force drives another system to oscillate with greater amplitude at specific frequencies.
Sapphire is a precious gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum, an aluminium oxide.
Scattering is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more paths due to localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass.
A sea is a large body of salt water that is surrounded in whole or in part by land.
In physics and chemistry, a selection rule, or transition rule, formally constrains the possible transitions of a system from one quantum state to another.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Snell's law (also known as Snell–Descartes law and the law of refraction) is a formula used to describe the relationship between the angles of incidence and refraction, when referring to light or other waves passing through a boundary between two different isotropic media, such as water, glass, or air.
In materials science, the sol–gel process is a method for producing solid materials from small molecules.
A spectrum (plural spectra or spectrums) is a condition that is not limited to a specific set of values but can vary, without steps, across a continuum.
The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.
In continuum mechanics, stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of a continuous material exert on each other, while strain is the measure of the deformation of the material.
Symmetry (from Greek συμμετρία symmetria "agreement in dimensions, due proportion, arrangement") in everyday language refers to a sense of harmonious and beautiful proportion and balance.
In group theory, the symmetry group of an object (image, signal, etc.) is the group of all transformations under which the object is invariant with composition as the group operation.
Thermal energy is a term used loosely as a synonym for more rigorously-defined thermodynamic quantities such as the internal energy of a system; heat or sensible heat, which are defined as types of transfer of energy (as is work); or for the characteristic energy of a degree of freedom in a thermal system kT, where T is temperature and k is the Boltzmann constant.
Total internal reflection is the phenomenon which occurs when a propagated wave strikes a medium boundary at an angle larger than a particular critical angle with respect to the normal to the surface.
Transmit is a file transfer program for macOS.
Transmittance of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in transmitting radiant energy.
In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered.
A transparency meter, also called a clarity meter, is an instrument used to measure the transparency of an object.
Many ceramic materials, both glassy and crystalline, have found use as optically transparent materials in various forms from bulk solid-state components to high surface area forms such as thin films, coatings, and fibers.
Transparent conducting films (TCFs) are thin films of optically transparent and electrically conductive material.
Turbidity is the cloudiness or haziness of a fluid caused by large numbers of individual particles that are generally invisible to the naked eye, similar to smoke in air.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
In solid-state physics, the valence band and conduction band are the bands closest to the Fermi level and thus determine the electrical conductivity of the solid.
In chemistry, a valence electron is an outer shell electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond if the outer shell is not closed; in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair.
Vibration is a mechanical phenomenon whereby oscillations occur about an equilibrium point.
The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
A waveguide is a structure that guides waves, such as electromagnetic waves or sound, with minimal loss of energy by restricting expansion to one dimension or two.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
Yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG, Y3Al5O12) is a synthetic crystalline material of the garnet group.
Yttrium oxide, also known as yttria, is Y2O3.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
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