61 relations: Abbas Mirza, Abkhazia, Afsharid dynasty, Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar, Alexander I of Russia, Anglo-Russian Convention, Aras (river), Armenia, Azerbaijan, Azerbaijanis, Baku Khanate, Battle of Aslanduz, Battle of Krtsanisi, Black Sea, Cambridge University Press, Caspian Sea, Caucasus, Columbia University Press, Dagestan, Derbent Khanate, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Fath-Ali Shah Qajar, Franco-Persian alliance, Free trade, Ganja Khanate, Gülüstan, Goranboy, Georgia (country), Goranboy District, Gore Ouseley, Guria, Heraclius II of Georgia, Ibrahim Khalil Khan, Imereti, Iran, Iran–Russia relations, Jihad, Karabakh Khanate, Mirza Abolhassan Khan Ilchi, Naval fleet, Nikolay Rtishchev, North Caucasus, Peace treaty, Persian people, Pyotr Kotlyarevsky, Qajar dynasty, Quba Khanate, Russian Empire, Russo-Persian War (1804–13), Russo-Persian War (1826–1828), Safavid dynasty, ..., Samegrelo, Shaki Khanate, Shirvan Khanate, Shusha, Storming of Lankaran, Talysh Khanate, Talysh people, Transcaucasia, Treaties of Tilsit, Treaty of Turkmenchay, Turkey. Expand index (11 more) » « Shrink index
Abbas Mirza (عباس میرزا) (August 20, 1789October 25, 1833), was a Qajar crown prince of Persia.
Abkhazia (Аҧсны́; აფხაზეთი; p) is a territory on the eastern coast of the Black Sea, south of the Greater Caucasus mountains, in northwestern Georgia.
The Afsharid dynasty (افشاریان) were members of an Iranian dynasty that originated from the Turkic Afshar tribe in Iran's north-eastern province of Khorasan, ruling Persia in the mid-eighteenth century.
Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar (translit; 14 March 1742 – 17 June 1797), also known by his regnal name of Agha Mohammad Shah (آقا محمد شاه), was the founder of the Qajar dynasty of Iran, ruling from 1789 to 1797 as king (shah).
Alexander I (Александр Павлович, Aleksandr Pavlovich; –) reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1801 and 1825.
The Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907 or the Convention between the United Kingdom and Russia relating to Persia, Afghanistan, and Tibet.
The Aras or Araxes is a river flowing through Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Azerbaijanis or Azeris (Azərbaycanlılar آذربایجانلیلار, Azərilər آذریلر), also known as Azerbaijani Turks (Azərbaycan türkləri آذربایجان تورکلری), are a Turkic ethnic group living mainly in the Iranian region of Azerbaijan and the sovereign (former Soviet) Republic of Azerbaijan.
Baku Khanate (خانات باکو — Khānāt-e Baku), was an autonomous Muslim principality under Iranian suzerainty, which existed between 1747 and 1806.
The Battle of Aslanduz took place on 19–20 October 1812 between Russia and Persia. The Persian Fath Ali Shah had his large army stationed in Aslanduz led by the heir to the throne, Abbas Mirza. The Russian squad, headed by the charismatic Major General Pyotr Kotlyarevsky, using the element of surprise night attack, routed the Persians who were still at sleep and quickly moved on to storm Lankaran victoriously in the beginning of 1813, thus ending any Persian hopes of continuing the war or settling on even peace terms for both parties.
The Battle of Krtsanisi (კრწანისის ბრძოლა, k'rts'anisis brdzola) was fought between the Qajars of Iran and the Georgian armies of the Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti and Kingdom of Imereti at the place of Krtsanisi near Tbilisi, Georgia, from September 8 to September 11, 1795, as part of Qajar Emperor Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar's war in response to King Heraclius II of Georgia’s alliance with the Russian Empire.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
The Republic of Dagestan (Респу́блика Дагеста́н), or simply Dagestan (or; Дагеста́н), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia, located in the North Caucasus region.
The Derbent Khanate (خانات دربند — Khānāt-e Darband, Dərbənd xanlığı) was a Caucasian khanate that was established in Afsharid Iran.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
Fath-Ali Shah Qajar (فتحعلى شاه قاجار; var. Fathalishah, Fathali Shah, Fath Ali Shah; 25 September 1772 – 23 October 1834) was the second Shah (Qajar emperor) of Iran.
A Franco-Persian alliance or Franco-Iranian alliance was formed for a short period between the French Empire of Napoleon I and Fath Ali Shah against Russia and Great Britain between 1807 and 1809.
Free trade is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.
The Ganja Khanate (خانات گنجه — Khānāt-e Ganjeh, Gəncə xanlığı, Ҝәнҹә ханлығы, گنجه خنليغى) was a semi-independent Caucasian khanate that was established in Afsharid Iran and existed in the territory of what is modern-day Azerbaijan between 1747-1805.
Gülüstan (Գյուլիստան, Gyulistan) is a village in the Goranboy District of Azerbaijan, which is part of the municipality of Buzluq.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Goranboy is a rayon of Azerbaijan.
Sir Gore Ouseley, 1st Baronet GCH (24 June 1770 – 18 November 1844), was a British entrepreneur, linguist and diplomat.
Guria (გურია) is a region (mkhare) in Georgia, in the western part of the country, bordered by the eastern end of the Black Sea.
Heraclius II (ერეკლე II), also known as Erekle II and The Little Kakhetian (პატარა კახი) (7 November 1720 or 7 October 1721 – 11 January 1798), was a Georgian monarch of the Bagrationi dynasty, reigning as the king of Kakheti from 1744 to 1762, and of Kartli and Kakheti from 1762 until 1798.
Ibrahim Khalil khan Javanshir (1732–1806) was the Azeri Turkic khan of Karabakh from the Javanshir family, who succeeded his father Panah-Ali khan Javanshir as the ruler of Karabakh khanate.
Imereti (Georgian: იმერეთი) is a region in Georgia situated along the middle and upper reaches of the Rioni River.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Relations between the Grand Duchy of Moscow and the Persian Empire (Iran), officially commenced in 1521, with the Safavids in power.
Jihad (جهاد) is an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.
The Karabakh Khanate (خانات قرهباغ – Xānāt e Qarebāq, Qarabağ xanlığı) was a semi-independent Turkic khanate on the territories of modern-day Armenia and Azerbaijan established in about 1748 under Iranian suzerainty in Karabakh and adjacent areas.
Mirza Abolhassan Khan Shirazi Ilchi Kabir (میرزا ابوالحسن خان شیرازی ایلچی کبیر) was an Iranian statesman who served as the Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1824 to 1834, and then again from 1838 until his death in 1846.
A fleet or naval fleet is a large formation of warships, which is controlled by one leader and the largest formation in any navy.
Nikolay Federovich Rtishchev (Николай Федорович Ртищев; b. 1754 – d. 20 January 1835) was a General of the Infantry of the Russian Empire who served as the Russian Commander-in-chief in the Caucasus between 1812 and 1816.
The North Caucasus (p) or Ciscaucasia is the northern part of the Caucasus region between the Sea of Azov and Black Sea on the west and the Caspian Sea on the east, within European Russia.
A peace treaty is an agreement between two or more hostile parties, usually countries or governments, which formally ends a state of war between the parties.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
Pyotr Stepanovich Kotlyarevsky (June 23, 1782 – November 2, 1852) was a Russian military hero of the early 19th century.
The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; script Qacarlar) was an IranianAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3 royal dynasty of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.
The Quba Khanate was a quasi-independent Safavid khanate, under Iranian suzerainty on the territory of the modern-day Republic of Azerbaijan from 1726–1806.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The 1804–1813 Russo-Persian War, was one of the many wars between the Persian Empire and Imperial Russia, and began like many of their wars as a territorial dispute.
The Russo-Persian War of 1826–28 was the last major military conflict between the Russian Empire and Iran.
The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.
Samegrelo (სამეგრელო Samegrelo; სამარგალო Samargalo; მარგალონა Margalona, Segān) is a historic province in the western part of Georgia, formerly also known as Odishi.
Shaki khanate (Şəki xanlığı, also spelled as Sheki khanate, Shekin khanate, Shakki khanate) was a Caucasian khanate established in Afsharid Iran, on the territory of modern Azerbaijan, between 1743 and 1819 with its capital in the town of Shaki.
Shirvan Khanate (خانات شیروان — Khānāt-e Shirvan) was a khanate founded by the Afsharid dynasty that existed in what is now Azerbaijan in 1748—1820.
Shusha (Şuşa; Шуша), or Shushi (Շուշի), is a city in the disputed region of Nagorno-Karabakh in the South Caucasus.
The Storming of Lankaran (یورش به لنکران — Yuresh be Lankaran; Штурм Ленкорани) took place on 1 January 1813 as part of the Russo-Persian War (1804-1813).
The Talysh Khanate (خانات تالش — Khānāt-e Tālesh, Talış xanlığı, Talysh: Tolshi hanəti, also known as the Lenkaran Khanate):ru:Талышское ханство was a khanate of Iranian origin that was established in Persia and existed from the middle of the 18th century till the beginning of the 19th century, located in the south-west coast of the Caspian Sea.
Talysh (also Talishi, Taleshi or Talyshi) are an IranianGarnik Asatrian & Habib Borjian (2005.). Talish and the Talashis (State of Research).
Transcaucasia (Закавказье), or the South Caucasus, is a geographical region in the vicinity of the southern Caucasus Mountains on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
The Treaties of Tilsit were two agreements signed by Napoleon I of France in the town of Tilsit in July 1807 in the aftermath of his victory at Friedland.
The Treaty of Turkmenchay (Туркманчайский договор, عهدنامه ترکمنچای) was an agreement between Persia (Iran) and the Russian Empire, which concluded the Russo-Persian War (1826–28). It was signed on 10 February 1828 in Torkamanchay, Iran. By the treaty, Persia ceded to Russia control of several areas in the South Caucasus: the Erivan Khanate, the Nakhchivan Khanate, and the remainder of the Talysh Khanate. The boundary between Russian and Persia was set at the Aras River. These territories comprise modern-day Armenia, the southern parts of the modern-day Republic of Azerbaijan, Nakhchivan, as well as Iğdır Province (now part of Turkey). The treaty was signed for Persia by Crown Prince Abbas Mirza and Allah-Yar Khan Asaf al-Daula, chancellor to Shah Fath Ali (of the Qajar Dynasty), and for Russia by General Ivan Paskievich. Like the 1813 Treaty of Gulistan, this treaty was imposed by Russia, following military victory over Persia. Paskievich threatened to occupy Tehran in five days unless the treaty was signed. By this final treaty of 1828 and the 1813 Gulistan treaty, Russia had finalised conquering all the Caucasus territories from Iran, comprising modern-day Dagestan, eastern Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia, all which had formed part of its very concept for centuries. The area to the North of the river Aras, amongst which the territory of the contemporary nations of Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia and the North Caucasian Republic of Dagestan were Iranian territory until they were occupied by Russia in the course of the 19th century. As a further direct result and consequence of the two treaties, the formerly Iranian territories became now part of Russia for around the next 180 years, except Dagestan, which has remained a Russian possession ever since. Out of the greater part of the territory, three separate nations would be formed through the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, namely Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.