83 relations: Allied Control Council, Allies of World War II, Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, Basic Treaty, 1972, Berlin, Berlin Wall, Bonn–Paris conventions, Boris Yeltsin, Bundeswehr, Charles S. Maier, Cold War, Condoleezza Rice, Conscription, Council of Foreign Ministers, Die Wende, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, East German general election, 1990, East Germany, End of World War II in Europe, English language, European Union, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Former eastern territories of Germany, Four Power Agreement on Berlin, France, French Fifth Republic, French language, General Treaty, German Air Force, German Army, German language, German News Information Services GmbH, German reunification, German–Polish Border Treaty (1990), Germany, Group of Soviet Forces in Germany, Leipzig/Halle Airport, London and Paris Conferences, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Mikhail Gorbachev, Military, Military occupation, Military operation, Moscow, National Security Archive, NATO, New states of Germany, Nuclear-weapon-free zone, Occupation statute, ..., Oder–Neisse line, Office of Public Sector Information, Peaceful Revolution, Petersberg Agreement, Philip D. Zelikow, Poland, Potsdam Agreement, Potsdam Conference, Ratification, Robert Zoellick, Russia, Russian language, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Socialist Unity Party of Germany, Sovereign state, Sovereignty, Soviet Union, Stephen F. Cohen, Succession of states, The Daily Telegraph, The Nation, The National Interest, The Washington Quarterly, Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe, Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Trollenhagen, United Kingdom, United Nations Charter, United States, United States Department of State, Warsaw Pact, West Germany, World War II reparations. Expand index (33 more) » « Shrink index
The Allied Control Council or Allied Control Authority, known in the German language as the Alliierter Kontrollrat and also referred to as the Four Powers (Vier Mächte), was a military occupation governing body of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany and Austria after the end of World War II in Europe.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
The Crimean peninsula was annexed from Ukraine by the Russian Federation in February–March 2014.
The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany.
The Basic Treaty (Grundlagenvertrag) is the shorthand name for the Treaty concerning the basis of relations between the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic (Vertrag über die Grundlagen der Beziehungen zwischen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik).
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.
The Bonn–Paris conventions were signed in May 1952 and came into force after the 1955 ratification.
Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (p; 1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Soviet and Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.
The Bundeswehr (Federal Defence) is the unified armed forces of Germany and their civil administration and procurement authorities.
Charles S. Maier (born February 23, 1939, in New York City) is the Leverett Saltonstall Professor of History at Harvard University.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is an American political scientist and diplomat.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
Council of Foreign Ministers was an organisation agreed upon at the Potsdam Conference in 1945 and announced in the Potsdam Agreement.
Die Wende ("The Turn" or "The Turnaround") is a German term that has come to signify the complete process of change from the rule of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany and a centrally planned economy to the revival of parliamentary democracy and market economy in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) around 1989 and 1990.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
Legislative elections were held in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) on 18 March 1990.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
The final battles of the European Theatre of World War II as well as the German surrender to the Allies took place in late April and early May 1945.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), commonly called the Foreign Office, is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom.
The former eastern territories of Germany (Ehemalige deutsche Ostgebiete) are those provinces or regions east of the current eastern border of Germany (the Oder–Neisse line) which were lost by Germany after World War I and then World War II.
The Four Power Agreement on Berlin also known as the Berlin Agreement or the Quadripartite Agreement on Berlin was agreed on 3 September 1971 by the four wartime Allied powers, represented by their ambassadors.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The Fifth Republic, France's current republican system of government, was established by Charles de Gaulle under the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The General Treaty (Generalvertrag, also Deutschlandvertrag “Germany Treaty”) is a treaty of international law which was signed by the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany), and the Western Allies (France, United Kingdom, United States) on 26 May 1952 but which took effect, with some slight changes, only in 1955.
The German Air Force (German: Luftwaffe, the German-language generic term for air force) is the aerial warfare branch of the Bundeswehr, the armed forces of Germany.
The German Army (Deutsches Heer) is the land component of the armed forces of Germany.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
German News Information Services GmbH (www.german-foreign-policy.com) is a German "left and critical" news platform of "independent scientists and journalists".
The German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR, colloquially East Germany; German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik/DDR) became part of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, colloquially West Germany; German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland/BRD) to form the reunited nation of Germany, and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz (constitution) Article 23.
The German–Polish Border Treaty of 1990 finally settled the issue of the Polish–German border, which in terms of international law had been pending since 1945.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Group of Soviet Forces in Germany (1954–1988) (Группа советских войск в Германии, ГСВГ), also known as the Group of Soviet Occupation Forces in Germany (1945–1954) and the Western Group of Forces (1988–1994) were the troops of the Soviet Army in East Germany.
Leipzig/Halle Airport (German: Flughafen Leipzig/Halle) is an international airport located in Schkeuditz, Saxony and serves both Leipzig, Saxony and Halle, Saxony-Anhalt.
The London and Paris Conferences were two related conferences in London and Paris in September–October 1954 to determine the status of West Germany.
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (often Mecklenburg-West Pomerania in English and commonly shortened to "Meck-Pomm" or even "McPom" or "M-V" in German) is a federal state in northern Germany.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
Military occupation is effective provisional control by a certain ruling power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the violation of the actual sovereign.
A military operation is the coordinated military actions of a state, or a non-state actor, in response to a developing situation.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
The National Security Archive is a 501(c)(3) non-governmental, non-profit research and archival institution located on the campus of the George Washington University in Washington, D.C. Founded in 1985 to check rising government secrecy, the National Security Archive is an investigative journalism center, open government advocate, international affairs research institute, and is the largest repository of declassified U.S. documents outside the federal government.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
The new federal states of Germany (die neuen Bundesländer) are the five re-established states in the former German Democratic Republic that acceded to the Federal Republic of Germany with its 10 states upon German reunification on 3 October 1990.
A nuclear-weapons-free zone (NWFZ) is defined by the United Nations as an agreement which a group of states has freely established by treaty or convention that bans the use, development, or deployment of nuclear weapons in a given area, that has mechanisms of verification and control to enforce its obligations, and that is recognized as such by the General Assembly of the United Nations.
The Occupation Statute of Germany (Besatzungsstatut) of April 10, 1949 specified the roles and responsibilities of the newly created German government and the Allied High Commission in West Germany.
The Oder–Neisse line (granica na Odrze i Nysie Łużyckiej, Oder-Neiße-Grenze) is the international border between Germany and Poland.
The Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) is the body responsible for the operation of Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO) and of other public information services of the United Kingdom.
The Peaceful Revolution (Friedliche Revolution) was the process of sociopolitical change that led to the end of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany of the German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) and the transition to a parliamentary democracy which enabled the reunification of Germany.
The Petersberg Agreement is an international treaty that extended the rights of the Federal Government of Germany vis-a-vis the occupying forces of Britain, France, and the United States, and is viewed as the first major step of Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) towards sovereignty.
Philip David Zelikow (born September 21, 1954) is an American attorney, diplomat, academic and author.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Potsdam Agreement (Potsdamer Abkommen) was the August 1945 agreement between three of the Allies of World War II, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Soviet Union.
The Potsdam Conference (Potsdamer Konferenz) was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm, in Potsdam, occupied Germany, from 17 July to 2 August 1945.
Ratification is a principal's approval of an act of its agent that lacked the authority to bind the principal legally.
Robert Bruce Zoellick (born July 25, 1953) is an American public official and lawyer who was the eleventh president of the World Bank, a position he held from July 1, 2007 to June 30, 2012.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
The Socialist Unity Party of Germany (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands, SED), established in April 1946, was the governing Marxist–Leninist political party of the German Democratic Republic from the country's foundation in October 1949 until it was dissolved after the Peaceful Revolution in 1989.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Stephen Frand Cohen (born November 25, 1938) is an American scholar and professor emeritus of Russian studies at Princeton University and New York University.
Succession of states is a theory and practice in international relations regarding successor states.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Nation is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States, and the most widely read weekly journal of progressive political and cultural news, opinion, and analysis.
The National Interest (TNI) is an American bimonthly international affairs magazine published by the Center for the National Interest.
The Washington Quarterly, often abbreviated TWQ, is a quarterly magazine of international affairs, analyzing global strategic changes and their public policy implications, hosted by the Elliott School of International Affairs (George Washington University) and published by Taylor & Francis.
The original Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) was negotiated and concluded during the last years of the Cold War and established comprehensive limits on key categories of conventional military equipment in Europe (from the Atlantic to the Urals) and mandated the destruction of excess weaponry.
The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.
Trollenhagen is a municipality in the district Mecklenburgische Seenplatte, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The Charter of the United Nations (also known as the UN Charter) of 1945 is the foundational treaty of the United Nations, an intergovernmental organization.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
After World War II, both West Germany and East Germany were obliged to pay war reparations to the Allied governments, according to the Potsdam Conference.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
2 + 4, 2 + 4 Negotiations, 2 4 Negotiations, 2 Plus 4, 2+4, 2+4 Negotiations, 2+4 Treaty, Final Settlement, German Treaty, Treaty of the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany, Treaty on the Final Settlement, Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany, Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany (Two-Plus-Four Treaty), Two Plus Four, Two Plus Four Agreement, Two Plus Four Treaty.