134 relations: Abdication of Napoleon, 1815, Act of Mediation, Aire-sur-la-Lys, Aisne, Ancien Régime, Ardres, Armand-Emmanuel de Vignerot du Plessis, Duc de Richelieu, Arras, Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, Austrian Empire, Balance of power (international relations), Battle of Waterloo, Béthune, Belfort, Bentheim-Steinfurt, Bergues, Blamont, Boulogne-sur-Mer, Bourbon Restoration, Bruyères, Calais, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, Comtat Venaissin, Congress of Vienna, County of Montbéliard, Crimean War, Dieuze, Douai, Doubs, Duchy of Brunswick, Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Duchy of Nassau, Duchy of Oldenburg, Dunkirk, Elba, Electorate of Hesse, English Channel, European Magazine, Free City of Frankfurt, French Constitution of 1791, French language, French Revolution, General ledger, German Confederation, Grand Duchy of Baden, Grand Duchy of Hesse, Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Gravelines, Guadeloupe, Ham, Somme, ..., Hanseatic League, Haute-Marne, Haute-Saône, Helvetic Republic, Hesdin, History of slavery, Hohenzollern-Hechingen, Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, House of Schwarzburg, Hundred Days, Ideas of European unity before 1945, Imperial County of Reuss, Joinville, Haute-Marne, Kingdom of Bavaria, Kingdom of Hanover, Kingdom of Prussia, Kingdom of Sardinia, Kingdom of Saxony, Kingdom of Württemberg, La Petite-Pierre, Laon, Lauterbourg, Law of war, Lichtenberg, Bas-Rhin, Liechtenstein, Lille, Lingua franca, Lippe (district), List of treaties, Longman, Louis XVIII of France, Louis-Nicolas Davout, Lure, Haute-Saône, Mainz, Marne, Martinique, Metz, Meurthe (department), Montreuil, Pas-de-Calais, Napoleon, Neuf-Brisach, Ottoman Empire, Paris, Peace of Westphalia, Phalsbourg, Principality of Waldeck and Pyrmont, Quadruple Alliance (1815), Rastatt, Reims, Remiremont, Rhine crisis, Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh, Russian Empire, Saarlouis, Saint-Dié-des-Vosges, Saint-Dizier, Saint-Hippolyte, Doubs, Saint-Omer, Saint-Quentin, Aisne, Saint-Venant, Sainte-Menehould, Sarrebourg, Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, Saxe-Hildburghausen, Saxe-Meiningen, Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, Saxony-Anhalt, Sélestat, Somme (department), Strasbourg, Sweden, Switzerland in the Napoleonic era, Toul, Treaty of Paris (1814), Treaty of Paris (1856), Ulm, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United Kingdom of the Netherlands, Verdun, Vervins, Vitry-le-François, Vosges (department), Wissembourg. Expand index (84 more) » « Shrink index
Napoleon abdicated on 22 June in favour of his son Napoleon II.
The Act of Mediation was issued by Napoleon Bonaparte on 19 February 1803 establishing the Swiss Confederation.
Aire-sur-la-Lys (Dutch: Ariën-aan-de-Leie) is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France.
Aisne is a French department in the Hauts-de-France region of northern France.
The Ancien Régime (French for "old regime") was the political and social system of the Kingdom of France from the Late Middle Ages (circa 15th century) until 1789, when hereditary monarchy and the feudal system of French nobility were abolished by the.
Ardres is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France.
Armand-Emmanuel Sophie Septimanie de Vignerot du Plessis, 5th Duke of Richelieu and Fronsac (25 September 176617 May 1822), was a prominent French statesman during the Bourbon Restoration.
Arras (Atrecht) is the capital (chef-lieu/préfecture) of the Pas-de-Calais department, which forms part of the region of Hauts-de-France; prior to the reorganization of 2014 it was located in Nord-Pas-de-Calais.
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, (1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852) was an Anglo-Irish soldier and statesman who was one of the leading military and political figures of 19th-century Britain, serving twice as Prime Minister.
The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.
The balance of power theory in international relations suggests that national security is enhanced when military capability is distributed so that no one state is strong enough to dominate all others.
The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815, near Waterloo in present-day Belgium, then part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Béthune (archaic and Bethwyn historically in English) is a city in northern France, sub-prefecture of the Pas-de-Calais department.
Belfort is a city in northeastern France in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté région, situated between Lyon and Strasbourg.
Bentheim-Steinfurt was a historical county located in northwestern North Rhine-Westphalia in the region surrounding Steinfurt, Germany.
Bergues (Sint-Winoksbergen) is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
Blamont is a commune in the Doubs department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region in eastern France.
Boulogne-sur-Mer, often called Boulogne (Latin: Gesoriacum or Bononia, Boulonne-su-Mér, Bonen), is a coastal city in Northern France.
The Bourbon Restoration was the period of French history following the fall of Napoleon in 1814 until the July Revolution of 1830.
Bruyères is a commune in the Vosges department in Grand Est in northeastern France.
Calais (Calés; Kales) is a city and major ferry port in northern France in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture.
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord (2 February 1754 – 17 May 1838), 1st Prince of Benevento, then 1st Prince of Talleyrand, was a laicized French bishop, politician, and diplomat.
The Comtat Venaissin (Provençal: lou Coumtat Venessin, Mistralian norm: la Coumtat, classical norm: lo Comtat Venaicin; "County of Venaissin"), often called the Comtat for short, was a part of the Papal States in what is now the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region of France.
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
The County of Montbéliard (Comté de Montbéliard; Grafschaft Mömpelgard), was a feudal county of the Holy Roman Empire seated in the city of Montbéliard in the present-day Franche-Comté region of France.
The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.
Dieuze is a commune in the Moselle department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
Douai (Dowaai; historically "Doway" in English) is a commune in the Nord département in northern France.
Doubs (Arpitan: Dubs) is a department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region of eastern France named after the Doubs River.
The Duchy of Brunswick (Herzogtum Braunschweig) was a historical German state.
The Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin was a duchy in northern Germany created in 1701, when Frederick William and Adolphus Frederick II divided the Duchy of Mecklenburg between Schwerin and Strelitz.
The Duchy of Nassau (German: Herzogtum Nassau), or simply Nassau, was an independent state between 1806 and 1866, located in what is now the German states of Rhineland-Palatinate and Hesse.
The Duchy of Oldenburg (Herzogtum Oldenburg) — named after its capital, the town of Oldenburg — was a state in the north-west of present-day Germany.
Dunkirk (Dunkerque; Duinkerke(n)) is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
Elba (isola d'Elba,; Ilva; Ancient Greek: Αἰθαλία, Aithalia) is a Mediterranean island in Tuscany, Italy, from the coastal town of Piombino, and the largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago.
The Electorate of Hesse (Kurfürstentum Hessen), also known as Hesse-Kassel or Kurhessen) was a state elevated by Napoleon in 1803 from the Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel. When the Holy Roman Empire was abolished in 1806, the Prince-Elector of Hesse chose to remain an Elector, even though there was no longer an Emperor to elect. In 1807, with the Treaties of Tilsit the area was annexed to the Kingdom of Westphalia, but in 1814 the Congress of Vienna restored the electorate. The state was the only electorate within the German Confederation, consisting of several detached territories to the north of Frankfurt which survived until it was annexed by Prussia in 1866 following the Austro-Prussian War. It comprised a total land area of, and its population in 1864 was 745,063.
The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
The European Magazine was a monthly magazine published in London.
For almost five centuries, the German city of Frankfurt was a city-state within two major Germanic entities.
The short-lived French Constitution of 1791 was the first written constitution in France, created after the collapse of the absolute monarchy of the Ancien Régime.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
A general ledger contains all the accounts for recording transactions relating to a company's assets, liabilities, owners' equity, revenue, and expenses.
The German Confederation (Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 German-speaking states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire, which had been dissolved in 1806.
The Grand Duchy of Baden (Großherzogtum Baden) was a state in the southwest German Empire on the east bank of the Rhine.
The Grand Duchy of Hesse and by Rhine (Großherzogtum Hessen und bei Rhein) was a state in western Germany that existed from the German mediatization to the end of the German Empire.
The Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz was a territory in Northern Germany, held by the younger line of the House of Mecklenburg residing in Neustrelitz.
Gravelines is a commune in the Nord department in Northern France.
Guadeloupe (Antillean Creole: Gwadloup) is an insular region of France located in the Leeward Islands, part of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean.
Ham is a commune in the Somme department in Hauts-de-France in northern France.
The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.
Haute-Marne is a department in the northeast of France named after the Marne River.
Haute-Saône (Arpitan: Hiôta-Sona) is a French department of the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region named after the Saône River.
In Swiss history, the Helvetic Republic (1798–1803) represented an early attempt to impose a central authority over Switzerland, which until then had consisted of self-governing cantons united by a loose military alliance (and ruling over subject territories such as Vaud).
Hesdin is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France.
The history of slavery spans many cultures, nationalities, and religions from ancient times to the present day.
Hohenzollern-Hechingen was a small principality in southwestern Germany.
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was a small principality in southwestern Germany.
Schwarzburg is one of the oldest noble families of Thuringia.
The Hundred Days (les Cent-Jours) marked the period between Napoleon's return from exile on the island of Elba to Paris on20 March 1815 and the second restoration of King Louis XVIII on 8 July 1815 (a period of 110 days).
"Europe" as a cultural sphere is first used in the Carolingian period to encompass the Latin Church (as opposed to Eastern Orthodoxy).
Reuss (Reuß) was the name of several historical states located in present-day Thuringia, Germany.
Joinville is a commune in the Haute-Marne department in north-eastern France.
The Kingdom of Bavaria (Königreich Bayern) was a German state that succeeded the former Electorate of Bavaria in 1805 and continued to exist until 1918.
The Kingdom of Hanover (Königreich Hannover) was established in October 1814 by the Congress of Vienna, with the restoration of George III to his Hanoverian territories after the Napoleonic era.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
The Kingdom of SardiniaThe name of the state was originally Latin: Regnum Sardiniae, or Regnum Sardiniae et Corsicae when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica.
The Kingdom of Saxony (Königreich Sachsen), lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Napoleonic through post-Napoleonic Germany.
The Kingdom of Württemberg (Königreich Württemberg) was a German state that existed from 1805 to 1918, located within the area that is now Baden-Württemberg.
La Petite-Pierre (Lützelstein, Rhine Franconian: Lítzelstain) is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
Laon is the capital city of the Aisne department in Hauts-de-France, northern France.
Lauterbourg (historically in English: Lauterburgh) is a commune and Bas-Rhin department in the Grand Est administrative region in north-eastern France.
The law of war is a legal term of art which refers to the aspect of public international law concerning acceptable justifications to engage in war (jus ad bellum) and the limits to acceptable wartime conduct (jus in bello or international humanitarian law).
Lichtenberg is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Central Europe.
Lille (Rijsel; Rysel) is a city at the northern tip of France, in French Flanders.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
Lippe is a Kreis (district) in the east of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
This list of treaties contains known historic agreements, pacts, peaces, and major contracts between states, armies, governments, and tribal groups.
Longman, commonly known as Pearson Longman, is a publishing company founded in London, England, in 1724 and is owned by Pearson PLC.
Louis XVIII (Louis Stanislas Xavier; 17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), known as "the Desired" (le Désiré), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1814 to 1824, except for a period in 1815 known as the Hundred Days.
Louis-Nicolas d'Avout (10 May 17701 June 1823), better known as Davout, 1st Duke of Auerstaedt, 1st Prince of Eckmühl, was a French general who was Marshal of the Empire during the Napoleonic era.
Lure is a commune in the Haute-Saône department in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in eastern France.
Satellite view of Mainz (south of the Rhine) and Wiesbaden Mainz (Mogontiacum, Mayence) is the capital and largest city of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany.
Marne is a department in north-eastern France named after the river Marne (Matrona in Roman times) which flows through the department.
Martinique is an insular region of France located in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea, with a land area of and a population of 385,551 inhabitants as of January 2013.
Metz (Lorraine Franconian pronunciation) is a city in northeast France located at the confluence of the Moselle and the Seille rivers.
Meurthe is a former department of France created in 1790.
Montreuil or Montreuil-sur-Mer is a sub-prefecture in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Neuf-Brisach is a fortified town and commune of the department of Haut-Rhin in the French region of Alsace.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
The Peace of Westphalia (Westfälischer Friede) was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster that virtually ended the European wars of religion.
Phalsbourg (Lorraine Franconian: Phalsburch) is a commune in the Moselle department in Grand Est in north-eastern France, with a population of about 5,000.
The County of Waldeck (later the Principality of Waldeck and Principality of Waldeck and Pyrmont) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire and its successors from the late 12th century until 1929.
The Quadruple Alliance was a treaty signed in Paris on 20 November 1815 by the great powers of United Kingdom, Austria, Prussia, and Russia.
Rastatt is a town with a baroque core, District of Rastatt, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
Reims (also spelled Rheims), a city in the Grand Est region of France, lies east-northeast of Paris.
Remiremont is a town and commune in the Vosges department of northeastern France, situated in southern Grand Est.
The Rhine crisis of 1840 was a diplomatic crisis between the Kingdom of France and the German Confederation, caused by the attempt by the French prime minister Adolphe Thiers to use the threat of an invasion of Germany as leverage in a dispute over the Near East.
Robert Stewart, 2nd Marquess of Londonderry, (18 June 1769 – 12 August 1822), usually known as Lord Castlereagh, which is derived from his courtesy title Viscount Castlereagh,The name Castlereagh derives from the baronies of Castlereagh (or Castellrioughe) and Ards, in which the manors of Newtownards and Comber were located.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Saarlouis (Sarrelouis) is a city in the Saarland, Germany, capital of the district of Saarlouis.
Saint-Dié-des-Vosges (Sankt Didel), commonly referred to as Saint-Dié, is a commune in the Vosges department in Grand Est in northeastern France.
Saint-Dizier is a commune in the Haute-Marne department in north-eastern France.
Saint-Hippolyte or Saint-Hippolyte-sur-le-Doubs is a commune in the Doubs department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region in eastern France.
Saint-Omer (Sint-Omaars) is a commune in France.
Saint-Quentin is a commune in the Aisne department in Hauts-de-France in northern France.
Saint-Venant is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region of France.
Sainte-Menehould is a commune in the Marne department in north-eastern France.
Sarrebourg (Lorraine Franconian: Saarbuerj) is a commune in the Moselle department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld was one of the Saxon Duchies held by the Ernestine line of the Wettin Dynasty.
Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg was a duchy ruled by the Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin in today's Thuringia, Germany.
Saxe-Hildburghausen was an Ernestine duchy in the southern side of the present State of Thuringia in Germany.
Saxe-Meiningen was one of the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine line of the Wettin dynasty, located in the southwest of the present-day German state of Thuringia.
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach) was created as a duchy in 1809 by the merger of the Ernestine duchies of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach, which had been in personal union since 1741.
Saxony-Anhalt (Sachsen-Anhalt,, official: Land Sachsen-Anhalt) is a landlocked federal state of Germany surrounded by the federal states of Lower Saxony, Brandenburg, Saxony and Thuringia.
Sélestat (Alsatian: Schlettstàdt; German: Schlettstadt) is a commune in the northeast region of France.
Somme is a department of France, located in the north of the country and named after the Somme river.
Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
During the French Revolutionary Wars, the revolutionary armies marched eastward, enveloping Switzerland in their battles against Austria.
Toul is a commune in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department in north-eastern France.
The Treaty of Paris, signed on 30 May 1814, ended the war between France and the Sixth Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars, following an armistice signed on 23 April between Charles, Count of Artois, and the allies.
The Treaty of Paris of 1856 settled the Crimean War between the Russian Empire and an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, the British Empire, the Second French Empire and the Kingdom of Sardinia.
Ulm is a city in the federal German state of Baden-Württemberg, situated on the River Danube.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The United Kingdom of the Netherlands (Verenigd Koninkrijk der Nederlanden; Royaume-Uni des Pays-Bas) is the unofficial name given to the Kingdom of the Netherlands as it existed between 1815 and 1839.
Verdun (official name before 1970 Verdun-sur-Meuse) is a small city in the Meuse department in Grand Est in northeastern France.
Vervins is a commune in the Aisne department in Hauts-de-France in northern France.
Vitry-le-François is a commune in the Marne department in north-eastern France.
Vosges is an eastern department of France named after the Vosges mountain range.
Wissembourg (South Franconian: Weisseburch, pronounced; German) is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in northeastern France.