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The A 12 road is an A-Grade trunk road in Sri Lanka.
The A 15 road is an A-Grade trunk road in Sri Lanka.
The A 6 road is an A-Grade trunk road in Sri Lanka.
Abhayagiri Vihāra was a major monastery site of Mahayana, Theravada and Vajrayana Buddhism that was situated in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka.
Abraham Hyacinthe Anquetil-Duperron (7 December 173117 January 1805) was the first professional French Indologist.
Adam's Peak is a tall conical mountain located in central Sri Lanka.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Agastya was a revered Vedic sage of Hinduism.
Aggabodhi II was King of Anuradhapura in the 7th century, whose reign lasted from 598 to 608.
Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.
Sir Alexander Johnston, PC, FRS (25 April 1775 – 6 March 1849), was a British colonial official who served as third Chief Justice of Ceylon and second Advocate Fiscal of Ceylon.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
Anthony van Diemen (also Antonie, Antonio, Anton, Antonius) (1593 – 19 April 1645) was a Dutch colonial governor.
The Anuradhapura Kingdom (Sinhala: අනුරාධපුර රාජධානිය, Tamil:அனுராதபுர இராச்சியம்), named for its capital city, was the first established kingdom in ancient Sri Lanka and Sinhalese people.
The Anuradhapura Maha Viharaya was an important mahavihara or large Buddhist monastery for Theravada Buddhism in Sri Lanka.
Sir Arthur Charles Clarke (16 December 1917 – 19 March 2008) was a British science fiction writer, science writer and futurist, inventor, undersea explorer, and television series host.
Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930) was a British writer best known for his detective fiction featuring the character Sherlock Holmes.
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, (1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852) was an Anglo-Irish soldier and statesman who was one of the leading military and political figures of 19th-century Britain, serving twice as Prime Minister.
Arunagirinagar (அருணகிரிநகர்) is a village administrative division in Trincomalee Town and Gravets in Trincomalee, Sri Lanka.
Arunagirinaadhar (Aruna-giri-naadhar, Tamil: அருணகிரிநாதர்,, IPA/Tamil) was a Tamil great saint-poet who lived during the 15th century in Tamil Nadu, India.
Australasia, a region of Oceania, comprises Australia, New Zealand, neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean and, sometimes, the island of New Guinea (which is usually considered to be part of Melanesia).
In development or moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy is the capacity to make an informed, un-coerced decision.
Ādityahṛdayam (आदित्यहृदयम्) is a Hindu devotional hymn dedicated to Āditya or Sūrya (the Sun God) found in the Yuddha Kānda (6.105) of Vālmīki's Rāmāyana.
Batticaloa (மட்டக்களப்பு, Maṭṭakkaḷappu; මඩකලපුව, Madakalapuwa) is a major city in the Eastern Province, Sri Lanka, and its former capital.
Batticaloa District (மட்டக்களப்பு மாவட்டம் Maṭṭakkaḷappu Māvaṭṭam; මඩකලපුව දිස්ත්රික්කය maḍakalapūva distrikkaya) is one of the 25 districts of Sri Lanka, the second level administrative division of the country.
Plan of the battle (British units - black, French - white) The Battle of Trincomalee was fought between a British fleet under Vice-Admiral Sir Edward Hughes and a French fleet under the Bailli de Suffren off the coast of Trincomalee, then Ceylon (modern Sri Lanka), on 3 September 1782.
Bhuvanaikabahu VII (1468 – 29 December 1550) was King of Kotte in the sixteenth century, who ruled from 1521 to 1551.
Ceylon (Sinhala: බ්රිතාන්ය ලංකාව, Brithānya Laṃkāva; Tamil: பிரித்தானிய இலங்கை, Birithaniya Ilangai) was a British Crown colony between 1815 and 1948.
British Columbia (BC; Colombie-Britannique) is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Buddhism amongst Tamils was historically found in Tamilakam and the Jaffna Peninsula.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Cankili I (சங்கிலியன்) (died 1565), also known as Segarasasekaram, is the most remembered Jaffna kingdom king in the Sri Lankan Tamil history.
The Cantino planisphere or Cantino world map is the earliest surviving map showing Portuguese geographic discoveries in the east and west.
The Capture of Trincomalee on 11 January 1782 was the second major engagement between Great Britain and the Dutch East India Company in the East Indies after outbreak of the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Chandrabhanu (died 1263) or Chandrabhanu Sridhamaraja was the King of Tambralinga Kingdom in present-day Thailand.
Rear Admiral Charles John Austen CB (23 June 1779 – 7 October 1852) was an officer in the Royal Navy.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
China Bay Airport (translit; translit; is an air force base and domestic airport in China Bay in eastern Sri Lanka. Located approximately south west of the city of Trincomalee, the airport is also known as Trincomalee Airport and SLAF China Bay. Originally built by the British, it was transferred to the Royal Ceylonese Air Force which later became the Sri Lanka Air Force.
The Chola dynasty was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the history of southern India.
A city is a large human settlement.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Colombo (translit,; translit) is the commercial capital and largest city of Sri Lanka.
The Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC) is an intergovernmental organisation of six independent member states whose principal function is to mark, record and maintain the graves and places of commemoration of Commonwealth of Nations military service members who died in the two World Wars.
Constantino de Sá de Noronha was the 6th and 8th Governor of Portuguese Ceylon.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
The Coromandel Coast is the southeastern coast region of the Indian subcontinent, bounded by the Utkal Plains to the north, the Bay of Bengal to the east, the Kaveri delta to the south, and the Eastern Ghats to the west, extending over an area of about 22,800 square kilometres.
The Cūḷavaṃsa, also Chulavamsa (Pāli: "Lesser Chronicle"), is a historical record, written in the Pali language, of the monarchs of Sri Lanka.
The Danish East India Company (Østindisk Kompagni) refers to two separate Danish chartered companies.
The Delhi Sultanate (Persian:دهلی سلطان, Urdu) was a Muslim sultanate based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
Deutsche Welle ("German wave" in German) or DW is Germany's public international broadcaster.
The Deutscher Wetterdienst or DWD for short, is the German Meteorological Office, based in Offenbach am Main, Germany, which monitors weather and meteorological conditions over Germany and provides weather services for the general public and for nautical, aviational or agricultural purposes.
Dionysus (Διόνυσος Dionysos) is the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness, fertility, theatre and religious ecstasy in ancient Greek religion and myth.
In Sri Lanka, districts (Distrikka, மாவட்டம்) are the second-level administrative divisions, and are included in a province.
The districts of Sri Lanka are divided into administrative sub-units known as divisional secretariats.
Dravidian architecture is an architectural idiom in Hindu temple architecture that emerged in the southern part of the Indian subcontinent or South India, reaching its final form by the sixteenth century.
The dry season is a yearly period of low rainfall, especially in the tropics.
Dudley Shelton Senanayake (Sinhala: ඩඩ්ලි ශෙල්ටන් සේනානායක: டட்லி சேனநாயக்கா) 19 June 1911 – 13 April 1973), was a Sri Lankan statesman who served as Prime Minister of Ceylon from 1952 to 1953 (first term as the second Prime Minister of Ceylon), in 1960 (second term) and from 1965 to 1970 (third term) and Leader of the Opposition from 1960 to 1964. Senanayake's tenures as prime minister were associated with democratic socialist policies focused on agricultural and educational reforms with a pro-western alignment.
Dutch Ceylon (Sinhala: ලන්දේසි ලංකාව Landesi Lankava) was a governorate established in present-day Sri Lanka by the Dutch East India Company.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
The Cholas of the pre and post Sangam period (400 BCE – 200 CE) were one of the three main kingdoms of the ancient Tamil country.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
The British Eastern Fleet (also known after 1944 as the East Indies Fleet and the Far East Fleet) was a fleet of the Royal Navy which existed between 1941 and 1971.
The Eastern Province (கிழக்கு மாகாணம் Kil̮akku Mākāṇam; නැගෙනහිර පළාත Næ̆gĕnahira Paḷāta) is one of the nine provinces of Sri Lanka, the first level administrative division of the country.
The Eastern University, Sri Lanka (abbreviated as EUSL) is a public university in Vantharumoolai, Eastern Province, Sri Lanka.
Ekambareswarar Temple (Ekambaranathar Temple) (Tamil: ஏகாம்பரேஸ்வரர் கோவில் அல்லது ஏகாம்பரநாதர் கோவில்) is a Hindu temple dedicated to the deity Shiva, located in the town of Kanchipuram in Tamil Nadu, India.
Ellalan (translit; translit) was a member of the Tamil Chola dynasty, who upon capturing the throne became king of the Anuradhapura Kingdom, in present-day Sri Lanka, from 205-161 BCE.
Epigraphy (ἐπιγραφή, "inscription") is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers.
Ethirimanna Cinkam (எதிர்மன்னசிங்கம்) (died 1617) was the penultimate ruler of the Aryacakravarti line of Kings of the Jaffna Kingdom in northern Sri Lanka.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Fasting is the willing abstinence or reduction from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time.
Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish.
The Five Hundred Lords of Ayyavole were a merchant guild from Aihole that provided trade links between trading communities in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
Fort Fredrick (translit; translit), also known as Trincomalee Fort or Fort of Triquillimale, is a fort built by the Portuguese at Trincomalee, Eastern Province, Sri Lanka, completed in 1624 CE, built on Swami Rock-Konamamalai from the debris of the world famous ancient Hindu Koneswaram temple (Temple of a Thousand Pillars).
Fort railway station is a major rail hub in Colombo, Sri Lanka.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francis Xavier, S.J. (born Francisco de Jasso y Azpilicueta, in Latin Franciscus Xaverius, Basque: Frantzisko Xabierkoa, Spanish: Francisco Javier; 7 April 15063 December 1552), was a Navarrese Basque Roman Catholic missionary, born in Javier (Xavier in Navarro-Aragonese or Xabier in Basque), Kingdom of Navarre (present day Spain), and a co-founder of the Society of Jesus.
The French East India Company (Compagnie française pour le commerce des Indes orientales) was a commercial enterprise, founded in 1664 to compete with the English (later British) and Dutch East India companies in the East Indies. Planned by Jean-Baptiste Colbert, it was chartered by King Louis XIV for the purpose of trading in the Eastern Hemisphere. It resulted from the fusion of three earlier companies, the 1660 Compagnie de Chine, the Compagnie d'Orient and Compagnie de Madagascar. The first Director General for the Company was François de la Faye, who was adjoined by two Directors belonging to the two most successful trading organizations at that time: François Caron, who had spent 30 years working for the Dutch East India Company, including more than 20 years in Japan, and Marcara Avanchintz, a trader from Isfahan, Persia.
Gajabahu II was king of Rajarata from 1131 until 1153, following his father Vikramabahu I. He was defeated and succeeded by Parakramabahu I.
Ganesha (गणेश), also known as Ganapati, Vinayaka, Pillaiyar and Binayak, is one of the best-known and most worshipped deities in the Hindu pantheon.
George Turnour Jnr, CCS (1799–1843) was a British colonial administrator, scholar and a historian.
Gerolamo Emilio Gerini was born in Cisano sul Neva, Province of Savona, Italy on March 1, 1860.
Gokarna is a small temple town on the western coast of India in the Kumta taluk of Uttara Kannada district of the state of Karnataka.
Gokarneshwar is a municipality in the Central development region of Kathmandu District in the Bagmati Zone of Nepal.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Gunaveera Cinkaiariyan (குணவீர சிங்கையாரியன்) was an Aryacakravarti kings of Jaffna Kingdom.
Hercules is a Roman hero and god.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
HMS Trincomalee is a Royal Navy sailing frigate built shortly after the end of the Napoleonic Wars.
The Hoods Tower Museum (translit; ත්රිකුණාමලය නාවික කෞතුකාගාරය Trikuṇāmalaya Nāvika Kautukāgāraya) is a naval museum of the Sri Lanka Navy in Trincomalee.
Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, 1st Duke of Bronté, (29 September 1758 – 21 October 1805) was a British flag officer in the Royal Navy.
Illankai Tamil Arasu Kachchi (ITAK) (இலங்கைத் தமிழரசுக் கட்சி, ඉලංගෙයි තමිළ් අරසු කච්චි) is a Sri Lankan political party which represents the Sri Lankan Tamil ethnic minority in the country.
The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN; Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍 or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun, "Navy of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the navy of the Empire of Japan from 1868 until 1945, when it was dissolved following Japan's defeat and surrender in World War II.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
The Indian Ocean raid (known in Japan as Operation C) was a naval sortie by the fast carrier strike force of the Imperial Japanese Navy from 31 March to 10 April 1942 against Allied shipping and bases in the Indian Ocean.
The Internet Sacred Text Archive (ISTA) is a Santa Cruz, California based website dedicated to the preservation of electronic public domain texts, specifically those with significant cultural value.
The Invasion of Ceylon was a military campaign fought as a series of amphibious operations between the summer of 1795 and spring of 1796 between the garrison of the Batavian colonies on the Indian Ocean island of Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) and a British invasion force sent from British India.
Ishana (Sanskrit. Īśāna), or Ishan (Koushik. Īśhan, literally translates into "Guardian of the North-east").
Ishvara (Sanskrit: ईश्वर, IAST: Īśvara) is a concept in Hinduism, with a wide range of meanings that depend on the era and the school of Hinduism.
Jaffna is the capital city of the Northern Province of Sri Lanka.
The Jaffna Kingdom (யாழ்ப்பாண அரசு) (1215–1624 CE), also known as Kingdom of Aryacakravarti, of modern northern Sri Lanka was a historic monarchy that came into existence around the town of Jaffna on the Jaffna peninsula traditionally thought to be established after the invasion of Magha, who is credited with the founding of the Jaffna kingdom and is said to have been from Kalinga, in India.
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
Jane Austen (16 December 1775 – 18 July 1817) was an English novelist known primarily for her six major novels, which interpret, critique and comment upon the British landed gentry at the end of the 18th century.
Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan I, also known as Sadayavarman Sundara Pandyan, was king and of the Pandyan dynasty, ruling regions of Tamilakkam (present day South India between 1250–1268.Sethuraman, p124 He is remembered for his patronage of the arts and Dravidian architecture, along with refurbishment and decoration of many Kovils in the Tamil continent. He oversaw a massive economic growth of the Pandyan kingdom. On the eve of his death in 1268, the second Pandyan empire's power and territorial extent had risen to its zenith.
Jeyaveera Cinkaiariyan (செயவீர சிங்கையாரியன்) (died 1410??) was the Aryacakravarti king of the Jaffna Kingdom in modern-day northern Sri Lanka, who had a military confrontation with a southern chief known as Alagakkonara.
Kalinga is a historical region of India.
Kalinga Magha (கலிங்க மாகன் / கலிங்க மாகோன், කාලිංග මාඝ, କଳିଙ୍ଗ ମଘା) also known as Magha the Tyrant and Kulankayan Cinkai Ariyan, is an invader who is remembered primarily for his aggressive conquest.
Kandy (මහනුවර Mahanuwara, pronounced; கண்டி, pronounced) is a major city in Sri Lanka located in the Central Province.
Kankuveli is an ancient Tamil village near Trincomalee city.
The Kanniya Hot Springs (කන්නියා උණුදිය ලිං, கன்னியா வெந்நீரூற்று) is a site with hot wells located in Trincomalee, Sri Lanka.
Kantale (translit; translit) is a town in the Trincomalee District in eastern Sri Lanka.
The Kantale Dam translit) is a large embankment dam built in Kantale, Trincomalee District, Sri Lanka, used for irrigation. It is long, and over high. The dam breached on, killing more than 120 people. It has since been reconstructed. The dam impounds the Per Aru, a small river discharging into the Koddiyar Bay, at Trincomalee Harbour.
Kanyakumari is a City in Kanyakumari district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.
Kartikeya (IAST), also known as Murugan, Skanda, Kumara, and Subrahmanya, is the Hindu god of war.
Kassapa IV was King of Anuradhapura in the 10th century, whose reign lasted from 912 to 929.
Kataragamam temple in Kataragama, Sri Lanka, is a temple complex dedicated to Buddhist guardian deity Kataragama deviyo and Hindu War God Murugan.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
The Kingdom of Kandy was an independent monarchy of the island of Sri Lanka, located in the central and eastern portion of the island.
The Kokarneswarar Temple is situated in town of Thirukokarnam located 5 kilometres from the town of Pudukkottai in the Tamil Nadu, India.
Koneswaram temple (திருக்கோணேச்சரம் Tirukkōṇēccaram, also known as Dakshinakailasha (தென்கயிலை, Těņkayilai, litt. Southern Kailasa) is a classical-medieval Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Shiva in Trincomalee, Eastern Sri Lanka. The temple is situated atop Konesar Malai, a promontory that overlooks the Indian Ocean, the nearby eastern coast (the Trincomalee District), as well as Trincomalee Harbour or Gokarna Bay. Konesvaram is revered as one the Pancha Ishwarams, of Sri Lanka for long time. Being a major place for Hindu pilgrimage, it was labelled "Rome of the Gentiles/Pagans of the Orient" in some records. Konesvaram holds a significant role in the religious and cultural history of Sri Lanka, as it was likely built during the reign of the early Cholas and the Five Dravidians of the Early Pandyan Kingdom. Pallava, Chola, Pandyan and Jaffna designs here reflect a continuous Tamil Saivite influence in the Vannimai region beginning during the classical period. The river Mahavali is believed to be risen at Sivanolipatha Malai, footer_align.
Kudiramalai is a cape and ancient port town on the west coast of Sri Lanka.
Kulakkottan (குளக்கோட்டன்) was an early Chola king and descendant of Manu Needhi Cholan who was mentioned in chronicles such as the Yalpana Vaipava Malai and stone inscriptions like Konesar Kalvettu.
Kuveni(කුවේණි) also known as Sesapathi or Kuvanna, was a Yakshini queen in Sri Lanka mentioned in the ancient Pali chronicles Mahavamsa and Dipavamsa of the Sinhalese people.
This is a list of present-day cities by the time period over which they have been continuously inhabited.
This table of major ports and harbors on the Pacific Ocean can be sorted by continent, body of water, or political jurisdiction.
This list of sovereign states provides an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.
Ma Huan (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ ﺧُﻮًا.) (c. 1380–1460), courtesy name Zongdao, pen name Mountain-woodcutter (會稽山樵), was a Chinese voyager and translator who accompanied Admiral Zheng He on three of his seven expeditions to the Western Oceans.
The fanam (or panam in the local language of Tamil) was a currency issued by the Madras Presidency until 1815.
Maha Naga was King of Anuradhapura in the 6th century, whose reign lasted from 561 to 564.
The Mahābhārata (महाभारतम्) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa.
Mahasena, also known in some records as Mahasen, was a king of Sri Lanka who ruled the country from 277 to 304 AD.
The Mahavamsa ("Great Chronicle", Pali Mahāvaṃsa) (5th century CE) is an epic poem written in the Pali language.
The Mahaweli River (මහවැලි ගඟ, literally "Great Sandy River"; மகாவலி ஆறு), is a long river, ranking as the longest river in Sri Lanka.
Mahāyāna (Sanskrit for "Great Vehicle") is one of two (or three, if Vajrayana is counted separately) main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice.
Mahendravarma I (600–630 CE) was a Pallava king who ruled the Northern regions of what forms present-day Tamil Nadu in India in the early 7th century.
Mahinda IV was King of Anuradhapura in the 10th century, whose reign lasted from 975 to 991.
The Malay Archipelago (Malaysian & Indonesian: Kepulauan Melayu/Nusantara, Tagalog: Kapuluang Malay, Visayan: Kapupud-ang Malay) is the archipelago between mainland Indochina and Australia.
Manavanna was King of Anuradhapura in the 8th century, whose reign lasted from 691 to 726.
A manigramam is a large, influential guild of South Indian merchants.
Mannar Island (மன்னார் தீவு; මන්නාරම් දූපත) formerly spelt Manar Island, is part of Mannar District, Sri Lanka.
Mannar (மன்னார், මන්නාරම), formerly spelled Manar, is a large town and the main town of Mannar District, Northern Province, Sri Lanka.
Maravarman Kulasekara Pandyan I (முதலாம் மாறவர்மன் குலசேகர பாண்டியன்) was a Pandyan king, who ruled regions of South India between 1268–1308 CE, though Sen states he ruled until 1310.
The Markandeya Purana (मार्कण्डेय पुराण, IAST: Mārkaṇḍeya Purāṇa) is a Sanskrit text of Hinduism, and one of the eighteen major Puranas.
Martanda Cinkaiariyan (மார்த்தாண்ட சிங்கையாரியன்) (died 1348) ascended the throne of Jaffna Kingdom under the throne name Pararasasekaram III.
Mattakkalappu Maanmiyam (The Glory of Batticaloa) is a Tamil historical book.
Megasthenes (Μεγασθένης, c. 350 – c. 290 BC) was an ancient Greek historian, diplomat and Indian ethnographer and explorer in the Hellenistic period.
Methodist Girls' College is a provincial school in Trincomalee, Sri Lanka.
The metric system is an internationally adopted decimal system of measurement.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
The evolution of Old Tamil into Middle Tamil, which is generally taken to have been completed by the 8th century, was characterised by a number of phonological and grammatical changes.
Mount Kailash (also Mount Kailasa; Kangrinboqê or Gang Rinpoche (Tibetan: གངས་རིན་པོ་ཆེ; s (simplified); t (traditional)), is a 6,638 m (21,778 ft) high peak in the Kailash Range (Gangdisê Mountains), which forms part of Transhimalaya in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China. The mountain is located near Lake Manasarovar and Lake Rakshastal, close to the source of some of the longest Asian rivers: the Indus, Sutlej, Brahmaputra, and Karnali also known as Ghaghara (a tributary of the Ganges) in India. Mount Kailash is considered to be sacred in four religions: Hinduism, Buddhism, Bön and Jainism.
Muhammad bin Tughluq (also Prince Fakhr Malik, Jauna Khan, Ulugh Khan; died 20 March 1351) was the Sultan of Delhi from 1325 to 1351.
Muttur or Mutur is a town in the Trincomalee District of Sri Lanka and it is located about 25 km South of Trincomalee, on the Southern side of the Trincomalee Harbour.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Nallur Kandaswamy Kovil (நல்லூர் கந்தசுவாமி கோவில் නල්ලුරුව ස්කන්ධ කුමාර කෝවිල) is one of the most significant Hindu temples in the Jaffna District of Northern Province, Sri Lanka.
Nandi (नन्दि, நந்தி, ನಂದಿ, న౦ది, ନନ୍ଦି) is the name of the gate- guardian deity of Kailasa, the abode of Lord Shiva.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
Narasimhavarman I (ுதலாம் நரசிம்மவர்மன்.) was a Tamil king of the Pallava dynasty who ruled South India from 630–668 AD.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
Naval and Maritime Academy (NMA), Trincomalee, is the location of initial officer training in the Sri Lanka Navy, and is located within SLN Dockyard, Trincomalee.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
The Nicobar Islands are an archipelagic island chain in the eastern Indian Ocean.
According to Hindu mythology, Lord Shiva has gained this epithet when he consumed the Kalakuta (Poison) that emerged from Samudra Manthan.
Nilaveli, is a coastal resort town and suburb of the Trincomalee District, Sri Lanka located 16 km northwest of the city of Trincomalee.
Old Tamil is the period of the Tamil language spanning the 3rd century BC to the 8th century AD.
The origins of the Sri Lankan Civil War lie in the continuous political rancor between the majority Sinhalese and the minority Sri Lankan Tamils.
Orr's Hill Vivekananda College (உவர்மலை விவேகானந்தா கல்லூரி; ඕර්ස් හිල් විවේකානන්ද විදුහල) is a provincial school in Trincomalee, Sri Lanka.
Ove Gjedde (27 December 1594 – 19 December 1660) was a Danish admiral and member of the interim government that followed the death of Christian IV and imposed harsh restrictions on Frederick III due to his close ties to Germany.
Padayatra (Sanskrit, lit. journey by foot) is a journey undertaken by a politicians or prominent citizens to interact more closely with different parts of society, educate about issues concerning them, and galvanize his or her supporters.
The Pallava dynasty was a South Indian dynasty that existed from 275 CE to 897 CE, ruling a portion of southern India.
The Pancha Ishwarams (five abodes of Shiva) (translit) are five coastal ancient kovils built in dedication to the Hindu supreme being Ishwara in the form of the god Shiva, located along the circumference of Sri Lanka (Eelam).
Pandara Vanniyan (lit) was a Tamil Vanniar king who ruled in Vanni Nadu in 18th century AD.
Pandukabhaya (474 BC – 367 BC) was King of Upatissa Nuwara and the first monarch of the Anuradhapura Kingdom and 6th over all of the island of Sri Lanka since the arrival of the Vijaya, he reigned from 437 BC to 367 BC.
The Pandyan dynasty was an ancient Tamil dynasty, one of the three Tamil dynasties, the other two being the Chola and the Chera.
Parakrama Pandyan II, also Parakrama Pandya of Polonnaruwa and Parakrama Pandu was a Pandyan king who invaded the Kingdom of Polonnaruwa in the thirteenth century and ruled from 1212 to 1215 CE.
Parākramabāhu I (Pali Mahā Parākaramabāhu 1123–1186) was king of the Kingdom of Polonnaruwa from 1153-86.
Parantaka Chola I (முதலாம் பராந்தக சோழன்) (907–955) ruled the Chola kingdom in southern India for forty-eight years, annexing Pandya.
Parvati (Sanskrit: पार्वती, IAST: Pārvatī) or Uma (IAST: Umā) is the Hindu goddess of fertility, love and devotion; as well as of divine strength and power.
(पतञ्जलि) is a proper Indian name.
Pathirakali Amman Temple (பத்திரகாளி அம்பாள் கோயில்) – Pathirakali Ambal Kovil – or the Kali Kovil, Trincomalee is a Hindu temple dedicated to the goddess Bhadrakali, a form of the goddess Kali Amman in Trincomalee, Eastern Province, Sri Lanka.
The Peace of Paris of 1783 was the set of treaties which ended the American Revolutionary War.
A peninsula (paeninsula from paene "almost” and insula "island") is a piece of land surrounded by water on the majority of its border, while being connected to a mainland from which it extends.
Admiral comte Pierre André de Suffren de Saint Tropez, bailli de Suffren (17 July 1729 – 8 December 1788), French admiral.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Portuguese Ceylon (Ceilão Português, Sinhala: පෘතුගීසි ලංකාව Puruthugisi Lankawa) was the control of the Kingdom of Kotte by the Portuguese Empire, in present-day Sri Lanka, after the country's Crisis of the Sixteenth Century and into the Kandyan period.
The Portuguese conquest of the Jaffna kingdom occurred after Portuguese traders arrived at the rival Kotte Kingdom in the southwest of modern Sri Lanka in 1505.
A prime minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.
Prince Vijaya (විජය කුමරු) was a legendary king of Sri Lanka, mentioned in the Pali chronicles, including Mahavamsa.
In Sri Lanka, provinces (translit; translit) are the first level administrative division.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
Pudukkottai is the administrative headquarters of Pudukkottai District in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
The Puranas (singular: पुराण), are ancient Hindu texts eulogizing various deities, primarily the divine Trimurti God in Hinduism through divine stories.
Tamil Puthandu (Tamil: தமிழ்புத்தாண்டு), also known as Puthuvarusham or Tamil New Year, is the first day of year on the Tamil calendar.
Ramakrishna Mission Sri Koneswara Hindu College (also known as Trincomalee Hindu College or Trinco Hindu College) is a national school in Trincomalee, Sri Lanka.
Raja Raja Cholan I (or Rajaraja Cholan I) born as Arul Mozhi Varman known as Raja Raja Cholan was a Chola Emperor from present day South India who ruled over the Chola kingdom of Ancient Tamilnadu (parts of southern India), parts of northern India, two third's of Sri Lankan territory (Eezham), Maldives and parts of East Asia, between 985 and 1014 CE.
Rajasimha II, also known as Rajasingha II (pre coronation, Prince Mahastana), was a Sinhalese King, reigned 1629 – 6 December 1687; third king of the kingdom of Kandy in Sri Lanka.
Rajendra Chola I or Rajendra I was a Chola emperor of India who succeeded his father Rajaraja Chola I to the throne in 1014 CE.
Rama or Ram (Sanskrit: राम, IAST: Rāma), also known as Ramachandra, is a major deity of Hinduism.
Ramanathaswamy Temple (இராமநாதஸ்வாமி கோயில் Irāmanātasvāmi Kōyil):ta:இராமேஸ்வரம் இராமநாதசுவாமி கோயில் is a Hindu temple dedicated to the god Shiva located on Rameswaram island in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.
Ramayana (रामायणम्) is an ancient Indian epic poem which narrates the struggle of the divine prince Rama to rescue his wife Sita from the demon king Ravana.
Ravana (IAST: Rāvaṇa;; Sanskrit: रावण) is a character in the Hindu epic Ramayana where he is depicted as the Rakshasa king of Lanka.
Robert Knox (8 February 1641 – 19 June 1720) was an English sea captain in the service of the British East India Company.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The Royal Netherlands Navy (Koninklijke Marine, “Royal Navy”) is the navy of the Netherlands.
Professor Sivasubramaniam Pathmanathan (born 20 March 1940) is a Sri Lankan Tamil historian, academic, author and current chancellor of the University of Jaffna.
Saka, Śaka, Shaka or Saca mod. ساکا; Śaka; Σάκαι, Sákai; Sacae;, old *Sək, mod. Sāi) is the name used in Middle Persian and Sanskrit sources for the Scythians, a large group of Eurasian nomads on the Eurasian Steppe speaking Eastern Iranian languages.
Sambandar (also called Thirugyana Sambandar, Tirugnana Sambanthar, Campantar, Champantar, Jnanasambandar, Gnanasambandar) was a young Saiva poet-saint of Tamil Nadu who lived around the 7th century CE.
The Sampur Power Station (also called Trincomalee Coal Power Plant or TCPP) was a proposed coal-fired power station that was planned to be built in Sampur, Trincomalee, Sri Lanka.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Savakanmaindan (or Savakan Maindan, Saavanmaindan and Chavakanmaindan) was a monarch of the kingdoms of Tambralinga and Jaffna.
Scuba diving is a mode of underwater diving where the diver uses a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba) which is completely independent of surface supply, to breathe underwater.
Security Forces Headquarters – East (SFHQ-E) is a regional command of the Sri Lanka Army, responsible for the operational deployment and command of all army units stationed in and around the country's Eastern Province.
Sena I was King of Anuradhapura in the 9th century, whose reign lasted from 846 to 866.
Senarat Adahasin was king of the Kingdom of Kandy from 1604 to 1635.
Sherlock Holmes is a fictional private detective created by British author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.
Shiva (Sanskrit: शिव, IAST: Śiva, lit. the auspicious one) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism.
The Siddhar (Tamil: Cittar from Tamil cittu meaning intellect, singular Cittan) refers to intellectual people in Tamil language, from ancient Tamilakam, and was written only in Tamil language.
Silakala Ambosamanera was King of Anuradhapura in the 6th century, whose reign lasted from 526 to 539.
Simhavishnu, also known as Avanisimha, son of Simhavarman III and one of the Pallava kings of India, was responsible for the revival of the Pallavan dynasty.
Singai Pararasasegaram (சிங்கைப் பரராசசேகரன்) (died 1519), apart from Cankili I (1519–1561), was one of the most well known kings of the later Aryacakravarti kings of the Jaffna kingdom.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
The Skanda Purana (IAST: Skanda Purāṇa) is the largest Mahāpurāṇa, a genre of eighteen Hindu religious texts.
A sluice (from the Dutch "sluis") is a water channel controlled at its head by a gate.
Somaskanda is a particular form of representation of Shiva with his consort Uma, and Skanda as a child.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
The Sri Lanka Air Force (SLAF) (Śrī Laṃkā guwan hamudāva; Ilaṅkai vimāṉappaṭai) is the air arm and the youngest of the Sri Lanka Armed Forces.
The Air Force Academy (AFA) is the Sri Lanka Air Force's training and education academy which provides initial training to all SLAF personnel who are preparing to be commissioned officers.
The Sri Lankan Army (Śrī Laṃkā yuddha hamudāva; Ilankai iraṇuvam) is the oldest and largest of the Sri Lanka Armed Forces and is the nation's army.
The Sri Lanka Broadcasting Corporation (SLBC) (ශ්රී ලංකා ගුවන් විදුලි සංස්ථාව, Shrī Lankā Guvan Viduli Sansthāva, இலங்கை ஒலிபரப்புக் கூட்டுத்தாபனம், Ilangkai Oliparappuk Kūṭṭuttāpaṉam) came into existence on 5 January 1967 when Radio Ceylon became a public corporation.
The Sri Lankan Navy (Śrī Laṃkā nāvika hamudāva; Ilaṅkai kaṭaṟpaṭai) is the naval arm of the Sri Lanka Armed Forces and is classed as the country's most vital defence force due to its island geography.
The Sri Lanka Railway Department (more commonly known as Sri Lanka Railways (SLR)) (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා දුම්රිය සේවය Śrī Laṃkā Dumriya Sēvaya; Tamil: இலங்கை புகையிரத சேவைகள்) is Sri Lanka's railway owner and primary operator.
The Sri Lankan Civil War was an armed conflict fought on the island of Sri Lanka.
Sri Lankan place name etymology is characterized by the linguistic and ethnic diversity of the island of Sri Lanka through the ages and the position of the country in the centre of ancient and medieval sea trade routes.
The Sri Lankan Tamil dialects or Ceylon Tamil dialects form a group of Tamil dialects used in the modern country of Sri Lanka by Sri Lankan Tamil people that is distinct from the dialects of modern Tamil spoken in Tamil Nadu and Kerala states of India.
Sri Lankan Tamils (also) or Ceylon Tamils, also known as Eelam Tamils in Tamil, are members of the Tamil ethnic group native to the South Asian island state of Sri Lanka.
Sri Shanmuga Hindu Ladies College (also known as Trincomalee Ladies College or Trinco Ladies College) is a national school in Trincomalee, Sri Lanka.
Srimara Srivallabha was a Pandyan king who led the resurgence of the Pandyan dynasty.
Srivijaya (also written Sri Vijaya, Indonesian/Malay: Sriwijaya, Javanese: ꦯꦿꦶꦮꦶꦗꦪ, Sundanese:, ศรีวิชัย, Sanskrit: श्रीविजय, Śrīvijaya, Khmer: ស្រីវិជ័យ "Srey Vichey", known by the Chinese as Shih-li-fo-shih and San-fo-ch'i t) was a dominant thalassocratic Malay city-state based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia.
Surfing is a surface water sport in which the wave rider, referred to as a surfer, rides on the forward or deep face of a moving wave, which is usually carrying the surfer towards the shore.
Surya Namaskar (Sanskrit: सूर्यनमस्कार; IAST: Sūrya Namaskāra), or Sun Salutation, is a Yoga practice incorporating a sequence of gracefully linked asanas.
The Swiss (die Schweizer, les Suisses, gli Svizzeri, ils Svizzers) are the citizens of Switzerland, or people of Swiss ancestry. The number of Swiss nationals has grown from 1.7 million in 1815 to 7 million in 2016. More than 1.5 million Swiss citizens hold multiple citizenship. About 11% of citizens live abroad (0.8 million, of whom 0.6 million hold multiple citizenship). About 60% of those living abroad reside in the European Union (0.46 million). The largest groups of Swiss descendants and nationals outside Europe are found in the United States and Canada. Although the modern state of Switzerland originated in 1848, the period of romantic nationalism, it is not a nation-state, and the Swiss are not usually considered to form a single ethnic group, but a confederacy (Eidgenossenschaft) or Willensnation ("nation of will", "nation by choice", that is, a consociational state), a term coined in conscious contrast to "nation" in the conventionally linguistic or ethnic sense of the term. The demonym Swiss (formerly in English also Switzer) and the name of Switzerland, ultimately derive from the toponym Schwyz, have been in widespread use to refer to the Old Swiss Confederacy since the 16th century.
A sword is a bladed weapon intended for slashing or thrusting that is longer than a knife or dagger.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Tambralinga was an ancient kingdom located on the Malay Peninsula that at one time came under the influence of Srivijaya.
The Tamil Bell is a broken bronze bell discovered in approximately 1836 by missionary William Colenso.
Tamil Indonesians are persons of Tamil ancestry living in Indonesia.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
Tamil-Brahmi, or Tamili, is a variant of the Brahmi script used to write the Tamil language.
Tamilakam refers to the geographical region inhabited by the ancient Tamil people.
Tamraparni (Tamil/Sanskrit) is an ancient name of a river proximal to Tirunelveli of South India and Puttalam of Western Sri Lanka.
Taprobana (Ταπροβανᾶ) or Taprobane (Ταπροβανῆ) was the name by which the Indian Ocean island of Sri Lanka was known to the ancient Greeks.
Tenavaram temple (தென்னாவரம் கோயில்) (historically known as the Tenavaram Kovil, Tevanthurai Kovil or Naga-Risa Nila Kovil) was a historic Hindu temple complex situated in the port town Tenavaram, Tevanthurai (or Dondra Head), Matara) near Galle, Southern Province, Sri Lanka.(see) Its primary deity was a Hindu god Tenavarai Nayanar (Upulvan) and at its zenith was one of the most celebrated Hindu temple complexes of the island, containing eight major kovil shrines to a thousand deity statues of stone and bronze and two major shrines to Vishnu and Shiva. Administration and maintenance was conducted by residing Hindu Tamil merchants during Tenavaram's time as a popular pilgrimage destination and famed emporium employing over five hundred devadasis. The complex, bordered by a large quadrangle cloister, was a collection of several historic Hindu Kovil shrines, with its principle shrine designed in the Kerala and Pallava style of Dravidian architecture. The central temple dedicated to Vishnu (Tenavarai Nayanar) known as Upulvan to the Sinhalese was the most prestigious and biggest, popular amongst its large Tamil population, pilgrims and benefactors of other faiths such as Buddhism, kings and artisans. The other shrines that made up the Kovil Vatta were dedicated to Ganesh, Murukan, Kannagi and Shiva, widely exalted examples of stonework construction of the Dravidian style. The Shiva shrine is venerated as the southernmost of the ancient Pancha Ishwarams of Lord Shiva (called Tondeswaram), built at coastal points around the circumference of the island in the classical period. Tenavaram temple owned the entire property and land of the town and the surrounding villages, ownership of which was affirmed through several royal grants in the early medieval period. Its keepers lived along streets of its ancient agraharam within the complex. Due to patronage by various royal dynasties and pilgrims across Asia, it became one of the most important surviving buildings of the classical Dravidian architectural period by the late 16th century. The temple compound was destroyed by Portuguese colonial Thome de Sousa d'Arronches, who devastated the entire southern coast. The property was then handed over to Catholics. Tenavaram's splendor and prominence ranked it in stature alongside the other famous Pallava-developed medieval Hindu temple complex in the region, Koneswaram of Trincomalee. Excavations at the complex mandapam's partially buried ruins of granite pillars, stairs and slab stonework over the entire town have led to numerous findings. Reflecting the high points of Pallava artistic influence and contributions to the south of the island are the temple's 5th- to 7th-century statues of Ganesh, the Lingam, sculpture of Nandi and the Vishnu shrine's 10th-century Makara Thoranam (stone gateway), the frame and lintel of which include small guardians, a lustrated Lakshmi, dancers, musicians, ganas, and yali-riders. Tenavaram temple was built on vaulted arches on the promontory overlooking the Indian Ocean. The central gopuram tower of the vimana and the other gopura towers that dominated the town were covered with plates of gilded brass, gold and copper on their roofs. Its outer body featured intricately carved domes, with elaborate arches and gates opening to various verandas and shrines of the complex, giving Tenavaram the appearance of a golden city to sailors who visited the port to trade and relied on its light reflecting gopura roofs for navigational purposes.
The Tevaram (தேவாரம்) denotes the first seven volumes of the Tirumurai, the twelve-volume collection of Śaiva devotional poetry.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The Hague (Den Haag,, short for 's-Gravenhage) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
The Tirumantiram or Thirumantiram is a Tamil poetic work written in the fifth century by Thirumular and is the tenth of the twelve volumes of the Tirumurai, the key texts of Shaiva Siddhanta and the first known Tamil work to use the term.
Tirumular (also spelt Thirumoolar etc., originally known as Suntaranāthar) was a Tamil Shaivite mystic and writer, considered one of the sixty-three Nayanmars and one of the 18 Siddhars.
The Treaty of Amiens (French: la paix d'Amiens) temporarily ended hostilities between the French Republic and Great Britain during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Trikuta is a three peaked mountain.
Trincomalee Bay, also known as Koddiyar Bay, is a bay in the Eastern Province, Sri Lanka.
Trincomalee British War Cemetery (also known as the Trincomalee War Cemetery) is a British military cemetery in Trincomalee, Sri Lanka, for soldiers of the British Empire who were killed or died during World War II.
Trincomalee District (திருகோணமலை மாவட்டம் Tirukŏṇamalai Māvaṭṭam; ත්රිකුණාමළය දිස්ත්රික්කය) is one of the 25 districts of Sri Lanka, the second level administrative division of the country.
The Trincomalee Garrison is a common name used for collection of military bases of the Sri Lanka Army located in and around the Fort Fredrick and the town of Trincomalee in the Eastern Province.
Trincomalee Harbour is a seaport in Trincomalee Bay or Koddiyar Bay, a large natural harbour situated on the northeastern coast of Ceylon (Sri Lanka).
Trincomalee railway station is a railway station in the city of Trincomalee in eastern Sri Lanka.
Trincomalee Urban Council (TUC) is the local authority for the city of Trincomalee in eastern Sri Lanka.
Trincomali Channel is a channel or strait in the Gulf Islands of British Columbia, Canada, located between Saltspring Island (W) and Galiano Island (E).
Tropical savanna climate or tropical wet and dry climate is a type of climate that corresponds to the Köppen climate classification categories "Aw" and "As".
Udaya III was King of Anuradhapura in the 10th century, whose reign lasted from 964 to 972.
The United National Party, often abbreviated as UNP (translit, translit), is a political party in Sri Lanka.
The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the US state of California.
Uppsala University (Uppsala universitet) is a research university in Uppsala, Sweden, and is the oldest university in Sweden and all of the Nordic countries still in operation, founded in 1477.
Uppuveli is a gold sand coastal resort town of the Trincomalee District, Sri Lanka located in the suburb of Sambalativu, 6 km northwest of the city of Trincomalee.
Valmiki (Sanskrit: वाल्मीकि, Vālmīki) is celebrated as the harbinger-poet in Sanskrit literature.
The Vanni, also spelled Wanni, is the name given to the mainland area of the Northern Province of Sri Lanka.
The Vanni Nadu were feudal land divisions ruled by chiefs south of the Jaffna peninsula in northern Sri Lanka.
Vanniar or Vannia (Tamil: வன்னியர், Sinhalese: වන්නියා) is a title of a chief in medieval Sri Lanka who ruled the Chiefdom of Vanni regions as tribute payers to the Jaffna vassal state.
The Vanniyar, who were once known as the Palli, are a community or jāti found in Southern India.
Vārāhamihira (505–587 CE), also called Vārāha or Mihira, was an Indian astronomer, mathematician, and astrologer who lived in Ujjain.
The Vayu Purana (वायु पुराण) is a Sanskrit text and one of the eighteen major Puranas of Hinduism.
Venkateswara Temple is a landmark Vaishnavite temple situated in the hill town of Tirumala at Tirupati in Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh, India.
The Verugal Aru (Verugal River) (Verugal Aru), literally "flood" or "that which overflows"; is a river in Sri Lanka that separates the Trincomalee and Batticaloa Districts.
Vigneshwara Maha Vidyalaya is a school in Trincomalee, founded in 1823 as a primary school by the Methodist church.
A water well is an excavation or structure created in the ground by digging, driving, boring, or drilling to access groundwater in underground aquifers.
The monsoon season, is the time of year when most of a region's average annual rainfall occurs.
Whales are a widely distributed and diverse group of fully aquatic placental marine mammals.
Wilbur Addison Smith (born 9 January 1933) is a South African novelist specialising in historical fiction about the international involvement in Southern Africa across four centuries, seen from the viewpoints of both black and white families.
William Pitt the Younger (28 May 1759 – 23 January 1806) was a prominent British Tory statesman of the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yakkha (Nepali याक्खा, Yākkhā) is an indigenous ethnic group of Nepal (identical with its Kirat family consisting of Limbu, Sunuwar, and Rai of Mongoloid physiognomy).
Yalpana Vaipava Malai (யாழ்ப்பாண வைபவமாலை) is a book written by a Tamil poet named Mayil Vaakaanar in Tamil மயில் வாகனார் 1736.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Yoga (Sanskrit, योगः) is a group of physical, mental, and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India.
The Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali are a collection of 196 Indian sutras (aphorisms) on the theory and practice of yoga.
Events from the year 1795 in Great Britain.
2001: A Space Odyssey is a science-fiction narrative, produced in 1968 as both a novel, written by Arthur C. Clarke, and a film, directed by Stanley Kubrick.
The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake occurred at 00:58:53 UTC on 26 December with the epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia.