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Treaty of Kyakhta (1727)

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The Treaty of Kyakhta (or Kiakhta) (Кяхтинский договор, Kjahtinskij dogovor;, Wade-Giles: Pu4lien2ssŭ1ch‘i2 / Ch‘ia4k‘o4tu2 t‘iao2yüeh1, Xiao'erjing: بُلِيًاصِٿِ / ٿِاكْتُ تِيَوْيُؤ; Хиагтын гэрээ, Xiagtın gerê; Manchu:, Wylie: chuwan emu hatsin-i pitghe, Möllendorff: juwan emu hacin-i bithe), along with the Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689), regulated the relations between Imperial Russia and the Qing Empire of China until the mid-19th century. [1]

43 relations: Altai Mountains, Amursana, Argun River (Asia), Beijing, Buryats, China–Russia border, Chinese language, Chinese Orthodox Church, Dzungar Khanate, Guangzhou, International trade, Inventory of Conflict and Environment, Irtysh River, John Bell (traveller), Kangxi Emperor, Khövsgöl Province, Kyakhta, Kyakhta trade, Lake Baikal, Latin, Lorenz Lange, Manchu language, Mongolia–Russia border, Oirats, Peter C. Perdue, Peter the Great, Qing dynasty, Russian Empire, Russian language, Sava Vladislavich, Selenga River, Selenginsk, Transbaikal, Transliterations of Manchu, Treaty of Nerchinsk, Tsurukaitu, Tulišen, Tuul River, Uriankhai, Wade–Giles, Xiao'erjing, Xinjiang, Yongzheng Emperor.

Altai Mountains

The Altai Mountains (also spelled Altay Mountains; Altai: Алтай туулар, Altay tuular; Mongolian:, Altai-yin niruɣu (Chakhar) / Алтайн нуруу, Altain nuruu (Khalkha); Kazakh: Алтай таулары, Altai’ tay’lary, التاي تاۋلارى Алтайские горы, Altajskije gory; Chinese; 阿尔泰山脉, Ā'ěrtài Shānmài, Xiao'erjing: اَعَرتَىْ شًامَىْ; Dungan: Артэ Шанмэ) are a mountain range in Central and East Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia, and Kazakhstan come together, and are where the rivers Irtysh and Ob have their headwaters.

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Amursana

Amursana (Mongolian; 172321September 1757) was an 18th-century taishi or prince of the Khoit-Oirat tribe that ruled over parts of Dzungaria and Altishahr in present-day northwest China.

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Argun River (Asia)

The Argun or Ergune is a river that forms part of the eastern China–Russia border, together with the Amur River (Heilong Jiang).

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Beijing

Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.

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Buryats

The Buryats (Buryaad; 1, Buriad), numbering approximately 500,000, are the largest indigenous group in Siberia, mainly concentrated in their homeland, the Buryat Republic, a federal subject of Russia.

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China–Russia border

The Chinese–Russian border or the Sino–Russian border is the international border between China and Russia (CIS member).

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Chinese language

Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.

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Chinese Orthodox Church

The Chinese Orthodox Church was an autonomous Eastern Orthodox church in China.

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Dzungar Khanate

The Dzungar Khanate, also written as the Zunghar Khanate, was an Oirat khanate on the Eurasian Steppe.

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Guangzhou

Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.

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International trade

International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories.

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Inventory of Conflict and Environment

The Inventory of Conflict and Environment (ICE) is a project initiated by Jim Lee, School of International Service (SIS) at American University in Washington, D.C. He has also written extensively on environment and conflict, including the book "Hot and Cold Wars".

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Irtysh River

The Irtysh River (Эрчис мөрөн, Erchis mörön, "erchleh", "twirl"; Иртыш; Ертіс, Ertis, ه‌رتىس; Chinese: 额尔齐斯河, pinyin: É'ěrqísī hé, Xiao'erjing: عَعَرٿِسِ حْ; Uyghur: ئېرتىش, Ertish; ﻴﺋرتئش, Siberian Tatar: Эйәртеш, Eya’rtes’) is a river in Russia, China, and Kazakhstan.

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John Bell (traveller)

John Bell (1691–1780) was a Scottish doctor and traveller.

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Kangxi Emperor

The Kangxi Emperor (康熙; 4 May 165420 December 1722), personal name Xuanye, was the fourth emperor of the Qing dynasty, the first to be born on Chinese soil south of the Shanhai Pass near Beijing, and the second Qing emperor to rule over that part of China, from 1661 to 1722.

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Khövsgöl Province

Khövsgöl (Хөвсгөл) is the northernmost of the 21 aimags (provinces) of Mongolia.

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Kyakhta

Kyakhta (Кя́хта,; Xyaagta) is a town and the administrative center of Kyakhtinsky District in the Republic of Buryatia, Russia, located on the Kyakhta River near the Mongolia–Russia border.

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Kyakhta trade

The Kyakhta Trade (История кяхтинской торговли, Istorija kjahtinskoj torgovli, 恰克图商路) refers to the trade between Russia and China through the town of Kyakhta on the Mongolian border south of Lake Baikal from 1727.

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Lake Baikal

Lake Baikal (p; Байгал нуур, Baigal nuur; Байгал нуур, Baigal nuur, etymologically meaning, in Mongolian, "the Nature Lake") is a rift lake in Russia, located in southern Siberia, between Irkutsk Oblast to the northwest and the Buryat Republic to the southeast.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Lorenz Lange

(Not to be confused with Lorentz Lange, a Norwegian politician).

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Manchu language

Manchu (Manchu: manju gisun) is a critically endangered Tungusic language spoken in Manchuria; it was the native language of the Manchus and one of the official languages of the Qing dynasty (1636–1911) of China.

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Mongolia–Russia border

The Mongolia–Russia border (Монгол-Оросын хил, Mongol-Orosın xil; Российско-монгольская граница, Rossijsko-mongoljskaja granica) is the international border between the Russian Federation (CIS member) and Mongolia.

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Oirats

Oirats (Oirad or Ойрд, Oird; Өөрд; in the past, also Eleuths) are the westernmost group of the Mongols whose ancestral home is in the Altai region of western Mongolia.

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Peter C. Perdue

Peter C. Perdue (born 1949) is an American author, professor, and historian.

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Peter the Great

Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.

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Qing dynasty

The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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Russian language

Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.

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Sava Vladislavich

Count Sava Lukich Vladislavich-Raguzinsky (Са́вва Луки́ч Рагузи́нский-Владиславич; Сава Владиславић Рагузински, Sava Vladislavić Raguzinski; 16 January 1669 – 17 June 1738) was a Serbian merchant-adventurer and diplomat in the employ of Peter the Great.

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Selenga River

The Selenga River (Selenge River, Mongolian: Сэлэнгэ мөрөн, Selenge mörön; Сэлэнгэ гол / Сэлэнгэ мүрэн, Selenge gol / Selenge müren; Селенга́) is a major river in Mongolia and Buryatia, Russia.

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Selenginsk

Selenginsk (Селенги́нск; Сэлэнгын, Selengyn) is an urban locality (an urban-type settlement) in Kabansky District of the Republic of Buryatia, Russia, located at the head of the Selenga River delta about from Lake Baikal and about northwest of Ulan-Ude, the capital of the republic.

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Transbaikal

Transbaikal, Trans-Baikal, Transbaikalia (p), or Dauria (Даурия, Dauriya) is a mountainous region to the east of or "beyond" (trans-) Lake Baikal in Russia.

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Transliterations of Manchu

There are several systems for transliteration of the Manchu alphabet which is used for the Manchu and Xibe languages.

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Treaty of Nerchinsk

The Treaty of Nerchinsk of 1689 (Нерчинский договор, Nerčinskij dogovor; Manchu:,Möllendorff: nibcoo-i bade bithe;, Xiao'erjing: نِبُچُ تِيَوْيُؤ) was the first treaty between Russia and China.

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Tsurukaitu

Tsurukhaitu was a trading post along the Russo-Chinese border north of Peking during the eighteenth century.

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Tulišen

Tulišen (also spelled Tulishen or Tulixen, Manchu:,; 1667–1741) was a Manchu official and diplomat during the early Qing dynasty.

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Tuul River

The Tuul River or Tula River (Туул гол, Tūl gol; in older sources also Tola) is a river in central and northern Mongolia.

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Uriankhai

Uriankhai (also written as "Uriyangkhai", "Urianhai", or "Uryangkhai") is a Mongolian term applied to several neighboring "forest" ethnic groups such as the Altai Uriankhai, Tuvans and Yakuts.

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Wade–Giles

Wade–Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese.

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Xiao'erjing

Xiao'erjing or Xiao'erjin or Xiaor jin or in its shortened form, Xiaojing, literally meaning "children's script" or "minor script" (cf. "original script" referring to the original Perso-Arabic script,, Xiao'erjing: بٌکٍْ; Бынҗин, Вьnⱬin), is the practice of writing Sinitic languages such as Mandarin (especially the Lanyin, Zhongyuan and Northeastern dialects) or the Dungan language in the Perso-Arabic script.

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Xinjiang

Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.

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Yongzheng Emperor

The Yongzheng Emperor (13 December 1678 – 8 October 1735), born Yinzhen, was the fifth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the third Qing emperor to rule over China proper.

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Redirects here:

Kyakhta Treaty, Treaty of Kiakhta, Treaty of Kyakhta.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Kyakhta_(1727)

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