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Trench warfare

Index Trench warfare

Trench warfare is a type of land warfare using occupied fighting lines consisting largely of military trenches, in which troops are well-protected from the enemy's small arms fire and are substantially sheltered from artillery. [1]

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The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.

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Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis

Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG; colloquially known as trench mouth) is a common, non-contagious infection of the gums with sudden onset.

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Adamello-Presanella Alps

The Adamello-Presanella Alps Alpine group is a mountain range in the Southern Limestone Alps mountain group of the Eastern Alps.

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Adrian helmet

The M15 Adrian helmet (Casque Adrian) was a combat helmet issued to the French Army during World War I. It was the first standard helmet of the French Army and was designed when millions of French troops were engaged in trench warfare, and head wounds from the falling shrapnel generated by the new technique of indirect fire became a frequent cause of battlefield casualties.

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Aerial reconnaissance

Aerial reconnaissance is reconnaissance for a military or strategic purpose that is conducted using reconnaissance aircraft.

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Air supremacy

Air supremacy is a position in war where a side holds complete control of air warfare and air power over opposing forces.

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Airborne forces

Airborne Military parachuting or gliding form of inserting personnel or supplies.

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Aleksei Brusilov

Aleksei Alekseevich Brusilov (Алексе́й Алексе́евич Бруси́лов; – 17 March 1926) was a Russian general most noted for the development of new offensive tactics used in the 1916 Brusilov Offensive, which was his greatest achievement.

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All Quiet on the Western Front

All Quiet on the Western Front (lit) is a novel by Erich Maria Remarque, a German veteran of World War I. The book describes the German soldiers' extreme physical and mental stress during the war, and the detachment from civilian life felt by many of these soldiers upon returning home from the front.

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Allies of World War I

The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.

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The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.

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American Civil War

The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.

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American Rifleman

American Rifleman is a United States-based monthly shooting and firearms interest publication, owned by the National Rifle Association (NRA).

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Anti-tank warfare

Anti-tank warfare arose as a result of the need to develop technology and tactics to destroy tanks during World War I. Since the first tanks were developed by the Triple Entente in 1916 but not operated in battle until 1917, the first anti-tank weapons were developed by the German Empire.

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An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.

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Anzac Cove (Anzak Koyu) is a small cove on the Gallipoli peninsula in Turkey.

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The Ardennes (L'Ardenne; Ardennen; L'Årdene; Ardennen; also known as the Ardennes Forest or Forest of Ardennes) is a region of extensive forests, rough terrain, rolling hills and ridges formed by the geological features of the Ardennes mountain range and the Moselle and Meuse River basins.

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Area denial weapon

An area denial weapon or Anti Access/Area Denial (A2/AD) is a device or a strategy used to prevent an adversary from occupying or traversing an area of land, sea or air.

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Armentières (Armentiers) is a commune in the Nord department in the Hauts-de-France region in northern France.

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Armoured train

An armoured train is a railway train protected with armour.

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Armoured warfare

Armoured warfare, mechanised warfare or tank warfare is the use of armoured fighting vehicles in modern warfare.

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Arras (Atrecht) is the capital (chef-lieu/préfecture) of the Pas-de-Calais department, which forms part of the region of Hauts-de-France; prior to the reorganization of 2014 it was located in Nord-Pas-de-Calais.

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Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.

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Artillery battery

In military organizations, an artillery battery is a unit of artillery, mortars, rocket artillery, multiple rocket launchers, surface to surface missiles, ballistic missiles, cruise missiles etc, so grouped to facilitate better battlefield communication and command and control, as well as to provide dispersion for its constituent gunnery crews and their systems.

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Artillery observer

A military artillery observer or spotter or FO (forward observer) is responsible for directing artillery and mortar fire onto a target, and may be a Forward Air Controller (FAC) for close air support and spotter for naval gunfire support.

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Atlantic Wall

The Atlantic Wall (Atlantikwall) was an extensive system of coastal defence and fortifications built by Nazi Germany between 1942 and 1944 along the coast of continental Europe and Scandinavia as a defence against an anticipated Allied invasion of Nazi-occupied Europe from the United Kingdom during World War II.

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Attrition warfare

Attrition warfare is a military strategy consisting of belligerent attempts to win a war by wearing down the enemy to the point of collapse through continuous losses in personnel and materiel.

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Australian and New Zealand Army Corps

The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) was a First World War army corps of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force.

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B. H. Liddell Hart

Sir Basil Henry Liddell Hart (31 October 1895 – 29 January 1970), commonly known throughout most of his career as Captain B. H. Liddell Hart, was a British soldier, military historian and military theorist.

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Bangalore torpedo

A Bangalore torpedo is an explosive charge placed within one or several connected tubes.

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Barbed wire

Barbed wire, also known as barb wire, less often as bob wire or, in the southeastern United States, bobbed wire, is a type of steel fencing wire constructed with sharp edges or points arranged at intervals along the strand(s).

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Barrage (artillery)

A barrage is massed artillery fire aimed at points, typically apart, along one or more lines that can be from a few hundred to several thousand yards long.

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A battalion is a military unit.

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Battle of Berlin

The Battle of Berlin, designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, and also known as the Fall of Berlin, was the final major offensive of the European theatre of World War II.

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Battle of Blenheim

The Battle of Blenheim (German:Zweite Schlacht bei Höchstädt; French Bataille de Höchstädt), fought on 13 August 1704, was a major battle of the War of the Spanish Succession.

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Battle of Cambrai (1917)

The Battle of Cambrai (Battle of Cambrai, 1917, First Battle of Cambrai and Schlacht von Cambrai) was a British attack followed by the biggest German counter-attack against the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) since 1914, in the First World War.

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Battle of Caporetto

The Battle of Caporetto (also known as the Twelfth Battle of the Isonzo, the Battle of Kobarid or the Battle of Karfreit as it was known by the Central Powers) was a battle on the Austro-Italian front of World War I. The battle was fought between the Entente and the Central Powers and took place from 24 October to 19 November 1917, near the town of Kobarid (now in north-western Slovenia, then part of the Austrian Littoral).

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Battle of Dien Bien Phu

The Battle of Dien Bien Phu (Bataille de Diên Biên Phu; Chiến dịch Điện Biên Phủ) was the climactic confrontation of the First Indochina War between the French Union's French Far East Expeditionary Corps and Viet Minh communist-nationalist revolutionaries.

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Battle of France

The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.

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Battle of Hill 60 (Western Front)

The Battle of Hill 60 took place near Hill 60 south of Ypres on the Western Front, during the First World War.

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Battle of Iwo Jima

The Battle of Iwo Jima (19 February – 26 March 1945) was a major battle in which the United States Marine Corps landed on and eventually captured the island of Iwo Jima from the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) during World War II.

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Battle of Kursk

The Battle of Kursk was a Second World War engagement between German and Soviet forces on the Eastern Front near Kursk (south-west of Moscow) in the Soviet Union, during July and August 1943.

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Battle of Lone Pine

The Battle of Lone Pine (also known as the Battle of Kanlı Sırt) was fought between Australian and Ottoman Empire forces during the Gallipoli Campaign of the First World War, between 6 and 10 August 1915.

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Battle of Messines (1917)

The Battle of Messines was conducted by the British Second Army (General Sir Herbert Plumer), on the Western Front near the village of Messines in West Flanders, Belgium, during the First World War.

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Battle of Mouquet Farm

The Battle of Mouquet Farm, also known as the Fighting for Mouquet Farm was part of the Battle of the Somme and began during the Battle of Pozières.

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Battle of Ohaeawai

The Battle of Ohaeawai was fought between British forces and local Māori during the Flagstaff War in July 1845 at Ohaeawai in the North Island of New Zealand.

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Battle of Passchendaele

The Battle of Passchendaele (Flandernschlacht, Deuxième Bataille des Flandres), also known as the Third Battle of Ypres, was a campaign of the First World War, fought by the Allies against the German Empire.

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Battle of Stalingrad

The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was the largest confrontation of World War II, in which Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia.

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Battle of the Nek

The Battle of the Nek (Kılıçbayır Muharebesi) was a small World War I battle fought as part of the Gallipoli campaign.

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Battle of the Seelow Heights

The Battle of the Seelow Heights (Schlacht um die Seelower Höhen) was part of the Seelow-Berlin Offensive Operation (16 April-2 May 1945).

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Battle of the Somme

The Battle of the Somme (Bataille de la Somme, Schlacht an der Somme), also known as the Somme Offensive, was a battle of the First World War fought by the armies of the British Empire and France against the German Empire.

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Battle of the Trench

The Battle of the Trench (Ghazwat al-Khandaq) also known as the Battle of the Confederates (Ghazwat al-Ahzab), was a 30-day-long siege of Yathrib (now Medina) by Arab and Jewish tribes. The strength of the confederate armies is estimated around 10,000 men with six hundred horses and some camels, while the Medinan defenders numbered 3,000. The largely outnumbered defenders of Medina, mainly Muslims led by Islamic prophet Muhammad, dug a trench on the suggestion of Salman Farsi, which together with Medina's natural fortifications, rendered the confederate cavalry (consisting of horses and camels) useless, locking the two sides in a stalemate. Hoping to make several attacks at once, the confederates persuaded the Muslim-allied Medinan Jews, Banu Qurayza, to attack the city from the south. However, Muhammad's diplomacy derailed the negotiations, and broke up the confederacy against him. The well-organised defenders, the sinking of confederate morale, and poor weather conditions caused the siege to end in a fiasco. The siege was a "battle of wits", in which the Muslims tactically overcame their opponents while suffering very few casualties. Efforts to defeat the Muslims failed, and Islam became influential in the region. As a consequence, the Muslim army besieged the area of the Banu Qurayza tribe, leading to their surrender and enslavement or execution. The defeat caused the Meccans to lose their trade and much of their prestige.

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Battle of Verdun

The Battle of Verdun (Bataille de Verdun,, Schlacht um Verdun), fought from 21 February to 18 December 1916, was the largest and longest battle of the First World War on the Western Front between the German and French armies.

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Battle of Vimy Ridge

The Battle of Vimy Ridge was part of the Battle of Arras, in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region of France, during the First World War.

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Battle of Wissembourg (1870)

The Battle of Wissembourg or Battle of Weissenburg, the first of the Franco-Prussian War, was joined when three German army corps surprised the small French garrison at Wissembourg on 4 August 1870.

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A bayonet (from French baïonnette) is a knife, sword, or spike-shaped weapon designed to fit on the end of a rifles muzzle, allowing it to be used as a pike.

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Bühl (Baden)

The city of Bühl is part of the district of Rastatt in the southwestern state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Bergmann MG 15nA machine gun

The Bergmann MG 15 was the World War I production version of 1915 (MG 15 n.A.) light machine gun developed by Germany.

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Black Watch

The Black Watch, 3rd Battalion, Royal Regiment of Scotland (3 SCOTS) is an infantry battalion of the Royal Regiment of Scotland.

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Blister agent

A blister agent, or vesicant, is a chemical compound that causes severe skin, eye and mucosal pain and irritation.

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Blitzkrieg (German, "lightning war") is a method of warfare whereby an attacking force, spearheaded by a dense concentration of armoured and motorised or mechanised infantry formations with close air support, breaks through the opponent's line of defence by short, fast, powerful attacks and then dislocates the defenders, using speed and surprise to encircle them with the help of air superiority.

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Bobsleigh or bobsled is a winter sport in which teams of two or four teammates make timed runs down narrow, twisting, banked, iced tracks in a gravity-powered sleigh.

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Border Regiment

The Border Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army, which was formed in 1881 under the Childers Reforms by the amalgamation of the 34th (Cumberland) Regiment of Foot and the 55th (Westmorland) Regiment of Foot.

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Brass knuckles

Brass knuckles, also sometimes called knuckles, knucks, brass knucks, knucklebusters, knuckledusters, an English punch or a classic, are weapons used in hand-to-hand combat.

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Breakthrough (military)

A breakthrough occurs when an offensive force has broken an opponent's defensive line, and rapidly exploits the gap.

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Breastwork (fortification)

A breastwork is a temporary fortification, often an earthwork thrown up to breast height to provide protection to defenders firing over it from a standing position.

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A brigade is a major tactical military formation that is typically composed of three to six battalions plus supporting elements.

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British heavy tanks of World War I

British heavy tanks were a series of related armoured fighting vehicles developed by the UK during the First World War.

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Brodie helmet

The Brodie helmet is a steel combat helmet designed and patented in London in 1915 by John Leopold Brodie.

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Cambrai (Kimbré; Kamerijk; historically in English Camerick and Camericke) is a commune in the Nord department and in the Hauts-de-France region of France on the Scheldt river, which is known locally as the Escaut river.

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A camouflet, in military science, is an artificial cavern created by an explosion.

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Canadian Corps

The Canadian Corps was a World War I corps formed from the Canadian Expeditionary Force in September 1915 after the arrival of the 2nd Canadian Division in France.

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Canon de 75 modèle 1897

The French 75 mm field gun was a quick-firing field artillery piece adopted in March 1898.

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Capture of La Boisselle

The Capture of La Boisselle (1–6 July 1916) was a British local operation during the Battle of Albert, the name given by the British to the first two weeks of the Battle of the Somme.

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A castle (from castellum) is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages by predominantly the nobility or royalty and by military orders.

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In the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, the Latin word castrum (plural castra) was a building, or plot of land, used as a fortified military camp.

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A catapult is a ballistic device used to launch a projectile a great distance without the aid of explosive devices—particularly various types of ancient and medieval siege engines.

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Causes of World War II

Among the causes of World War II were Italian fascism in the 1920s, Japanese militarism and invasion of China in the 1930s, and especially the political takeover in 1933 of Germany by Hitler and his Nazi Party and its aggressive foreign policy.

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Cavalry (from the French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback.

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The Chauchat was the standard light machine gun or "machine rifle" of the French Army during World War I (1914–18). Its official designation was "Fusil Mitrailleur Modele 1915 CSRG" ("Machine Rifle Model 1915 CSRG"). Beginning in June 1916, it was placed into regular service with French infantry, where the troops called it the FM Chauchat, after Colonel Louis Chauchat, the main contributor to its design. The Chauchat in 8mm Lebel was also extensively used in 1917–18 by the American Expeditionary Forces (A.E.F), where it was officially designated as the "Automatic Rifle, Model 1915 (Chauchat)". A total of 262,000 Chauchats were manufactured between December 1915 and November 1918, including 244,000 chambered for the 8mm Lebel service cartridge, making it the most widely manufactured automatic weapon of World War I. The armies of eight other nations – Belgium, Finland, Greece, Italy, Poland, Romania, Russia, and Serbia – also used the Chauchat machine rifle in fairly large numbers during and after World War I. The Chauchat was one of the first light, automatic rifle-caliber weapons designed to be carried and fired by a single operator and an assistant, without a heavy tripod or a team of gunners. It set a precedent for several subsequent 20th-century firearm projects, being a portable, yet full-power automatic weapon built inexpensively and in very large numbers. The Chauchat combined a pistol grip, an in-line stock, a detachable magazine, and a selective fire capability in a compact package of manageable weight (20 pounds) for a single soldier. Furthermore, it could be routinely fired from the hip and while walking (marching fire). The muddy trenches of northern France exposed a number of weaknesses in the Chauchat's design. Construction had been simplified to facilitate mass production, resulting in low quality of many metal parts. The magazines in particular were the cause of about 75% of the stoppages or cessations of fire; they were made of thin metal and open on one side, allowing for the entry of mud and dust. The weapon also ceased to function when overheated, the barrel sleeve remaining in the retracted position until the gun had cooled off. Consequently, in September 1918, barely two months before the Armistice of November 11, the A.E.F. in France had already initiated the process of replacing the Chauchat with the M1918 Browning Automatic Rifle. Shortly after World War I, the French army replaced the Chauchat with the new gas-operated Mle 1924 light machine gun. It was mass manufactured during World War I by two reconverted civilian plants: "Gladiator" and "Sidarme". Besides the 8mm Lebel version, the Chauchat machine rifle was also manufactured in U.S..30-06 Springfield and in 7.65×53mm Argentine Mauser caliber to arm the American Expeditionary Forces (A.E.F.) and the Belgian Army, respectively. The Belgian military did not experience difficulties with their Chauchats in 7.65mm Mauser and kept them in service into the early 1930s. Conversely, the Chauchat version in U.S..30-06 made by "Gladiator" for the A.E.F., the Model 1918, proved to be fundamentally defective and had to be withdrawn from service. The Chauchat is the only full-automatic weapon actuated by long recoil, a Browning-designed system already applied in 1906 to the Remington Model 8 semi-automatic rifle: extraction and ejection of the empties takes place when the barrel returns forward, while the bolt is retained in the rear position. The failure of its limited version in U.S. 30-06 (the Mle 1918) have led some modern experts to assess it as the "worst machine gun" ever fielded in the history of warfare. However the weapon did remain in active service for over two years during the First World War, was the most widely issued fully automatic light machine gun of that conflict and remained in service after the war ended with several armies.

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Chemical warfare

Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons.

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Chemical weapons in World War I

The use of toxic chemicals as weapons dates back thousands of years, but the first large scale use of chemical weapons was during World War I. They were primarily used to demoralize, injure, and kill entrenched defenders, against whom the indiscriminate and generally very slow-moving or static nature of gas clouds would be most effective.

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Chinese Civil War

The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC).

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Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

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Choke (firearms)

In firearms, a choke is a tapered constriction of a shotgun barrel's bore at the muzzle end.

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Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.

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Christmas truce

The Christmas truce (Weihnachtsfrieden; Trêve de Noël) was a series of widespread but unofficial ceasefires along the Western Front of World War I around Christmas 1914.

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Claude Louis Hector de Villars

Claude Louis Hector de Villars, Prince de Martigues, Marquis then Duc de Villars, Vicomte de Melun (8 May 1653 – 17 June 1734) was a general of Louis XIV of France, one of only six Marshals who have been promoted to Marshal General of France.

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A codebook is a type of document used for gathering and storing codes.

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Colt Model 1903 Pocket Hammerless

The Colt Model 1903 Pocket Hammerless (not to be confused with the Colt Model 1903 Pocket Hammer) is a.32 ACP caliber, self-loading, semi-automatic pistol designed by John Browning and built by Colt Patent Firearms Manufacturing Company of Hartford, Connecticut.

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Combat engineer

A combat engineer (also called field engineer, pioneer or sapper in many armies) is a soldier who performs a variety of construction and demolition tasks under combat conditions.

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Combined arms

Combined arms is an approach to warfare which seeks to integrate different combat arms of a military to achieve mutually complementary effects (for example, using infantry and armor in an urban environment, where one supports the other, or both support each other).

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Company (military unit)

A company is a military unit, typically consisting of 80–150 soldiers and usually commanded by a major or a captain.

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Concertina wire

Concertina wire or Dannert Wire is a type of barbed wire or razor wire that is formed in large coils which can be expanded like a concertina (a small hand-held bellows-type instrument in the same family as the accordion).

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Concussion, also known as mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is typically defined as a head injury that temporarily affects brain functioning.

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Continuous track

Continuous track, also called tank tread or caterpillar track, is a system of vehicle propulsion in which a continuous band of treads or track plates is driven by two or more wheels.

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Corps (plural corps; via French, from the Latin corpus "body") is a term used for several different kinds of organisation.

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Counter-battery fire

Counter-battery fire (sometimes called counter-fire) is a battlefield military activity to defeat the enemy's indirect fire elements (guns, rocket launchers, artillery and mortars), including their target acquisition, command and control components.

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Crimean War

The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.

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D. Appleton & Company


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Defence in depth

Defence in depth (also known as deep or elastic defence) is a military strategy that seeks to delay rather than prevent the advance of an attacker, buying time and causing additional casualties by yielding space.

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Defensive fighting position

A defensive fighting position (DFP) is a type of earthwork constructed in a military context, generally large enough to accommodate anything from one man to a small number of soldiers.

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Diagonal pliers

Diagonal pliers (or wire cutters or diagonal cutting pliers or diagonal cutters or side cutting pliers) are pliers intended for the cutting of wire (they are generally not used to grab or turn anything).

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Ditch (fortification)

A ditch in military engineering is an obstacle, designed to slow down or break up an attacking force, while a trench is intended to provide cover to the defenders.

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Division (military)

A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers.

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The Dolomites (Dolomiti; Ladin: Dolomites; Dolomiten; Dołomiti: Dolomitis) are a mountain range located in northeastern Italy.

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Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig

Field Marshal Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig, (19 June 1861 – 29 January 1928), was a senior officer of the British Army.

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A duckboard is a platform made of wooden slats built over muddy ground to form a dry passageway.

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Dysentery is an inflammatory disease of the intestine, especially of the colon, which always results in severe diarrhea and abdominal pains.

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Eastern Front (World War I)

The Eastern Front or Eastern Theater of World War I (Восточный фронт, Vostochnıy front, sometimes called the Second Fatherland War or Second Patriotic War (Вторая Отечественная война, Vtoraya Otechestvennaya voyna) in Russian sources) was a theatre of operations that encompassed at its greatest extent the entire frontier between the Russian Empire and Romania on one side and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire and the German Empire on the other. It stretched from the Baltic Sea in the north to the Black Sea in the south, included most of Eastern Europe and stretched deep into Central Europe as well. The term contrasts with "Western Front", which was being fought in Belgium and France. During 1910, Russian General Yuri Danilov developed "Plan 19" under which four armies would invade East Prussia. This plan was criticised as Austria-Hungary could be a greater threat than the German Empire. So instead of four armies invading East Prussia, the Russians planned to send two armies to East Prussia, and two Armies to defend against Austro-Hungarian forces invading from Galicia. In the opening months of the war, the Imperial Russian Army attempted an invasion of eastern Prussia in the northwestern theater, only to be beaten back by the Germans after some initial success. At the same time, in the south, they successfully invaded Galicia, defeating the Austro-Hungarian forces there. In Russian Poland, the Germans failed to take Warsaw. But by 1915, the German and Austro-Hungarian armies were on the advance, dealing the Russians heavy casualties in Galicia and in Poland, forcing it to retreat. Grand Duke Nicholas was sacked from his position as the commander-in-chief and replaced by the Tsar himself. Several offensives against the Germans in 1916 failed, including Lake Naroch Offensive and the Baranovichi Offensive. However, General Aleksei Brusilov oversaw a highly successful operation against Austria-Hungary that became known as the Brusilov Offensive, which saw the Russian Army make large gains. The Kingdom of Romania entered the war in August 1916. The Entente promised the region of Transylvania (which was part of Austria-Hungary) in return for Romanian support. The Romanian Army invaded Transylvania and had initial successes, but was forced to stop and was pushed back by the Germans and Austro-Hungarians when Bulgaria attacked them in the south. Meanwhile, a revolution occurred in Russia in February 1917 (one of the several causes being the hardships of the war). Tsar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate and a Russian Provisional Government was founded, with Georgy Lvov as its first leader, who was eventually replaced by Alexander Kerensky. The newly formed Russian Republic continued to fight the war alongside Romania and the rest of the Entente until it was overthrown by the Bolsheviks in October 1917. Kerensky oversaw the July Offensive, which was largely a failure and caused a collapse in the Russian Army. The new government established by the Bolsheviks signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Central Powers, taking it out of the war and making large territorial concessions. Romania was also forced to surrender and signed a similar treaty, though both of the treaties were nullified with the surrender of the Central Powers in November 1918.

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Eastern Front (World War II)

The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.

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Emblems of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement

The emblems of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, under the Geneva Conventions, are to be placed on humanitarian and medical vehicles and buildings, and to be worn by medical personnel and others carrying out humanitarian work, to protect them from military attack on the battlefield.

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Enfilade and defilade

Enfilade and defilade are concepts in military tactics used to describe a military formation's exposure to enemy fire.

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Entrenching tool

An entrenching tool, E-tool, or trenching tool is a collapsible spade used by military forces for a variety of military purposes.

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Eritrean–Ethiopian War

The Eritrean–Ethiopian War took place from May 1998 to June 2000 between Ethiopia and Eritrea, one of the conflicts in the Horn of Africa.

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European theatre of World War II

The European theatre of World War II, also known as the Second European War, was a huge area of heavy fighting across Europe, from Germany's and the Soviet Union's joint invasion of Poland in September 1939 until the end of the war with the Soviet Union conquering most of Eastern Europe along with the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945 (Victory in Europe Day).

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Explosive material

An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.

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Field army

A field army (or numbered army or simply army) is a military formation in many armed forces, composed of two or more corps and may be subordinate to an army group.

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Fighter aircraft

A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft, as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is to attack ground targets.

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A firearm is a portable gun (a barreled ranged weapon) that inflicts damage on targets by launching one or more projectiles driven by rapidly expanding high-pressure gas produced by exothermic combustion (deflagration) of propellant within an ammunition cartridge.

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Firepower is the military capability to direct force at an enemy.

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First Battle of the Aisne

The First Battle of the Aisne (1re Bataille de l'Aisne) was the Allied follow-up offensive against the right wing of the German First Army (led by Alexander von Kluck) and the Second Army (led by Karl von Bülow) as they retreated after the First Battle of the Marne earlier in September 1914.

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First day on the Somme

The first day on the Somme, 1 July 1916, was the opening day of the Battle of Albert the name given by the British to the first two weeks of the Battle of the Somme.

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Flag semaphore

Flag semaphore (from the Greek σῆμα, sema, meaning sign and φέρω, phero, meaning to bear; altogether the sign-bearer) is the telegraphy system conveying information at a distance by means of visual signals with hand-held flags, rods, disks, paddles, or occasionally bare or gloved hands.

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A flamethrower is a mechanical incendiary device designed to project a long, controllable stream of fire.

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Flanders (Vlaanderen, Flandre, Flandern) is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history.

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A flare, also sometimes called a fusee, is a type of pyrotechnic that produces a brilliant light or intense heat without an explosion.

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FN M1900

The FN Browning M1900 is a single action, semi-automatic pistol designed c. 1896 by John Browning for Fabrique Nationale de Herstal (FN) and produced in Belgium at the turn of the century.

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Fragmentation (weaponry)

Fragmentation is the process by which the casing of an artillery or mortar shell, rocket, missile, bomb, grenade, etc.

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French Army

The French Army, officially the Ground Army (Armée de terre) (to distinguish it from the French Air Force, Armée de L'air or Air Army) is the land-based and largest component of the French Armed Forces.

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Front (military)

A military front or battlefront is a contested armed frontier between opposing forces.

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A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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Fusil Automatique Modèle 1917

The Fusil Automatique Modèle 1917 (English: Model 1917 Automatic Rifle) (also called the RSC M1917) was a gas-operated, semi-automatic rifle that the French Army placed in service during the latter part (1918) of World War I. It was chambered in then-standard 8mm Lebel, the rimmed cartridge used in other French Army infantry weapons of the time. Altogether, MAT (Manufacture d'Armes de Tulle) had manufactured 86,000 RSC M1917 rifles when their production run ended in late November 1918. However very few have survived in fully functional, semi-automatic condition and those have become highly sought-after collectibles.

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The Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu Yarımadası; Χερσόνησος της Καλλίπολης, Chersónisos tis Kallípolis) is located in the southern part of East Thrace, the European part of Turkey, with the Aegean Sea to the west and the Dardanelles strait to the east.

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Gallipoli Campaign

The Gallipoli Campaign, also known as the Dardanelles Campaign, the Battle of Gallipoli, or the Battle of Çanakkale (Çanakkale Savaşı), was a campaign of the First World War that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu in modern Turkey) in the Ottoman Empire between 17 February 1915 and 9 January 1916.

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Gangrene is a type of tissue death caused by a lack of blood supply.

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Gas mask

The gas mask is a mask used to protect the user from inhaling airborne pollutants and toxic gases.

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General-purpose machine gun

A general-purpose machine gun (GPMG) is an air-cooled, fully automatic weapon that can be adapted to light machine gun and medium machine gun roles.

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Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.

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German Army (German Empire)

The Imperial German Army (Deutsches Heer) was the name given to the combined land and air forces of the German Empire (excluding the Marine-Fliegerabteilung maritime aviation formations of the Imperial German Navy).

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German occupation of Czechoslovakia

The German occupation of Czechoslovakia (1938–1945) began with the German annexation of Czechoslovakia's northern and western border regions, formerly being part of German-Austria known collectively as the Sudetenland, under terms outlined by the Munich Agreement.

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Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.

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Grand Alliance (League of Augsburg)

The Grand Alliance is the name commonly used for the coalition formed on 20 December 1689 by England, the Dutch Republic and Emperor Leopold, on behalf of the Archduchy of Austria.

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A grenade is a small weapon typically thrown by hand.

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Ground warfare

Ground warfare or land warfare is the process of military operations eventuating in combat that take place predominantly on the battlespace land surface of the planet.

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Harry Patch

Henry John Patch (17 June 1898 – 25 July 2009), dubbed in his later years "the Last Fighting Tommy", was a British supercentenarian, briefly the oldest man in Europe and the last surviving combat soldier of the First World War from any country.

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Heavy machine gun

The heavy machine gun or HMG is a class of machine gun implying greater characteristics than general purpose or medium machine guns.

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Hindenburg Line

The Hindenburg Line (Siegfriedstellung or Siegfried Position) was a German defensive position of World War I, built during the winter of 1916–1917 on the Western Front, from Arras to Laffaux, near Soissons on the Aisne.

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Homing pigeon

The homing pigeon is a variety of domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica) derived from the rock pigeon, selectively bred for its ability to find its way home over extremely long distances.

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Hotchkiss gun

The Hotchkiss gun can refer to different products of the Hotchkiss arms company starting in the late 19th century.

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A howitzer is a type of artillery piece characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small propellant charges to propel projectiles over relatively high trajectories, with a steep angle of descent.

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Huaihai Campaign

Huaihai Campaign or Battle of Hsupeng was one of the military conflicts in the late stage of the Chinese Civil War between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party of China.

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Human wave attack

The human wave attack, also known as the human sea attack, is an offensive infantry tactic in which an attacker conducts an unprotected frontal assault with densely concentrated infantry formations against the enemy line, intended to overrun the defenders by engaging in melee combat.

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Hundred Days Offensive

The Hundred Days Offensive was the final period of the First World War, during which the Allies launched a series of offensives against the Central Powers on the Western Front from 8 August to 11 November 1918, beginning with the Battle of Amiens.

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Hydraulic recoil mechanism

A hydraulic recoil mechanism is a way of limiting the effects of recoil and adding to the accuracy and firepower of an artillery piece.

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The I ANZAC Corps (First Anzac Corps) was a combined Australian and New Zealand army corps that served during World War I. It was formed in Egypt in February 1916 as part of the reorganisation and expansion of the Australian Imperial Force and the New Zealand Expeditionary Force (NZEF) following the evacuation of Gallipoli in December 1915.

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Incendiary ammunition

Incendiary ammunition is a type of firearm ammunition containing a compound that burns rapidly and causes fires.

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Indirect fire

Indirect fire is aiming and firing a projectile without relying on a direct line of sight between the gun and its target, as in the case of direct fire.

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Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.

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Infantry support gun

Infantry support guns or battalion guns are artillery weapons designed and used to increase firepower of infantry units they are intrinsic to; offering immediate tactical response to the needs of the unit's commanding officer.

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Infiltration tactics

In warfare, infiltration tactics involve small independent light infantry forces advancing into enemy rear areas, bypassing enemy front-line strongpoints, possibly isolating them for attack by follow-up troops with heavier weapons.

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Iran–Iraq War

The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between Iran and Iraq, beginning on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and ending on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire.

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Italian Campaign (World War II)

The Italian Campaign of World War II consisted of the Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war in Europe.

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Italian Front (World War I)

The Italian Front (Fronte italiano; in Gebirgskrieg, "Mountain war") was a series of battles at the border between Austria-Hungary and Italy, fought between 1915 and 1918 in World War I. Following the secret promises made by the Allies in the Treaty of London, Italy entered the war in order to annex the Austrian Littoral and northern Dalmatia, and the territories of present-day Trentino and South Tyrol.

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Jam tin grenade

The double cylinder, No.

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John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough

General John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, 1st Prince of Mindelheim, 1st Count of Nellenburg, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, (26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722 O.S.) was an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs.

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John Monash

General Sir John Monash, (27 June 1865 – 8 October 1931) was a civil engineer and an Australian military commander of the First World War.

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Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.

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The kepi is a cap with a flat circular top and a peak, or visor.

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Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.

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Korean War

The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).

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Land mine

A land mine is an explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it.

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Leach trench catapult

The Leach trench catapult (sometimes called a Leach-Gamage catapult) was a bomb-throwing catapult used by the British Army on the Western Front during World War I. It was designed to throw a projectile in a high trajectory into enemy trenches.

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Lewis gun

The Lewis gun (or Lewis automatic machine gun or Lewis automatic rifle) is a First World War-era light machine gun of US design that was perfected and mass-produced in the United Kingdom, and widely used by British and British Empire troops during the war.

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Lines of Stollhofen

The Lines of Stollhofen were a defensive line of entrenchments built by members of the Grand Alliance at the start of the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) running for about from Stollhofen on the Rhine to the impenetrable woods on the hills east of Bühl.

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Lines of Torres Vedras

The Lines of Torres Vedras were lines of forts built in secrecy to defend Lisbon during the Peninsular War.

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Lines of Weissenburg

The Lines of Weissenburg, or Lines of Wissembourg,Note: also known as the Weissenburg Lines or Lignes de Wissembourg.

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Lions led by donkeys

"Lions led by donkeys" is a phrase popularly used to describe the British infantry of the First World War and to blame the generals who led them.

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Lochnagar mine

The Lochnagar mine was an underground explosive charge, secretly planted by the British during the First World War, ready for 1 July 1916, the first day on the Somme.

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M1917 bayonet

The M1917 bayonet was designed to be used with the US M1917 Enfield.30 caliber rifle, as well as with the seven different U.S. trench shotguns.

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Machine gun

A machine gun is a fully automatic mounted or portable firearm designed to fire bullets in rapid succession from an ammunition belt or magazine, typically at a rate of 300 rounds per minute or higher.

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Maginot Line

The Maginot Line (Ligne Maginot), named after the French Minister of War André Maginot, was a line of concrete fortifications, obstacles, and weapon installations built by France in the 1930s to deter invasion by Germany and force them to move around the fortifications.

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Maneuver warfare

Maneuver warfare, or manoeuvre warfare, is a military strategy that advocates attempting to defeat the enemy by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption.

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Marching fire

Marching fire, also known as walking fire, is a military tactic; a form of suppressive fire used during an infantry assault or combined arms assault.

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Marmolada (German: Marmolata, Ladin: Marmoleda) is a mountain in northeastern Italy and the highest mountain of the Dolomites (a section of the Alps).

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Māori people

The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand.

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Medieval warfare

Medieval warfare is the European warfare of the Middle Ages.

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A mesh is a barrier made of connected strands of metal, fiber, or other flexible or ductile materials.

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MG 08

The Maschinengewehr 08, or MG 08, was the German Army's standard machine gun in World War I and is an adaptation of Hiram S. Maxim's original 1884 Maxim gun.

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MG 30

The Maschinengewehr 30, or MG 30 was a German-designed machine gun that saw some service with various armed forces in the 1930s.

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MG 34

The Maschinengewehr 34, or MG 34, is a German recoil-operated air-cooled machine gun, first tested in 1929, introduced in 1934, and issued to units in 1936.

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Military tactics

Military tactics encompasses the art of organising and employing fighting forces on or near the battlefield.

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Mills bomb

Mills bomb is the popular name for a series of prominent British hand grenades.

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Minenwerfer ("mine launcher") is the German name for a class of short range mortars used extensively during the First World War by the German Army.

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A miner is a person who extracts ore, coal, or other mineral from the earth through mining.

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Mines in the Battle of Messines (1917)

The mines in the Battle of Messines comprised a series of underground explosive charges, secretly planted by British tunnelling units beneath the German 4th Army lines near the village of Mesen (Messines in French, historically used in English) in Belgian West Flanders during the First World War.

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Mines on the first day of the Somme

The 19 mines on the first day of the Somme comprised a series of underground explosive charges, secretly planted by British tunnelling units beneath the German front lines on the Western Front during the First World War, ready to be detonated in the morning of Saturday 1 July 1916, the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July – 18 November 1916).

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Mines on the Italian Front (World War I)

The mines on the Italian Front during the First World War comprised a series of underground explosive charges of varying sizes, secretly planted between 1916 and 1918 by Austro-Hungarian and Italian tunneling units beneath their enemy's lines along the Italian Front in the Dolomite section of the Alps.

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Minor campaigns of 1815

On 1 March 1815 Napoleon Bonaparte escaped from his imprisonment on the isle of Elba, and launched a bid to recover his empire.

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A moat is a deep, broad ditch, either dry or filled with water, that is dug and surrounds a castle, fortification, building or town, historically to provide it with a preliminary line of defence.

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Mobile warfare

*For various forms of wars based on mobility, see Maneuver warfare.

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Mobility (military)

Mobility in military terms refers to the ability of a weapon system, combat unit or armed force to move toward a military objective.

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Monopoly (game)

Monopoly is a board game where players roll two six-sided dice to move around the game board, buying and trading properties, and develop them with houses and hotels.

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Morse code

Morse code is a method of transmitting text information as a series of on-off tones, lights, or clicks that can be directly understood by a skilled listener or observer without special equipment.

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Mortar (weapon)

A mortar is usually a simple, lightweight, man portable, muzzle-loaded weapon, consisting of a smooth-bore metal tube fixed to a base plate (to absorb recoil) with a lightweight bipod mount.

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MP 18

The MP 18 manufactured by Theodor Bergmann Abteilung Waffenbau was the first submachine gun used in combat.

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Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.

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Narrow-gauge railway

A narrow-gauge railway (narrow-gauge railroad in the US) is a railway with a track gauge narrower than the standard.

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National Film Board of Canada

The National Film Board of Canada (or simply National Film Board or NFB) (French: Office national du film du Canada, or ONF) is Canada's public film and digital media producer and distributor.

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The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.

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New Zealand Wars

The New Zealand Wars were a series of armed conflicts that took place in New Zealand from 1845 to 1872 between the New Zealand government and the Māori.

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No man's land

No man's land is land that is unoccupied or is under dispute between parties who leave it unoccupied due to fear or uncertainty.

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North Sea

The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.

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The Oder (Czech, Lower Sorbian and Odra, Oder, Upper Sorbian: Wódra) is a river in Central Europe.

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Operation Michael

Operation Michael was a major German military offensive during the First World War that began the Spring Offensive on 21 March 1918.

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Ortler (Ortles) is, at above sea level, the highest mountain in the Eastern Alps outside the Bernina Range.

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Oskar von Hutier

Oskar Emil von Hutier (27 August 1857 – 5 December 1934) was a German general during the First World War.

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Ovillers-la-Boisselle is a commune in the Somme department in Hauts-de-France in northern France.

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Pacific War

The Pacific War, sometimes called the Asia-Pacific War, was the theater of World War II that was fought in the Pacific and Asia. It was fought over a vast area that included the Pacific Ocean and islands, the South West Pacific, South-East Asia, and in China (including the 1945 Soviet–Japanese conflict). The Second Sino-Japanese War between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China had been in progress since 7 July 1937, with hostilities dating back as far as 19 September 1931 with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. However, it is more widely accepted that the Pacific War itself began on 7/8 December 1941, when Japan invaded Thailand and attacked the British possessions of Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong as well as the United States military and naval bases in Hawaii, Wake Island, Guam and the Philippines. The Pacific War saw the Allies pitted against Japan, the latter briefly aided by Thailand and to a much lesser extent by the Axis allied Germany and Italy. The war culminated in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and other large aerial bomb attacks by the Allies, accompanied by the Soviet declaration of war and invasion of Manchuria on 9 August 1945, resulting in the Japanese announcement of intent to surrender on 15 August 1945. The formal surrender of Japan ceremony took place aboard the battleship in Tokyo Bay on 2 September 1945. Japan's Shinto Emperor was forced to relinquish much of his authority and his divine status through the Shinto Directive in order to pave the way for extensive cultural and political reforms. After the war, Japan lost all rights and titles to its former possessions in Asia and the Pacific, and its sovereignty was limited to the four main home islands.

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Palestine (region)

Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.

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Paraguayan War

The Paraguayan War, also known as the War of the Triple Alliance and the Great War in Paraguay, was a South American war fought from 1864 to 1870 between Paraguay and the Triple Alliance of Argentina, the Empire of Brazil, and Uruguay.

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A parapet is a barrier which is an extension of the wall at the edge of a roof, terrace, balcony, walkway or other structure.

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In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.

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Parodos (also parode and parodus; πάροδος, "entrance," plural parodoi), in the theater of ancient Greece, is either a side-entrance, or the first song sung by the chorus after its entrance from the side wings.

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Peninsular War

The Peninsular War (1807–1814) was a military conflict between Napoleon's empire (as well as the allied powers of the Spanish Empire), the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Kingdom of Portugal, for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars.

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Periscope rifle

A periscope rifle is a rifle that has been adapted to enable it to be sighted by the use of a periscope.

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Phosgene is the chemical compound with the formula COCl2.

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Photography is the science, art, application and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film.

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The Pickelhaube (plural Pickelhauben; from the German Pickel, "point" or "pickaxe", and Haube, "bonnet", a general word for "headgear"), also Pickelhelm, is a spiked helmet worn in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries by German military, firefighters, and police.

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Plan 1919

Plan 1919 was a military strategy drawn up by J.F.C. Fuller in 1918 during World War I. His plan criticised the practice of physically destroying the enemy, and instead called for tanks to rapidly advance into the enemy's rear area to destroy supply bases and lines of communication, which would also be bombed.

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A platoon is a military unit typically composed of two or more squads/sections/patrols.

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Plunging fire

Plunging fire is a form of indirect fire, gunfire fired at a trajectory such as to fall on its target from above.

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Polygon Wood, Zonnebeke

Polygon Wood is a forest located between Ypres and Zonnebeke, Belgium.

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Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.

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Portuguese Expeditionary Corps

The Portuguese Expeditionary Corps (CEP, Portuguese: Corpo Expedicionário Português) was the main military force from Portugal that fought in the Western Front, during World War I. Portuguese neutrality ended in 1916 after the seizure of German merchant ships resulted in Germany declaring war.

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Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry

Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry (PPCLI, generally referred to as the Patricia's) is one of the three Regular Force infantry regiments of the Canadian Army of the Canadian Armed Forces.

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Prussian Army

The Royal Prussian Army (Königlich Preußische Armee) served as the army of the Kingdom of Prussia.

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Pump action

A pump-action or slide-action firearm is one in which a forend can be moved forward and backward in order to eject a spent round of ammunition and to chamber a fresh one.

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Quinn's Post Commonwealth War Graves Commission Cemetery

Quinn's Post Cemetery is a Commonwealth War Graves Commission cemetery from World War I in the former Anzac sector of the Gallipoli Peninsula, Turkey.

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Race to the Sea

The Race to the Sea took place from about 1914, after the Battle of the Frontiers and the German advance into France, which had been stopped at the First Battle of the Marne and was followed by the First Battle of the Aisne a Franco-British counter-offensive.

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Radio frequency

Radio frequency (RF) refers to oscillatory change in voltage or current in a circuit, waveguide or transmission line in the range extending from around twenty thousand times per second to around three hundred billion times per second, roughly between the upper limit of audio and the lower limit of infrared.

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Railway gun

A railway gun, also called a railroad gun, is a large artillery piece, often surplus naval artillery, mounted on, transported by, and fired from a specially designed railway wagon.

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Raymond Brutinel

Brigadier-General Raymond Brutinel CB CMG DSO (May 6, 1882 – September 21, 1964) was a geologist, journalist, soldier, entrepreneur and a pioneer in the field of mechanized warfare who commanded the Canadian Automobile Machine Gun Brigade during World War I.

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In military operations, reconnaissance or scouting is the exploration outside an area occupied by friendly forces to gain information about natural features and other activities in the area.

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Reconnaissance aircraft

A reconnaissance aircraft is a military aircraft designed or adapted to perform aerial reconnaissance.

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Red Army

The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

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A redoubt (historically redout) is a fort or fort system usually consisting of an enclosed defensive emplacement outside a larger fort, usually relying on earthworks, although some are constructed of stone or brick.

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Renault FT

The Renault FT (frequently referred to in post-World War I literature as the FT-17, FT17, or similar) was a French light tank that was among the most revolutionary and influential tank designs in history.

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Traditionally, in two-dimensional geometry, a rhomboid is a parallelogram in which adjacent sides are of unequal lengths and angles are non-right angled.

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A rifle is a portable long-barrelled firearm designed for precision shooting, to be held with both hands and braced against the shoulder for stability during firing, and with a barrel that has a helical pattern of grooves ("rifling") cut into the bore walls.

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Rifle grenade

A rifle grenade is a grenade that uses a rifle-based launcher to permit a longer effective range than would be possible if the grenade was thrown by hand.

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Roman legion

A Roman legion (from Latin legio "military levy, conscription", from legere "to choose") was a large unit of the Roman army.

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Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers

The Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers was an Irish line infantry regiment of the British Army in existence from 1881 until 1968.

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Royal Munster Fusiliers

The Royal Munster Fusiliers was a regular infantry regiment of the British Army.

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Ruby pistol

The self-loading Ruby pistol is best known as a French World War I sidearm, the Pistolet Automatique de 7 millim.65 genre "Ruby".

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Runner (soldier)

A runner was a military courier, a foot soldier responsible for carrying messages during war.

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Russo-Japanese War

The Russo–Japanese War (Russko-yaponskaya voina; Nichirosensō; 1904–05) was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.

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Salient (military)

A salient, also known as a bulge, is a battlefield feature that projects into enemy territory.

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The Sambre is a river in northern France and in Wallonia, Belgium.

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A sandbag is a bag or sack made of hessian (burlap), polypropylene or other sturdy materials that is filled with sand or soil and used for such purposes as flood control, military fortification in trenches and bunkers, shielding glass windows in war zones, ballast, counterweight, and in other applications requiring mobile fortification, such as adding improvised additional protection to armoured vehicles or tanks.

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Sangar (fortification)

A sangar (or sanger) (سنگر) is a temporary fortified position with a breastwork originally constructed of stones, and now built of sandbags and similar materials.

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Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.

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Sapping is a term used in siege operations to describe any trench excavated near an attacked, defended fortification, under defensive small arms or artillery fire.

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Sarajevo (see names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a population of 275,524 in its current administrative limits.

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The Arbalète sauterelle type A, or simply Sauterelle (French for grasshopper), was a bomb-throwing crossbow used by French and British forces on the Western Front during World War I. It was designed to throw a hand grenade in a high trajectory into enemy trenches.

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Savage Model 1907

The Savage Model 1907 is a semi-automatic pocket pistol produced by the Savage Arms Company of Utica, New York, from 1907 until 1920 in.32 ACP and from 1913 until 1920 in.380 ACP caliber.

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Sawed-off shotgun

A sawed-off shotgun (US, CAN) also called a sawn-off shotgun (UK, IRL, AU, NZ) and a short-barreled shotgun (SBS) (U.S. legislative terminology), is a type of shotgun with a shorter gun barrel—typically under 18 inches—and often a shortened or absent stock.

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Screw picket

A screw picket is a metal device which is used to secure objects to the ground.

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Second Battle of Ypres

During World War I, the Second Battle of Ypres was fought from for control of the strategic Flemish town of Ypres in western Belgium after the First Battle of Ypres the previous autumn.

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Second Boer War

The Second Boer War (11 October 1899 – 31 May 1902) was fought between the British Empire and two Boer states, the South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal) and the Orange Free State, over the Empire's influence in South Africa.

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Seelow Heights

The Seelow Heights are situated around the town of Seelow, about 90 kilometres (56 miles) east of Berlin, and overlook the Oderbruch, the western flood plain of the River Oder, which is a further 20 kilometres (12½ miles) to the east.

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Shell (projectile)

A shell is a payload-carrying projectile that, as opposed to shot, contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage sometimes includes large solid projectiles properly termed shot.

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Shell shock

Shell shock is a term coined in World War I to describe the type of posttraumatic stress disorder many soldiers were afflicted with during the war (before PTSD itself was a term).

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Shrapnel shell

Shrapnel shells were anti-personnel artillery munitions which carried a large number of individual bullets close to the target and then ejected them to allow them to continue along the shell's trajectory and strike the target individually.

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A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault.

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Siege of Bouchain

The Siege of Bouchain (9 August – 12 September 1711), following the Passage of the Lines of Ne Plus Ultra (5 August 1711), was a siege of the War of the Spanish Succession, and the last major victory of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough.

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Siege of Petersburg

The Richmond–Petersburg Campaign was a series of battles around Petersburg, Virginia, fought from June 9, 1864, to March 25, 1865, during the American Civil War.

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Siege of Sevastopol (1941–42)

The Siege of Sevastopol also known as the Defence of Sevastopol (Оборона Севастополя, transliteration: Oborona Sevastopolya) or the Battle of Sevastopol (German: Schlacht um Sewastopol) was a military battle that took place on the Eastern Front of the Second World War.

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Siege of Vicksburg

The Siege of Vicksburg (May 18 – July 4, 1863) was the final major military action in the Vicksburg Campaign of the American Civil War.

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Signal lamp

A signal lamp (sometimes called an Aldis lamp, after Arthur Cyril Webb Aldis who invented a widely used design, or a Morse lamp) is a visual signaling device for optical communication, typically using Morse code.

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Sint-Elooi is a small village, about south of Ypres in the Flemish province of West-Vlaanderen in Belgium.

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Small arms

Small arms include handguns (revolvers and pistols) and long guns, such as rifles, carbines, shotguns, submachine guns, assault rifles, personal defense weapons, and light machine guns.

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A sniper is a military/paramilitary marksman who operates to maintain effective visual contact with the enemy and engage targets from concealed positions or at distances exceeding their detection capabilities.

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Somme (river)

The Somme is a river in Picardy, northern France.

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Spring Offensive

The 1918 Spring Offensive, or Kaiserschlacht (Kaiser's Battle), also known as the Ludendorff Offensive, was a series of German attacks along the Western Front during the First World War, beginning on 21 March 1918, which marked the deepest advances by either side since 1914.

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Stahlhelm (plural Stahlhelme) is German for "steel helmet".

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Star Bonifacio Echeverria

Star Bonifacio Echeverria, S.A. was a manufacturer of small arms (principally handguns and sub-machineguns) in the Basque region of Spain from about 1905 until 1997.

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Stokes mortar

The Stokes mortar was a British trench mortar invented by Sir Wilfred Stokes KBE that was issued to the British, Empire and U.S. armies, as well as the Portuguese Expeditionary Corps (CEP), during the later half of the First World War.

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Stollhofen is a place near Rheinmünster, Rastatt district, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

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Stormtroopers were specialist soldiers of the German Army in World War I. In the last years of the war, Stoßtruppen ("shock troops" or "thrust troops") were trained to fight with "infiltration tactics", part of the Germans' new method of attack on enemy trenches.

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Submachine gun

A submachine gun (SMG) is a magazine-fed, automatic carbine designed to fire pistol cartridges.

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Sulfur mustard

Sulfur mustard, commonly known as mustard gas, is the prototypical substance of the sulfur-based family of cytotoxic and vesicant chemical warfare agents known as the sulfur mustards which have the ability to form large blisters on exposed skin and in the lungs.

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Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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A tank is an armoured fighting vehicle designed for front-line combat, with heavy firepower, strong armour, tracks and a powerful engine providing good battlefield maneuverability.

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Tank gun

A tank gun is the main armament of a tank.

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Tanks in World War I

The development of tanks in World War I was a response to the stalemate that had developed on the Western Front.

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Tanks of Czechoslovakia

This article deals with the history of tanks employed by military forces in Czechoslovakia from the interwar period, and the more conventional tanks designed for the Czech Army before World War II, and the tanks that ended up as Panzers of the German Wehrmacht during World War II, or in the use of other countries who purchased them before the war began.

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Tanks of the interwar period

This article discusses tanks of the interwar period.

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Tauranga Campaign

The Tauranga Campaign was a six-month-long armed conflict in New Zealand's Bay of Plenty in early 1864, and part of the New Zealand wars that were fought over issues of land ownership and sovereignty.

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Tear gas

Tear gas, formally known as a lachrymator agent or lachrymator (from the Latin lacrima, meaning "tear"), sometimes colloquially known as mace,"Mace" is a brand name for a tear gas spray is a chemical weapon that causes severe eye and respiratory pain, skin irritation, bleeding, and even blindness.

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Technology during World War I

Technology during World War I (1914–1918) reflected a trend toward industrialism and the application of mass-production methods to weapons and to the technology of warfare in general.

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Telegraphy (from Greek: τῆλε têle, "at a distance" and γράφειν gráphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message.

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A telephone, or phone, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly.

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Thermite is a pyrotechnic composition of metal powder, which serves as fuel, and metal oxide.

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Traverse (trench warfare)

A traverse in trench warfare is an adaptation to reduce casualties to defenders occupying a trench.

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Treaty of Versailles

The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.

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Trebević (Требевић) is a mountain in central Bosnia and Herzegovina, located to the southeast of Sarajevo, in the territory of East Sarajevo city, bordering Jahorina mountain.

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Trench foot

Trench foot is a medical condition caused by prolonged exposure of the feet to damp, unsanitary, and cold conditions.

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Trench knife

A trench knife is a combat knife designed to kill or gravely incapacitate an enemy soldier at close quarters, as might be encountered in a trenchline or other confined area.

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Trench raiding

Trench raiding was a feature of trench warfare which developed during World War I. It was the practice of making small scale night-time surprise attacks on enemy positions.

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Trench raiding club

Trench raiding clubs were homemade melee weapons used by both the Allies and the Central Powers during World War I. Clubs were used during nighttime trench raiding expeditions as a quiet and effective way of killing or wounding enemy soldiers.

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Trench railways

Trench railways represented military adaptation of early 20th century railway technology to the problem of keeping soldiers supplied during the static trench warfare phase of World War I. The large concentrations of soldiers and artillery at the front lines required delivery of enormous quantities of food, ammunition and fortification construction materials where transport facilities had been destroyed.

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Tunnel network

In transport, tunnels can be connected together to form a tunnel network.

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Tunnel warfare

Tunnel warfare is a general name for war being conducted in tunnels and other underground cavities.

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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus.

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Union Army

During the American Civil War, the Union Army referred to the United States Army, the land force that fought to preserve the Union of the collective states.

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United States Army Center of Military History

The United States Army Center of Military History (CMH) is a directorate within the Office of the Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army.

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Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.

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Valenciennes (Dutch: Valencijn, Latin: Valentianae, Valincyinne) is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.

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Vehicle armour

Military vehicles are commonly armoured (or armored; see spelling differences) to withstand the impact of shrapnel, bullets, missiles or shells, protecting the personnel inside from enemy fire.

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Vickers machine gun

The Vickers machine gun or Vickers gun is a name primarily used to refer to the water-cooled.303 British (7.7 mm) machine gun produced by Vickers Limited, originally for the British Army.

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Vietnam War

The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.

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Villers-Bretonneux is a commune in the Somme department in Hauts-de-France in northern France.

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The Vosges (or; Vogesen), also called the Vosges Mountains, are a range of low mountains in eastern France, near its border with Germany.

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War in Donbass

The War in Donbass is an armed conflict in the Donbass region of Ukraine.

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War of the Spanish Succession

The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death of the childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700.

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Warsaw Pact

The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.

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Water table

The water table is the upper surface of the zone of saturation.

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West Spring Gun

The West Spring Gun was a bomb-throwing catapult used by British, Canadian and Australian forces during World War I. It was designed to throw a hand grenade in a high trajectory into enemy trenches.

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Western Front (World War I)

The Western Front was the main theatre of war during the First World War.

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Willy Rohr

Willy Martin Ernst Rohr (May 19, 1877 - March 8, 1930) was a German Army officer who was a major contributor to the development of infantry tactics in World War I, particularly for the system of Storm Battalions.

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Wire obstacle

In the military science of fortification, wire obstacles are defensive obstacles made from barbed wire, barbed tape or concertina wire.

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Wiring party

Wiring parties, (or wiring sappers, cutters), were used during World War I on the Western Front as an offensive countermeasure against the enemy’s barbed wire obstacles.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Ypres (Ieper) is a Belgian municipality in the province of West Flanders.

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A zigzag is a pattern made up of small corners at variable angles, though constant within the zigzag, tracing a path between two parallel lines; it can be described as both jagged and fairly regular.

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10th Battalion (Canadians), CEF

The 10th Battalion, Canadian Expeditionary Force was a Canadian field force unit created during the First World War.

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18th Army (German Empire)

The 18th Army (18.) was an army level command of the German Army in World War I. It was formed against France on 27 December 1917 from the former Heeresgruppe Woyrsch command.

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Redirects here:

Field fortifications, Going Over The Top, Going over the top, Static defence, Static defense, Static warfare, Trench Warfare, Trench Wars, Trench war, Trenches war, WWI trenches.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trench_warfare

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