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Trilobites (meaning "three lobes") are a fossil group of extinct marine arachnomorph arthropods that form the class Trilobita. [1]

256 relations: Accommodation (eye), Agnostida, Alnif, American Scientist, Amulet, Anatomical terms of location, Animal, Anomalocaridid, Antenna (biology), Arachnomorpha, Armadillidiidae, Arthropod, Arthropod eye, Artiopoda, Asaphida, Baltica, Beecher's Trilobite Bed, Benthic zone, Biogeography, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, Biology Letters, Biostratigraphy, Bohemia, British Columbia, Brittle star, Bumastus, Bundenbach, Burgess Shale, Calcite, Calcium carbonate, Calymene, Calymene blumenbachii, Calymenina, Cambrian, Cambrian explosion, Cambrian Stage 3, Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Carboniferous, Carolinites, Carroll Lane Fenton, Caves of Arcy-sur-Cure, Cephalon (arthropod head), Cheirurus, Chelicerata, Chengjiang County, Chitin, Christiaan Huygens, Circular motion, Clade, Class (biology), ..., Close-packing of equal spheres, Coat of arms, Compound eye, Continental drift, Cornea, Cornell University Press, Corynexochida, Crab, CRC Press, Crinoid, Crustacean, Cruziana, Cyclopyge (trilobite), Dalmanites, Depth of field, Devonian, Diplichnites, Doublet (lens), Ductina, Dudley, Earth-Science Reviews, Ecdysis, Ecological niche, Ediacaran, Edward Lhuyd, Ellipsocephalus, Elrathia, Encrinurus, Endops, Eodalmanitina, Eodiscina, Eoredlichia, Erbenochile, Evolution, Evolutionary history of life, Evolutionary pressure, Exoskeleton, Extinction, Eye, Fallotaspis, Family (biology), Filter feeder, Fossil, Gena, Genus, Geological Magazine, Geology (journal), Germany, Gill, Glabella, Gondwana, Gradient-index optics, Hamburg, New York, Harpetida, Head, Heinz Christian Pander, Holochroal eye, Horseshoe crab, Hudson Bay, Hunsrück Slate, Hypostome (trilobite), Iapetus Ocean, Instar, Integrative and Comparative Biology, Irradiance, Isole Tremiti, Isopoda, Isotelus, Joachim Barrande, Johann Ernst Immanuel Walch, Journal of Paleontology, Kainops, Lachnostoma, Lagerstätte, Lapidary, Late Devonian extinction, Laurentia, Lemdadella, Lens (anatomy), Lichida, Limestone, Limulus, List of index fossils, List of trilobite genera, List of U.S. state fossils, Llandeilo, Llandrindod Wells, Lobster, Maotianshan Shales, Marine regression, Merriam-Webster, Mildred Adams Fenton, Morocco, Morphology (biology), Nature (journal), Nektaspida, Nevadia, New York (state), Newfoundland and Labrador, Niles Eldredge, Notostraca, Odontopleurida, Ohio, Olenellina, Olenellus, Olenoides, Olenus (trilobite), Ommatidium, Ontario, Ophiocoma wendtii, Order (biology), Ordovician, Ordovician–Silurian extinction events, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Palaeontology (journal), PALAIOS, Paleobiology (journal), Paleontology, Paleozoic, Pannotia, Paradoxides, Paralejurus, Parasitism, Parvancorina, PDF, Pelagic zone, Peltura, Pennsylvania, Permian, Permian–Triassic extinction event, Peronopsis, Petroglyph, Phacopida, Phacopidae, Phacopina, Phacops, Phacops rana, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Phylogenetic tree, Phylogenetics, Plankton, Plate tectonics, Powys, Precambrian, Predation, Pricyclopyge, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Proetida, Progenitor, Ptychopariida, Punctuated equilibrium, Pygidium, Queensland Museum, Raphiophoridae, Redlichiida, Redlichiina, Refractive index, René Descartes, Rome, New York, Royal Society of Edinburgh, Rusophycus, Russia, New York, Scavenger, Science (journal), Selenopeltis, Siberia, Silurian, Speciation, Spherical aberration, Spriggina, Stratigraphy, Subfamily, Symbiosis, Tagma (biology), Taxon, Taxonomic rank, Taxonomy (biology), Telson, Thorax, Trace fossil, Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Triarthrus, Trilobite, Triproetus, United Kingdom, University of Chicago Press, Utah, Ute people, Vintage Books, Walcott–Rust quarry, Wales, Walliserops, Welsh Marches, Wenlock Group, West Midlands (county), Western New York, Weymouthia (trilobite), Wheeler Shale, Wisconsin, Wren's Nest, Xiuqiella, Yiliangella, Yiliangellina, Yonne, Yukoniidae, Yunnanocephalus. Expand index (206 more) »

Accommodation (eye)

Accommodation is the process by which the vertebrate eye changes optical power to maintain a clear image or focus on an object as its distance varies.

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Agnostida is an order of arthropod which first developed near the end of the Early Cambrian period and thrived during the Middle Cambrian.

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Alnif is a town in Tinghir Province, Drâa-Tafilalet, Morocco.

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American Scientist

American Scientist (informally abbreviated AmSci) is an American bimonthly science and technology magazine published since 1913 by Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society.

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An amulet is an object that is typically worn on one's person, that some people believe has the magical or miraculous power to protect its holder, either to protect them in general or to protect them from some specific thing; it is often also used as an ornament though that may not be the intended purpose of it.

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Anatomical terms of location

Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.

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Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.

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The AnomalocarididsNeolatin compound word from Greek ἀνώμαλος anomalos and καρίς karis (gen.: καρίδος), meaning "strange shrimp".

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Antenna (biology)

Antennae (singular: antenna), sometimes referred to as "feelers," are paired appendages used for sensing in arthropods.

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Arachnomorpha is a subdivision or clade of Arthropoda, comprising the monophyletic group formed by the trilobites, other great appendage arthropods and trilobite-like families (Helmetiidae, Xandarellidae, Naraoiidae, Liwiidae, and Tegopeltidae), and a diverse sister clade including the chelicerates.

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Armadillidiidae is a family of woodlice, a terrestrial crustacean group in the order Isopoda.

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An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.

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Arthropod eye

Apposition eyes are the most common form of eye, and are presumably the ancestral form of compound eye.

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The Artiopoda is a grouping of extinct arthropods that includes trilobites and their close relatives.

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Asaphida is a large, morphologically diverse order of trilobites found in marine strata dated from the Middle Cambrian until their extinction during the Silurian.

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Baltica is a paleocontinent that formed in the Paleoproterozoic and now constitutes northwestern Eurasia, or Europe north of the Trans-European Suture Zone and west of the Ural Mountains.

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Beecher's Trilobite Bed

Beecher's Trilobite Bed is a Konservat-Lagerstätte of Late Ordovician (Caradoc) age located within the Frankfort Shale in Cleveland's Glen, Oneida County, New York, USA.

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Benthic zone

The benthic zone is the ecological region at the lowest level of a body of water such as an ocean or a lake, including the sediment surface and some sub-surface layers.

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Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time.

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Biological Journal of the Linnean Society

The Biological Journal of the Linnean Society is a direct descendant of the oldest biological journal in the world, the Transactions of the Linnean Society.

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Biology Letters

Biology Letters is a peer-reviewed, biological, scientific journal published by the Royal Society.

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Biostratigraphy is the branch of stratigraphy which focuses on correlating and assigning relative ages of rock strata by using the fossil assemblages contained within them.

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Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.

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British Columbia

British Columbia (BC; Colombie-Britannique) is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains.

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Brittle star

Brittle stars or ophiuroids are echinoderms in the class Ophiuroidea closely related to starfish.

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Bumastus is an extinct genus of corynexochid trilobites which existed from the Early Ordovician period to the Late Silurian period.

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Bundenbach is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Birkenfeld district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

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Burgess Shale

The Burgess Shale is a fossil-bearing deposit exposed in the Canadian Rockies of British Columbia, Canada.

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Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

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Calcium carbonate

Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.

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Calymene (meaning beautiful crescent as a reference to the glabella) is a genus of trilobites in the order Phacopida that are found throughout North America, North Africa, and Europe in primarily Silurian outcrops.

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Calymene blumenbachii

Calymene blumenbachii, sometimes erroneously spelled blumenbachi, is a species of trilobite discovered in the limestone quarries of Wren's Nest Hill in Dudley, England.

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Calymenina is a suborder of the trilobite order Phacopida.

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The Cambrian Period was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, and of the Phanerozoic Eon.

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Cambrian explosion

The Cambrian explosion or Cambrian radiation was an event approximately in the Cambrian period when most major animal phyla appeared in the fossil record.

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Cambrian Stage 3

Cambrian Stage 3 is the still unnamed third stage of the Cambrian.

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Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences

The Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1963, which reports current research on all aspects of the Earth sciences.

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The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian Period, Mya.

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Carolinites is a genus of trilobite, assigned to the Telephinidae family, that occurs during the Lower and Middle Ordovician.

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Carroll Lane Fenton

Carroll Lane Fenton (12 February 1900, Butler County, Iowa - 16 November 1969, New Brunswick, New Jersey) was a geologist, paleontologist, neoichnologist, and historian of science.

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Caves of Arcy-sur-Cure

The caves of Arcy-sur-Cure are a series of caves located on the commune of Arcy-sur-Cure, Burgundy, France.

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Cephalon (arthropod head)

The cephalon is the head section of an arthropod.

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Cheirurus (from Greek xeip, cheir meaning "hand" and oupá, oura meaning "tail") is a genus of phacopid trilobites that lived from the Late Cambrian to the Middle Devonian.

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The subphylum Chelicerata (New Latin, from French chélicère, from Greek khēlē "claw, chela" and kéras "horn") constitutes one of the major subdivisions of the phylum Arthropoda.

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Chengjiang County

Chengjiang County (Chinese: officially 澂江县; often spelled 澄江县;; earlier Tchinkiang) is in Yuxi, Yunnan Province, China, just north of Fuxian Lake.

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Chitin (C8H13O5N)n, a long-chain polymer of ''N''-acetylglucosamine, is a derivative of glucose.

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Christiaan Huygens

Christiaan Huygens (Hugenius; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695) was a Dutch physicist, mathematician, astronomer and inventor, who is widely regarded as one of the greatest scientists of all time and a major figure in the scientific revolution.

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Circular motion

In physics, circular motion is a movement of an object along the circumference of a circle or rotation along a circular path.

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A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".

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Class (biology)

In biological classification, class (classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.

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Close-packing of equal spheres

In geometry, close-packing of equal spheres is a dense arrangement of congruent spheres in an infinite, regular arrangement (or lattice).

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Coat of arms

A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard.

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Compound eye

A compound eye is a visual organ found in arthropods such as insects and crustaceans.

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Continental drift

Continental drift is the movement of the Earth's continents relative to each other, thus appearing to "drift" across the ocean bed.

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The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.

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Cornell University Press

The Cornell University Press is a division of Cornell University housed in Sage House, the former residence of Henry William Sage.

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Corynexochida is an order of trilobite that lived from the Lower Cambrian to the Middle Devonian.

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Crabs are decapod crustaceans of the infraorder Brachyura, which typically have a very short projecting "tail" (abdomen) (translit.

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CRC Press

The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.

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Crinoids are marine animals that make up the class Crinoidea of the echinoderms (phylum Echinodermata).

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Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.

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Cruziana is a trace fossil consisting of elongate, bilobed, approximately bilaterally symmetrical burrows, usually preserved along bedding planes, with a sculpture of repeated striations that are mostly oblique to the long dimension.

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Cyclopyge (trilobite)

Cyclopyge is a genus of small to average size trilobites that lived during the Ordovician.

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Dalmanites is a genus of trilobite in the order Phacopida.

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Depth of field

In optics, particularly as it relates to film and photography, the optical phenomenon known as depth of field (DOF), is the distance about the Plane of Focus (POF) where objects appear acceptably sharp in an image.

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The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, Mya.

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Diplichnites are arthropod trackways with two parallel rows of blunt to elongate, closely spaced tracks oriented approximately perpendicularly to the mid-line of the trackway.

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Doublet (lens)

In optics, a doublet is a type of lens made up of two simple lenses paired together.

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Ductina is a genus of extinct, small to average sized, eyeless phacopid trilobite, that lived during the Devonian.

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Dudley is a large town in the county of West Midlands, England, south-east of Wolverhampton and north-west of Birmingham.

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Earth-Science Reviews

Earth-Science Reviews is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier.

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Ecdysis is the moulting of the cuticle in many invertebrates of the clade Ecdysozoa.

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Ecological niche

In ecology, a niche (CanE, or) is the fit of a species living under specific environmental conditions.

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The Ediacaran Period, spans 94 million years from the end of the Cryogenian Period 635 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Cambrian Period 541 Mya.

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Edward Lhuyd

Edward Lhuyd (occasionally written as Llwyd in recent times, in accordance with Modern Welsh orthography) (1660 – 30 June 1709) was a Welsh naturalist, botanist, linguist, geographer and antiquary.

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Ellipsocephalus is an extinct genus of blind trilobite that lived during the Cambrian.

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Elrathia is a genus of ptychopariid trilobite species that lived during the Middle Cambrian of Utah, and possibly British Columbia.

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Encrinurus is a long-lived genus of phacopid trilobites that lived in what are now Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America from the middle Ordovician to the early Devonian from 472—412.3 mya, existing for approximately.

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Endops yanagisawai is a proetid trilobite belonging to the family Phillipsiidae, endemic to Middle Permian-aged marine strata in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.

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Eodalmanitina is a trilobite in the order Phacopida, that existed during the middle Ordovician in what is now France.

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Eodiscina is a suborder of trilobites, a well known group of marine arthropods.

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Eoredlichia is an extinct genus of trilobite of average to large size (up to long, or when including the spine on the ninth thorax segment pointing horizontally to the back, that itself equals the main body length).

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Erbenochile is a genus of spinose phacopid trilobite, of the family Acastidae, found in Lower to Middle Devonian age rocks from Algeria and Morocco.

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Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Evolutionary history of life

The evolutionary history of life on Earth traces the processes by which both living organisms and fossil organisms evolved since life emerged on the planet, until the present.

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Evolutionary pressure

Any cause that reduces reproductive success in a portion of a population potentially exerts evolutionary pressure, selective pressure or selection pressure.

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An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletós "skeleton") is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human.

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In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.

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Eyes are organs of the visual system.

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Fallotaspis is a genus of redlichiid trilobite genus found in Early Cambrian-aged strata of the United States and Morocco.

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Family (biology)

In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.

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Filter feeder

Filter feeders are a sub-group of suspension feeding animals that feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water, typically by passing the water over a specialized filtering structure.

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A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.

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Gena (Amharic:ገና) or qarsa(ቃርሳ) is a traditional field hockey game popular in the Ethiopian highlands.

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A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.

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Geological Magazine

The Geological Magazine is a peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1864, covering the earth sciences.

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Geology (journal)

Geology is a peer-reviewed publication of the Geological Society of America (GSA).

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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A gill is a respiratory organ found in many aquatic organisms that extracts dissolved oxygen from water and excretes carbon dioxide.

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The glabella, in humans, is the skin between the eyebrows and above the nose.

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Gondwana, or Gondwanaland, was a supercontinent that existed from the Neoproterozoic (about 550 million years ago) until the Carboniferous (about 320 million years ago).

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Gradient-index optics

Gradient-index (GRIN) optics is the branch of optics covering optical effects produced by a gradual variation of the refractive index of a material.

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Hamburg, New York

Hamburg is a town in Erie County, New York, United States.

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Harpetida is one of the nine orders of the extinct arthropod class Trilobita.

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A head is the part of an organism which usually includes the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth, each of which aid in various sensory functions such as sight, hearing, smell, and taste, respectively.

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Heinz Christian Pander

Heinz Christian Pander, also Christian Heinrich Pander (24 July 1794 – 22 September 1865), was a Baltic German biologist and embryologist born in Riga.

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Holochroal eye

Holochroal eyes are compound eyes with many tiny lenses (sometimes more than 15,000, each 30-100μm, rarely larger).

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Horseshoe crab

Horseshoe crabs are marine and brackish water arthropods of the family Limulidae, suborder Xiphosurida, and order Xiphosura.

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Hudson Bay

Hudson Bay (Inuktitut: Kangiqsualuk ilua, baie d'Hudson) (sometimes called Hudson's Bay, usually historically) is a large body of saltwater in northeastern Canada with a surface area of.

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Hunsrück Slate

The Hunsrück Slate (Hunsrück-Schiefer) is a Lower Devonian lithostratigraphic unit, a type of rock strata, in the German regions of the Hunsrück and Taunus.

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Hypostome (trilobite)

The hypostome is the hard mouthpart of trilobites found on the ventral side of the cephalon (head).

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Iapetus Ocean

The Iapetus Ocean was an ocean that existed in the late Neoproterozoic and early Paleozoic eras of the geologic timescale (between 600 and 400 million years ago).

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An instar (from the Latin "form", "likeness") is a developmental stage of arthropods, such as insects, between each moult (ecdysis), until sexual maturity is reached.

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Integrative and Comparative Biology

Integrative and Comparative Biology is the scientific journal for the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology (formerly the American Society of Zoologists).

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In radiometry, irradiance is the radiant flux (power) received by a surface per unit area.

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Isole Tremiti

The Isole Tremiti are an archipelago in the Adriatic Sea, north of the Gargano Peninsula.

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Isopoda is an order of crustaceans that includes woodlice and their relatives.

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Isotelus is a genus of asaphid trilobites from the middle and upper Ordovician period, fairly common in the Northeastern United States, northwest Manitoba, southwestern Quebec and southeastern Ontario.

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Joachim Barrande

Joachim Barrande (11 August 1799 – 5 October 1883) was a French geologist and palaeontologist.

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Johann Ernst Immanuel Walch

Johann Ernst Immanuel Walch (29 August 1725 – 1 December 1778) was a German theologian, linguist, and naturalist from Jena.

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Journal of Paleontology

The Journal of Paleontology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the field of paleontology.

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Kainops is a genus of trilobites from the family Phacopidae, order Phacopida.

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Lachnostoma is an extinct genus from a well-known class of fossil marine arthropods, the trilobites.

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A Lagerstätte (from Lager 'storage, lair' Stätte 'place'; plural Lagerstätten) is a sedimentary deposit that exhibits extraordinary fossils with exceptional preservation—sometimes including preserved soft tissues.

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A lapidary (lapidarist, lapidarius) is an artist or artisan who forms stone, minerals, or gemstones into decorative items such as cabochons, engraved gems (including cameos), and faceted designs.

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Late Devonian extinction

The Late Devonian extinction was one of five major extinction events in the history of the Earth's biota.

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Laurentia or the North American Craton is a large continental craton that forms the ancient geological core of the North American continent.

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Lemdadella is an extinct genus of redlichiid trilobites that lived during the late Atdabanian stage, which lasted from 530 to 524 million years ago during the early part of the Cambrian Period.

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Lens (anatomy)

The lens is a transparent, biconvex structure in the eye that, along with the cornea, helps to refract light to be focused on the retina.

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Lichida is an order of typically spiny trilobite that lived from the Furongian to the Devonian period.

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Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.

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Limulus is a genus of horseshoe crab, with one extant species, the Atlantic horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus).

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List of index fossils

Index fossils (also known as guide fossils or indicator fossils) are fossils used to define and identify geologic periods (or faunal stages).

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List of trilobite genera

This list of trilobites is a comprehensive listing of all genera that have ever been included in the Arthropod class Trilobita, excluding purely vernacular terms.

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List of U.S. state fossils

Most American states have made a state fossil designation, in many cases during the 1980s.

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Llandeilo is a community and town in Carmarthenshire, Wales, situated at the crossing of the River Towy by the A483 on a 19th-century stone bridge.

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Llandrindod Wells

Llandrindod Wells (Llandrindod, "Trinity Parish") is a town and community in Powys, within the historic boundaries of Radnorshire, Wales.

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Lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans.

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Maotianshan Shales

The Maotianshan Shales are a series of Early Cambrian deposits in the Chiungchussu Formation, famous for their Konservat Lagerstätten, deposits known for the exceptional preservation of fossilized organisms or traces.

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Marine regression

Marine regression is a geological process occurring when areas of submerged seafloor are exposed above the sea level.

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Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.

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Mildred Adams Fenton

Mildred Adams Fenton (1899–1995) trained in paleontology and geology at the University of Iowa.

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Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.

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Morphology (biology)

Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Nektaspida (also called Naraoiida, Nectaspia and Nectaspida) is an extinct order of soft-bodied arthropods proposed by Raymond in 1920; its taxonomic status is uncertain.

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Nevadia is an extinct genus of trilobites, fossil marine arthropods, with species of average size (about long).

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New York (state)

New York is a state in the northeastern United States.

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Newfoundland and Labrador

Newfoundland and Labrador (Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador; Akamassiss; Newfoundland Irish: Talamh an Éisc agus Labradar) is the most easterly province of Canada.

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Niles Eldredge

Niles Eldredge (born August 25, 1943) is a U.S. biologist and paleontologist, who, along with Stephen Jay Gould, proposed the theory of punctuated equilibrium in 1972.

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The order Notostraca comprises the single family Triopsidae, containing the tadpole shrimp or shield shrimp.

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Odontopleurida is an order of very spinose trilobites closely related to the trilobites of the order Lichida.

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Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States.

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Olenellina is a suborder of the order Redlichiida of Trilobites that occurs about halfway during the Lower Cambrian, at the start of the stage called the Atdabanian.

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Olenellus is an extinct genus of redlichiid trilobites, with species of average size (about long).

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Olenoides was a trilobite from the Cambrian period.

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Olenus (trilobite)

Olenus is a genus of Upper Cambrian ptychopariid trilobite.

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The compound eyes of arthropods like insects, crustaceans and millipedes are composed of units called ommatidia (singular: ommatidium).

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Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.

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Ophiocoma wendtii

Ophiocoma wendtii is a species of brittle stars that inhabits coral reefs from Bermuda to Brazil.

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Order (biology)

In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.

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The Ordovician is a geologic period and system, the second of six periods of the Paleozoic Era.

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Ordovician–Silurian extinction events

The Ordovician–Silurian extinction events, when combined, are the second-largest of the five major extinction events in Earth's history in terms of percentage of genera that became extinct.

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Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology

Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology ("Palaeo3") is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing multidisciplinary studies and comprehensive reviews in the field of palaeoenvironmental geology.

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Palaeontology (journal)

Palaeontology is one of the two scientific journals of the Palaeontological Association (the other being Papers in Palaeontology).

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PALAIOS is a bimonthly academic journal dedicated to the study of the impact of life on Earth history, combining the fields of palaeontology and sedimentology.

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Paleobiology (journal)

Paleobiology is a scientific journal promoting the integration of biology and conventional paleontology, with emphasis placed on biological or paleobiological processes and patterns.

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Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).

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The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.

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Pannotia (from Greek: pan-, "all", -nótos, "south"; meaning "all southern land"), also known as Vendian supercontinent, Greater Gondwana, and the Pan-African supercontinent, was a relatively short-lived Neoproterozoic supercontinent that formed at the end of the Precambrian during the Pan-African orogeny (650–500 Ma) and broke apart 560 Ma with the opening of the Iapetus Ocean.

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Paradoxides is a genus of large to very large trilobites found throughout the world during the Mid Cambrian period.

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Paralejurus is a genus of trilobite from the Late Silurian to the Middle Devonian of Africa and Europe.

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In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.

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Parvancorina is a genus of shield-shaped bilaterally symmetrical fossil animal that lived in the late Ediacaran seafloor.

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The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.

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Pelagic zone

The pelagic zone consists of the water column of the open ocean, and can be further divided into regions by depth.

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Peltura is a genus of trilobites from the Upper Cambrian.

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Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.

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The Permian is a geologic period and system which spans 47 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic period 251.902 Mya.

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Permian–Triassic extinction event

The Permian–Triassic (P–Tr or P–T) extinction event, colloquially known as the Great Dying, the End-Permian Extinction or the Great Permian Extinction, occurred about 252 Ma (million years) ago, forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods, as well as the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras.

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Peronopsis (meaning "broach-like" or possibly "boot-like") is a genus of trilobite restricted to the Middle Cambrian.

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Petroglyphs are images created by removing part of a rock surface by incising, picking, carving, or abrading, as a form of rock art.

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Phacopida ("lens-face") is an order of trilobite that lived from the Late Cambrian to the Late Devonian.

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Phacopidae is a family of phacophid trilobites that ranges from the Lower Ordovician to the Upper Devonian, with representatives in all paleocontinents.

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The Phacopina comprise a suborder of the trilobite order Phacopida.

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Phacops is a genus of trilobites in the order Phacopida, family Phacopidae, that lived in Europe, northwestern Africa, North and South America and China from the Early until the very end of the Devonian, with a broader time range described from the Late Ordovician.

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Phacops rana

Phacops rana (Eldredgeops rana) is a species of trilobite from the middle Devonian period.

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Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society

Philosophical Transactions, titled Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (often abbreviated as Phil. Trans.) from 1776, is a scientific journal published by the Royal Society.

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Phylogenetic tree

A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.

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In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.

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Plankton (singular plankter) are the diverse collection of organisms that live in large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current.

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Plate tectonics

Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.

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Powys is a principal area, a county and one of the preserved counties of Wales.

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The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic Eon.

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Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).

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Pricyclopyge is a genus of trilobites assigned to the Cyclopygidae family that occurs throughout the Ordovician.

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.

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Proetida is an order of trilobite that lived from the Ordovician to the Permian.

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In genealogy, the progenitor (rarer: primogenitor; Stammvater or Ahnherr) is the – sometimes legendary – founder of a family, line of descent, clan or tribe, noble house or people group.

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Ptychopariida is a large, heterogeneous order of trilobite containing some of the most primitive species known.

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Punctuated equilibrium

Punctuated equilibrium (also called punctuated equilibria) is a theory in evolutionary biology which proposes that once species appear in the fossil record the population will become stable, showing little evolutionary change for most of its geological history.

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The pygidium (plural pygidia) is the posterior body part or shield of crustaceans and some other arthropods, such as insects and the extinct trilobites.

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Queensland Museum

The Queensland Museum is the state museum of Queensland, Australia.

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Raphiophoridae is a family of small to average-sized trilobites that first occurred at the start of the Ordovician and became extinct at the end of the Middle Silurian.

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Redlichiida is an order of trilobites, a group of extinct marine arthropods.

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Redlichiina is a suborder of the order Redlichiida of Trilobites.

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Refractive index

In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.

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René Descartes

René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.

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Rome, New York

Rome is a city in Oneida County, New York, United States, located in the central part of the state.

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Royal Society of Edinburgh

The Royal Society of Edinburgh is Scotland's national academy of science and letters.

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Rusophycus is a trace fossil allied to Cruziana.

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Russia, New York

Russia is a U.S. town in Herkimer County, New York.

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Scavenging is both a carnivorous and a herbivorous feeding behavior in which the scavenger feeds on dead animal and plant material present in its habitat.

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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Selenopeltis is an extinct genus of odontopleurid trilobites in the family Odontopleuridae.

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Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.

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The Silurian is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician Period, at million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Devonian Period, Mya.

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Speciation is the evolutionary process by which populations evolve to become distinct species.

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Spherical aberration

Spherical aberration is an optical effect observed in an optical device (lens, mirror, etc.) that occurs due to the increased refraction of light rays when they strike a lens or a reflection of light rays when they strike a mirror near its edge, in comparison with those that strike close to the centre.

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Spriggina is a genus of early bilaterian animals whose relationship to living animals is unclear.

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Stratigraphy is a branch of geology concerned with the study of rock layers (strata) and layering (stratification).

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In biological classification, a subfamily (Latin: subfamilia, plural subfamiliae) is an auxiliary (intermediate) taxonomic rank, next below family but more inclusive than genus.

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Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.

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Tagma (biology)

In biology a tagma (Greek: τάγμα, plural tagmata – τάγματα) is a specialized grouping of multiple segments or metameres into a coherently functional morphological unit.

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In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.

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Taxonomic rank

In biological classification, taxonomic rank is the relative level of a group of organisms (a taxon) in a taxonomic hierarchy.

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Taxonomy (biology)

Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.

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The telson is the posterior-most division of the body of an arthropod.

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The thorax or chest (from the Greek θώραξ thorax "breastplate, cuirass, corslet" via thorax) is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals located between the neck and the abdomen.

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Trace fossil

A trace fossil, also ichnofossil (ιχνος ikhnos "trace, track"), is a geological record of biological activity.

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Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology

The Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology (or TIP) published by the Geological Society of America and the University of Kansas Press, is a definitive multi-authored work of some 50 volumes, written by more than 300 paleontologists, and covering every phylum, class, order, family, and genus of fossil and extant (still living) invertebrate animals.

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Triarthrus is a genus of Upper Ordovician ptychopariid trilobite found in New York, Ohio, Kentucky, and Indiana, eastern and northern Canada, China and Scandinavia.

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Trilobites (meaning "three lobes") are a fossil group of extinct marine arachnomorph arthropods that form the class Trilobita.

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Triroetus is a genus of proetid trilobite found in Upper Carboniferous-aged marine strata in Russia, and Lower Permian-aged strata of Thailand, Malaysia, Spitzbergen, Yukon Territory, and Middle Permian-aged marine strata of Oman and Texas.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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University of Chicago Press

The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.

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Utah is a state in the western United States.

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Ute people

Ute people are Native Americans of the Ute tribe and culture and are among the Great Basin classification of Indigenous People.

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Vintage Books

Vintage Books is a publishing imprint established in 1954 by Alfred A. Knopf.

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Walcott–Rust quarry

The Walcott–Rust quarry is an excellent example of an obrution (rapid burial or "smothered") Lagerstätte.

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Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.

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Walliserops (named after Prof. O. Walliser of the University of Göttingen) is a genus of spinose phacopid trilobite, of the family Acastidae, found in Lower to Middle Devonian age rocks from the Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco.

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Welsh Marches

The Welsh Marches (Y Mers) is an imprecisely defined area along and around the border between England and Wales in the United Kingdom.

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Wenlock Group

The Wenlock Group (Wenlockian), in geology, is the middle series of strata in the Silurian (Upper Silurian) of Great Britain.

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West Midlands (county)

The West Midlands is a metropolitan county and city region in western-central England with a 2014 estimated population of 2,808,356, making it the second most populous county in England.

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Western New York

Western New York is the westernmost region of the state of New York.

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Weymouthia (trilobite)

Weymouthia is an extinct genus of eodiscinid agnostid trilobites, which lived at the end of the Lower Cambrian, in what are now the eastern United States, England, Siberia and China.

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Wheeler Shale

The Wheeler Shale (named by Charles Walcott) is a Cambrian (''c.'' 507 Ma) fossil locality world famous for prolific agnostid and Elrathia kingii trilobite remains (even though many areas are barren of fossils) and represents a Konzentrat-Lagerstätten.

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Wisconsin is a U.S. state located in the north-central United States, in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions.

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Wren's Nest

The Wren's Nest is a geological Site of Special Scientific Interest in the Dudley Metropolitan Borough, north west of the town centre of Dudley, in the West Midlands of England.

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Xiuqiella rectangula is a corynexochid trilobite that lived in what is now Chongqing, China during the Nangaoian stage of the Cambrian Period, near the end of Cambrian Stage 3, which lasted from approximately 516 to 513 million years ago.

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Yiliangella is an extinct genus from a well-known class of fossil marine arthropods, the trilobites.

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Yiliangellina is an extinct genus from a well-known class of fossil marine arthropods, the trilobites.

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Yonne is a French department named after the river Yonne.

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Yukoniidae is a family of trilobites, belonging to the Eodiscina, small trilobites with headshield and tailshield of equal size and shape, and with two or three thorax segments.

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Yunnanocephalus is a genus of ptychopariid trilobite.

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Axial lobe, Enrollment (trilobite), Facial suture, Facial suture (trilobite anatomy), Facial suture (trilobite), Facial sutures, Genal angle, Gonatoparian, Gonatoparian suture, Gonatoparian sutures, Hypoparian, Hypoparian suture, Hypoparian sutures, Isopygy, Marginal suture, Marginal sutures, Opisthoparian, Opisthoparian suture, Opisthoparian sutures, Paladin (trilobite), Penn dixie, Pleural lobe, Proparian, Proparian suture, Proparian sutures, Trilobita, Trilobites, Trilobitomorpha.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trilobite

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