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Abraham (Arabic: إبراهيم Ibrahim), originally Abram, is the common patriarch of the three Abrahamic religions.
Adoptionism, sometimes called dynamic monarchianism, is a nontrinitarian theological doctrine which holds that Jesus was adopted as the Son of God at his baptism, his resurrection, or his ascension.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
John Christopher "Aidan" Nichols (born 17 September 1948) is an English academic and Catholic priest.
Sūrat al-Ikhlāṣ (سورة الإخلاص, "Fidelity" or "Sincerity"), also known as Sūrat al-Tawḥīd (سورة التوحيد, "Monotheism") is the 112th sūra of the Qur'an.
Surat al-Māʼida (سورة المائدة, "The Table" or "The Table Spread with Food", likely a word of Ethiopic origin) is the fifth chapter of the Quran, with 120 verses.
Alister Edgar McGrath (born 23 January 1953) is a Northern Irish theologian, priest, intellectual historian, scientist, Christian apologist and public intellectual.
Allah (translit) is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions.
Ancient of Days is a name for God in the Book of Daniel: in the original Aramaic atik yomin עַתִּיק יֹומִין; in the Septuagint palaios hemeron παλαιὸς ἡμερῶν; and in the Vulgate antiquus dierum.
The Angel of the or "an Angel of the " (מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה Malakh YHWH "Messenger of Yahweh", LXX ἄγγελος Κυρίου, ἄγγελος) is an entity appearing repeatedly in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) on behalf of God (Yahweh).
The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
The Ante-Nicene Period (literally meaning "before Nicaea") of the history of early Christianity was the period following the Apostolic Age of the 1st century down to the First Council of Nicaea in 325.
In Christian theology and ecclesiology, the apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity.
Arianism is a nontrinitarian Christological doctrine which asserts the belief that Jesus Christ is the Son of God who was begotten by God the Father at a point in time, a creature distinct from the Father and is therefore subordinate to him, but the Son is also God (i.e. God the Son).
Arius (Ἄρειος, 250 or 256–336) was a Christian presbyter and ascetic of Berber origin, and priest in Baucalis in Alexandria, Egypt.
Aseity (from Latin a "from" and se "self", plus -ity) is the property by which a being exists in and of itself, from itself, or exists as so-and-such of and from itself.
The Athanasian Creed, also known as Pseudo-Athanasian Creed or Quicunque Vult (also Quicumque Vult), is a Christian statement of belief focused on Trinitarian doctrine and Christology.
Athanasius of Alexandria (Ἀθανάσιος Ἀλεξανδρείας; ⲡⲓⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ ⲁⲑⲁⲛⲁⲥⲓⲟⲩ ⲡⲓⲁⲡⲟⲥⲧⲟⲗⲓⲕⲟⲥ or Ⲡⲁⲡⲁ ⲁⲑⲁⲛⲁⲥⲓⲟⲩ ⲁ̅; c. 296–298 – 2 May 373), also called Athanasius the Great, Athanasius the Confessor or, primarily in the Coptic Orthodox Church, Athanasius the Apostolic, was the 20th bishop of Alexandria (as Athanasius I).
The Augsburg Confession, also known as the Augustan Confession or the Augustana from its Latin name, Confessio Augustana, is the primary confession of faith of the Lutheran Church and one of the most important documents of the Lutheran Reformation.
Augsburg Fortress is the official publishing house of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA), also publishing for the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada (ELCIC) as Augsburg Fortress Canada.
Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.
In the Islamic Quran, an Āyah (آية; plural: āyāt آيات) is a "verse".
According to the Ayyavazhi religion, the Ayyavazhi Trinity is the incarnation of God in the current stage of world development (Kali Yukam).
Benjamin Breckinridge Warfield (November 5, 1851 – February 16, 1921) was professor of theology at Princeton Seminary from 1887 to 1921.
Baptism (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below) is a Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity.
The baptism of Jesus is described in the gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke.
Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (born late December 1617, baptized January 1, 1618April 3, 1682) was a Spanish Baroque painter.
Basil of Caesarea, also called Saint Basil the Great (Ἅγιος Βασίλειος ὁ Μέγας, Ágios Basíleios o Mégas, Ⲡⲓⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ Ⲃⲁⲥⲓⲗⲓⲟⲥ; 329 or 330 – January 1 or 2, 379), was the bishop of Caesarea Mazaca in Cappadocia, Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey).
The Basilica of Saint Denis (Basilique royale de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is a large medieval abbey church in the city of Saint-Denis, now a northern suburb of Paris.
Being is the general concept encompassing objective and subjective features of reality and existence.
Saint Benedict of Aniane (Benedictus Anianensis; Benedikt von Aniane; 747 – 12 February 821 AD), born Witiza and called the Second Benedict, was a Benedictine monk and monastic reformer, who left a large imprint on the religious practice of the Carolingian Empire.
In Biblical studies, gloss or glossa is an annotation written on margins or within the text of Biblical manuscripts or printed editions of the scriptures.
Binitarianism is a Christian theology of two persons, personas, or two aspects in one substance/Divinity (or God).
Saint Bonaventure (Bonaventura; 1221 – 15 July 1274), born Giovanni di Fidanza, was an Italian medieval Franciscan, scholastic theologian and philosopher.
The Book of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek "", meaning "Origin"; בְּרֵאשִׁית, "Bərēšīṯ", "In beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and the Old Testament.
The Book of Revelation, often called the Revelation to John, the Apocalypse of John, The Revelation, or simply Revelation or Apocalypse (and often misquoted as Revelations), is a book of the New Testament that occupies a central place in Christian eschatology.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The Cappadocian Fathers, also traditionally known as the Three Cappadocians, are Basil the Great (330–379), who was bishop of Caesarea; Basil's younger brother Gregory of Nyssa (c. 335 – c. 395), who was bishop of Nyssa; and a close friend, Gregory of Nazianzus (329–389), who became Patriarch of Constantinople.
The Catechism of the Catholic Church (Catechismus Catholicae Ecclesiae; commonly called the Catechism or the CCC) is a catechism promulgated for the Catholic Church by Pope John Paul II in 1992.
Catharism (from the Greek: καθαροί, katharoi, "the pure ") was a Christian dualist or Gnostic revival movement that thrived in some areas of Southern Europe, particularly northern Italy and what is now southern France, between the 12th and 14th centuries.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Causa sui (meaning "cause of itself" in Latin) denotes something which is generated within itself.
In Christianity, Christ (Greek Χριστός, Christós, meaning "the anointed one") is a title for the saviour and redeemer who would bring salvation to the Jewish people and humanity.
The Christadelphians are a millenarian Christian group who hold a view of Biblical Unitarianism.
Christian art is sacred art which uses themes and imagery from Christianity.
A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organisation, leadership and doctrine.
Christian Science is a set of beliefs and practices belonging to the metaphysical family of new religious movements.
Christian theology is the theology of Christian belief and practice.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
A Christophany is an appearance or non-physical manifestation of Christ.
The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church are ancient and influential Christian theologians and writers.
The Churches of God (7th Day) movement is composed of a number of sabbath-keeping churches, among which the General Conference of the Church of God, or simply CoG7, is the best-known organization.
Cluny Abbey (formerly also Cluni, or Clugny) is a former Benedictine monastery in Cluny, Saône-et-Loire, France.
Collyridianism was an alleged Early Christian heretical movement in pre-Islamic Arabia, whose adherents apparently worshipped the Virgin Mary, mother of Jesus, as a goddess.
The Comma Johanneum, also called the Johannine Comma or the Heavenly Witnesses, is a comma (a short clause) found in Latin manuscripts of the First Epistle of JohnMetzger, Bruce.
Comparative religion is the branch of the study of religions concerned with the systematic comparison of the doctrines and practices of the world's religions.
Confessionalism, in a religious (and particularly Christian) sense, is a belief in the importance of full and unambiguous assent to the whole of a religious teaching.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
Consubstantial (Latin: consubstantialis) is an adjective used in Latin Christian christology, coined by Tertullian in Against Hermogenes 44, used to translate the Greek term homoousios.
The Council of Sirmium generally refers to the third of the four episcopal councils held in Sirmium between 347 AD and 358 AD.
A crucifix (from Latin cruci fixus meaning "(one) fixed to a cross") is an image of Jesus on the cross, as distinct from a bare cross.
Saint Cyprian (Thaschus Cæcilius Cyprianus; 200 – September 14, 258 AD) was bishop of Carthage and a notable Early Christian writer of Berber descent, many of whose Latin works are extant.
The Dawn Bible Students Association is a Christian organization and movement, and a legal entity used by a branch of the Bible Student Movement.
The Didache, also known as The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, is a brief anonymous early Christian treatise, dated by most modern scholars to the first century.
In Christianity, the term disciple primarily refers to dedicated followers of Jesus.
In theology, divine providence, or just providence, is God's intervention in the universe.
In theology, the doctrine of divine simplicity says that God is without parts.
In Christian theology, divinization (deification, making divine, or theosis) is the transforming effect of divine grace, the spirit of God, or the atonement of Christ.
The Order of Preachers (Ordo Praedicatorum, postnominal abbreviation OP), also known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216.
A doxology (Ancient Greek: δοξολογία doxologia, from δόξα, doxa, "glory" and -λογία, -logia, "saying") is a short hymn of praises to God in various forms of Christian worship, often added to the end of canticles, psalms, and hymns.
Dualism in cosmology is the moral or spiritual belief that two fundamental concepts exist, which often oppose each other.
Early Christianity, defined as the period of Christianity preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325, typically divides historically into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period (from the Apostolic Age until Nicea).
The East–West Schism, also called the Great Schism and the Schism of 1054, was the break of communion between what are now the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox churches, which has lasted since the 11th century.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Emanuel Swedenborg ((born Emanuel Swedberg; 29 January 1688 – 29 March 1772) was a Swedish Lutheran theologian, scientist, philosopher, revelator and mystic who inspired Swedenborgianism. He is best known for his book on the afterlife, Heaven and Hell (1758). Swedenborg had a prolific career as an inventor and scientist. In 1741, at 53, he entered into a spiritual phase in which he began to experience dreams and visions, beginning on Easter Weekend, on 6 April 1744. It culminated in a 'spiritual awakening' in which he received a revelation that he was appointed by the Lord Jesus Christ to write The Heavenly Doctrine to reform Christianity. According to The Heavenly Doctrine, the Lord had opened Swedenborg's spiritual eyes so that from then on, he could freely visit heaven and hell and talk with angels, demons and other spirits and the Last Judgment had already occurred the year before, in 1757. For the last 28 years of his life, Swedenborg wrote 18 published theological works—and several more that were unpublished. He termed himself a "Servant of the Lord Jesus Christ" in True Christian Religion, which he published himself. Some followers of The Heavenly Doctrine believe that of his theological works, only those that were published by Swedenborg himself are fully divinely inspired.
The Enchiridion is a compendium of all the basic texts on Catholic dogma and morality since the Apostolic Age.
The Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān (abbreviated EQ) is an encyclopedia dedicated to the Qur'an published with Brill.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics is a 12-volume work (plus an index volume) edited by James Hastings, written between 1908 and 1927 and composed of entries by many contributors.
The Epistle to the Ephesians, also called the Letter to the Ephesians and often shortened to Ephesians, is the tenth book of the New Testament.
The Epistle to the Galatians, often shortened to Galatians, is the ninth book of the New Testament.
The Epistle to the Hebrews, or Letter to the Hebrews, or in the Greek manuscripts, simply To the Hebrews (Πρὸς Έβραίους) is one of the books of the New Testament.
The Epistle to the Romans or Letter to the Romans, often shortened to Romans, is the sixth book in the New Testament.
In geometry, an equilateral triangle is a triangle in which all three sides are equal.
Eugene Webb (born 1938) is Professor Emeritus in the University of Washington Henry M. Jackson School of International Studies.
Eugene is a city of the Pacific Northwest in the U.S. state of Oregon.
Eve (Ḥawwā’; Syriac: ܚܘܐ) is a figure in the Book of Genesis in the Hebrew Bible.
Exegesis (from the Greek ἐξήγησις from ἐξηγεῖσθαι, "to lead out") is a critical explanation or interpretation of a text, particularly a religious text.
The Eye of Providence (or the all-seeing eye of God) is a symbol showing an eye often surrounded by rays of light or a glory and usually enclosed by a triangle.
In one sense, faith in Christianity is often discussed in terms of believing God's promises, trusting in his faithfulness, and relying on God's character and faithfulness to act.
Filioque is a Latin term added to the original Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed (commonly known as the Nicene Creed), and which has been the subject of great controversy between Eastern and Western Christianity.
The First Council of Constantinople (Πρώτη σύνοδος της Κωνσταντινουπόλεως commonly known as Β΄ Οικουμενική, "Second Ecumenical"; Concilium Constantinopolitanum Primum or Concilium Constantinopolitanum A) was a council of Christian bishops convened in Constantinople in AD 381 by the Roman Emperor Theodosius I. This second ecumenical council, an effort to attain consensus in the church through an assembly representing all of Christendom, except for the Western Church,Richard Kieckhefer (1989).
The First Council of Nicaea (Νίκαια) was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea (now İznik, Bursa province, Turkey) by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325.
The First Epistle of John, often referred to as First John and written 1 John or I John, is the first of the Johannine epistles of the New Testament, and the fourth of the catholic epistles.
The First Epistle of Peter, usually referred to simply as First Peter and often written 1 Peter, is a book of the New Testament.
The First Epistle to the Corinthians (Α΄ ᾽Επιστολὴ πρὸς Κορινθίους), usually referred to simply as First Corinthians and often written 1 Corinthians, is one of the Pauline epistles of the New Testament of the Christian Bible.
The First Epistle of Paul to Timothy, usually referred to simply as First Timothy and often written 1 Timothy, is one of three letters in the New Testament of the Bible often grouped together as the Pastoral Epistles, along with Second Timothy and Titus.
The Fourth Council of the Lateran was convoked by Pope Innocent III with the papal bull Vineam domini Sabaoth of 19 April 1213, and the Council gathered at Rome's Lateran Palace beginning 11 November 1215.
Francesco Albani or Albano (17 March or 17 August 1578 – 4 October 1660) was an Italian Baroque painter who was active in Bologna (1591–1600), Rome (1600–1609), Bologna (1609), Viterbo (1609–1610), Bologna (1610), Rome (1610–1617), Bologna (1618–1660), Mantova (1621–1622), Roma (1623–1625) and Florence (1633).
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
Fridolin Leiber (1853 in Niedereschach – 1912 in Frankfurt) was a German painter who produced a number of popular religious prints.
Friends General Conference (FGC) is a North American Quaker association of 15 Quaker yearly and 12 monthly meetings in the United States and Canada that choose to be members.
The Genesis creation narrative is the creation myth of both Judaism and Christianity.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (March 5, 1696 – March 27, 1770), also known as Gianbattista or Giambattista Tiepolo, was an Italian painter and printmaker from the Republic of Venice.
Gnosticism (from γνωστικός gnostikos, "having knowledge", from γνῶσις, knowledge) is a modern name for a variety of ancient religious ideas and systems, originating in Jewish-Christian milieus in the first and second century AD.
God in Christianity is the eternal being who created and preserves all things.
God the Father is a title given to God in various religions, most prominently in Christianity.
God the Son (Θεός ὁ υἱός) is the second person of the Trinity in Christian theology.
Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print and by its codename Project Ocean) is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition (OCR), and stored in its digital database.
The Gospel According to John is the fourth of the canonical gospels.
The Gospel According to Matthew (translit; also called the Gospel of Matthew or simply, Matthew) is the first book of the New Testament and one of the three synoptic gospels.
In Western Christian theology, grace has been defined, not as a created substance of any kind, but as "the love and mercy given to us by God because God desires us to have it, not necessarily because of anything we have done to earn it", "Grace is favour, the free and undeserved help that God gives us to respond to his call to become children of God, adoptive sons, partakers of the divine nature and of eternal life." It is understood by Christians to be a spontaneous gift from God to people "generous, free and totally unexpected and undeserved" – that takes the form of divine favor, love, clemency, and a share in the divine life of God.
In Christianity, the Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples to spread his teachings to all the nations of the world.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Gregory of Nazianzus (Γρηγόριος ὁ Ναζιανζηνός Grēgorios ho Nazianzēnos; c. 329Liturgy of the Hours Volume I, Proper of Saints, 2 January. – 25 January 390), also known as Gregory the Theologian or Gregory Nazianzen, was a 4th-century Archbishop of Constantinople, and theologian.
Gregory of Nyssa, also known as Gregory Nyssen (Γρηγόριος Νύσσης; c. 335 – c. 395), was bishop of Nyssa from 372 to 376 and from 378 until his death.
Gregory Thaumaturgus or Gregory the Miracle-Worker (Γρηγόριος ὁ Θαυματουργός, Grēgórios ho Thaumatourgós; Gregorius Thaumaturgus; 213 – 270), also known as Gregory of Neocaesarea, was a Christian bishop of the 3rd century.
A halo (from Greek ἅλως, halōs; also known as a nimbus, aureole, glory, or gloriole) is a crown of light rays, circle or disk of light that surrounds a person in art.
Hans Urs von Balthasar (12 August 1905 – 26 June 1988) was a Swiss theologian and Catholic priest who was to be created a cardinal of the Catholic Church but died before the ceremony.
Hilary (Hilarius) of Poitiers (c. 310c. 367) was Bishop of Poitiers and is a Doctor of the Church.
Hippolytus of Rome (170 – 235 AD) was one of the most important 3rd-century theologians in the Christian Church in Rome, where he was probably born.
For the majority of Christian denominations, the Holy Spirit or Holy Ghost is the third person (hypostasis) of the Trinity: the Triune God manifested as God the Father, God the Son, and the Holy Spirit; each person itself being God.
Homoousion (from, homós, "same" and, ousía, "being") is a Christian theological doctrine pertaining to the Trinitarian understanding of God.
Hosius of Corduba (c. 256 – 359), also known as Osius or Ossius, was a bishop of Corduba (now Córdoba, Spain) and an important and prominent advocate for Homoousion Christianity in the Arian controversy that divided the early Christianity.
Hypostasis (Greek: ὑπόστασις) is the underlying state or underlying substance and is the fundamental reality that supports all else.
Iconography, as a branch of art history, studies the identification, description, and the interpretation of the content of images: the subjects depicted, the particular compositions and details used to do so, and other elements that are distinct from artistic style.
Iglesia ni Cristo (abbreviated as INC English: Church of Christ) is an international church that originated in the Philippines.
Ignatius of Antioch (Greek: Ἰγνάτιος Ἀντιοχείας, Ignátios Antiokheías; c. 35 – c. 107), also known as Ignatius Theophorus (Ιγνάτιος ὁ Θεοφόρος, Ignátios ho Theophóros, lit. "the God-bearing") or Ignatius Nurono (lit. "The fire-bearer"), was an early Christian writer and bishop of Antioch.
Ignatius Press, named for Saint Ignatius Loyola, founder of the Jesuit Order, is a Catholic publishing house based in San Francisco, California, USA.
Inter-Varsity Press (IVP) was previously the publishing wing of Universities and Colleges Christian Fellowship.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Jürgen Moltmann (born 8 April 1926) is a German Reformed theologian who is Professor Emeritus of Systematic Theology at the University of Tübingen.
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
In Christianity, Jesus is believed to be the Messiah (Christ) and through his crucifixion and resurrection, humans can be reconciled to God and thereby are offered salvation and the promise of eternal life.
In Islam, ʿĪsā ibn Maryam (lit), or Jesus, is understood to be the penultimate prophet and messenger of God (Allah) and al-Masih, the Arabic term for Messiah (Christ), sent to guide the Children of Israel with a new revelation: al-Injīl (Arabic for "the gospel").
John Stephen Bowden (1935–2010) was an English Anglican cleric, theologian and publisher.
John Calvin (Jean Calvin; born Jehan Cauvin; 10 July 150927 May 1564) was a French theologian, pastor and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation.
John the Apostle (ܝܘܚܢܢ ܫܠܝܚܐ; יוחנן בן זבדי; Koine Greek: Ιωάννης; ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ; Latin: Ioannes) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus according to the New Testament, which refers to him as Ἰωάννης.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Justin Martyr (Latin: Iustinus Martyr) was an early Christian apologist, and is regarded as the foremost interpreter of the theory of the Logos in the 2nd century.
was a Japanese theologian, pastor, author, professor, and churchman.
Lamb of God (Ἀμνὸς τοῦ Θεοῦ, Amnos tou Theou; Agnus Deī) is a title for Jesus that appears in the Gospel of John.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Living Church of God (LCG) is one of hundreds of groups that formed after the death of Herbert W. Armstrong, when major doctrinal changes (causing turmoil and divisions) were occurring in the former Worldwide Church of God (WCG) during the 1990s.
In Christology, the Logos (lit) is a name or title of Jesus Christ, derived from the prologue to the Gospel of John (c 100) "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God", as well as in the Book of Revelation (c 85), "And he was clothed with a vesture dipped in blood: and his name is called The Word of God." These passages have been important for establishing the doctrine of the divinity of Jesus since the earliest days of Christianity.
Lord is an appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power over others acting like a master, a chief, or a ruler.
Lot was a patriarch in the biblical Book of Genesis chapters 11–14 and 19.
Love of God can mean either love for God or love by God.
Lucas Cranach the Elder (Lucas Cranach der Ältere, c. 1472 – 16 October 1553) was a German Renaissance painter and printmaker in woodcut and engraving.
Lulu Press, Inc., doing business as Lulu.com, is an online print-on-demand, self-publishing, and distribution platform.
Marcellus of Ancyra (died c. 374 C.E.) was a Bishop of Ancyra and one of the bishops present at the Council of Ancyra and the First Council of Nicaea.
Meditations (Ta eis heauton, literally "things to one's self") is a series of personal writings by Marcus Aurelius, Roman Emperor from 161 to 180 AD, recording his private notes to himself and ideas on Stoic philosophy.
Melito of Sardis (Μελίτων Σάρδεων Melítōn Sárdeōn) (died c. 180) was the bishop of Sardis near Smyrna in western Anatolia, and a great authority in early Christianity.
Modalistic Monarchianism (also known as Oneness Christology) is a Christian theology that upholds the oneness of God as well as the deity of Jesus Christ.
Monarchianism is a Christian theology that emphasizes God as one, at Catholic Encyclopedia, newadvent.org in direct contrast to Trinitarianism which defines God as three persons coexisting consubstantially as one in being.
Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.
Morrisville is a town located primarily in Wake County, North Carolina (a small portion extends into neighboring Durham County).
The New International Version (NIV) is an English translation of the Bible first published in 1978 by Biblica (formerly the International Bible Society).
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
The Nicene Creed (Greek: or,, Latin: Symbolum Nicaenum) is a statement of belief widely used in Christian liturgy.
Nontrinitarianism is a form of Christianity that rejects the mainstream Christian doctrine of the Trinity—the teaching that God is three distinct hypostases or persons who are coeternal, coequal, and indivisibly united in one being, or essence (from the Greek ousia).
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
Omnibenevolence (from Latin omni- meaning "all", bene- meaning "good" and volens meaning "willing") is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "unlimited or infinite benevolence".
Omnipotence is the quality of having unlimited power.
On the Trinity (De Trinitate) is a Latin book written by Augustine of Hippo to discuss the Trinity in context of the logos.
Oneness Pentecostalism (also known as Apostolic or Jesus' Name Pentecostalism and often pejoratively referred to as the "Jesus Only" movement in its early days) is a category of denominations and believers within Pentecostalism which adhere to the nontrinitarian theological doctrine of Oneness.
Ontotheology means the ontology of God and/or the theology of being.
Origen of Alexandria (184 – 253), also known as Origen Adamantius, was a Hellenistic scholar, ascetic, and early Christian theologian who was born and spent the first half of his career in Alexandria.
The papal tiara is a crown that was worn by popes of the Catholic Church from as early as the 8th century to the mid-20th.
Paraclete (Gr. παράκλητος, Lat. paracletus) means advocate or helper.
In Christianity, the Passion (from Late Latin: passionem "suffering, enduring") is the short final period in the life of Jesus covering his entrance visit to Jerusalem and leading to his crucifixion on Mount Calvary, defining the climactic event central to Christian doctrine of salvation history.
Patristics or patrology is the study of the early Christian writers who are designated Church Fathers.
Paul Stuart Fiddes (born 30 April 1947) is a British Baptist theologian and novelist.
Paul of Samosata (Παῦλος ὁ Σαμοσατεύς, lived from 200 to 275 AD) was Bishop of Antioch from 260 to 268.
Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.
The Pauline epistles, Epistles of Paul, or Letters of Paul, are the 13 New Testament books which have the name Paul (Παῦλος) as the first word, hence claiming authorship by Paul the Apostle.
Penguin Books is a British publishing house.
Perichoresis (from περιχώρησις perikhōrēsis, "rotation") is a term referring to the relationship of the three persons of the triune God (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit) to one another.
A persona (plural personae or personas), in the word's everyday usage, is a social role or a character played by an actor.
Phillip Cary (born June 10, 1958) is a philosophy professor at Eastern University with a concentration on Augustine of Hippo.
Philo of Alexandria (Phílōn; Yedidia (Jedediah) HaCohen), also called Philo Judaeus, was a Hellenistic Jewish philosopher who lived in Alexandria, in the Roman province of Egypt.
A pietà (meaning "pity", "compassion") is a subject in Christian art depicting the Virgin Mary cradling the dead body of Jesus, most often found in sculpture.
In Stoic philosophy, pneuma (πνεῦμα) is the concept of the "breath of life," a mixture of the elements air (in motion) and fire (as warmth).
The Pneumatomachi (Greek: Πνευματομάχοι), also known as Macedonians or Semi-Arians in Constantinople and the Tropici in Alexandria, were an anti-Nicene Creed sect which flourished in the countries adjacent to the Hellespont during the latter half of the fourth, and the beginning of the fifth century.
Polytheism (from Greek πολυθεϊσμός, polytheismos) is the worship of or belief in multiple deities, which are usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own religions and rituals.
Pope Clement I (Clemens Romanus; Greek: Κλήμης Ῥώμης; died 99), also known as Saint Clement of Rome, is listed by Irenaeus and Tertullian as Bishop of Rome, holding office from 88 to his death in 99.
Pope John II (Ioannes II; died 8 May 535) was Pope of the Catholic Church from 2 January 533 to his death in 535.
Pope Saint Leo I (400 – 10 November 461), also known as Saint Leo the Great, was Pope from 29 September 440 and died in 461.
Praxeas was a Monarchian from Asia Minor who lived in the end of the 2nd century/beginning of the 3rd century.
Prophets in Islam (الأنبياء في الإسلام) include "messengers" (rasul, pl. rusul), bringers of a divine revelation via an angel (Arabic: ملائكة, malāʾikah);Shaatri, A. I. (2007).
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Richard De Smet was born 16 April 1916 in Montignies-sur-Sambre (Belgium) and died 2 March 1997 in Brussels.
Richard E. Rubenstein (born February 24, 1938) is an author and University Professor of Conflict Resolution and Public Affairs at George Mason University, holding degrees from Harvard College, Oxford University (as a Rhodes Scholar), and Harvard Law School.
Roger E. Olson (born 1952) is Professor of Theology, George W. Truett Theological Seminary, Baylor University, Waco, Texas, United States.
Le Roman de la Rose (English: The Romance of the Rose) is a medieval French poem styled as an allegorical dream vision.
In Christianity, Sabellianism in the Eastern church or Patripassianism in the Western church is the belief that the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are three different modes or aspects of God, as apposed to a Trinitarian view of three distinct persons within the Godhead.
Sacred mysteries are the areas of supernatural phenomena associated with a divinity or a religious ideology.
Saint Peter (Syriac/Aramaic: ܫܸܡܥܘܿܢ ܟܹ݁ܐܦ݂ܵܐ, Shemayon Keppa; שמעון בר יונה; Petros; Petros; Petrus; r. AD 30; died between AD 64 and 68), also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simon, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Great Church.
San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.
Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ("scholastics", or "schoolmen") of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context.
SCM Press is a UK-based academic publisher of theology, established more than a century ago.
The Second Epistle of John, often referred to as Second John and often written 2 John or II John, is a book of the New Testament attributed to John the Evangelist, traditionally thought to be the author of the Gospel of John and the other two epistles of John.
The Second Epistle to the Corinthians, often written as 2 Corinthians, is a Pauline epistle and the eighth book of the New Testament of the Bible.
The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant religious revival during the early 19th century in the United States.
Self-love has often been seen as a moral flaw, akin to vanity and selfishness.
Seneca the Younger AD65), fully Lucius Annaeus Seneca and also known simply as Seneca, was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and—in one work—satirist of the Silver Age of Latin literature.
Shema Yisrael (or Sh'ma Yisrael; שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל; "Hear, Israel") are the first two words of a section of the Torah, and is the title (better known as The Shema) of a prayer that serves as a centerpiece of the morning and evening Jewish prayer services.
The Shield of the Trinity or Scutum Fidei (Latin for "shield of faith") is a traditional Christian visual symbol which expresses many aspects of the doctrine of the Trinity, summarizing the first part of the Athanasian Creed in a compact diagram.
In Islam, shirk (شرك širk) is the sin of practicing idolatry or polytheism, i.e. the deification or worship of anyone or anything besides the singular God, i.e. Allah.
The social trinitarianism is a Christian interpretation of the Trinity as consisting of three persons in a loving relationship, which reflects a model for human relationships.
Sophia (wisdom) is a central idea in Hellenistic philosophy and religion, Platonism, Gnosticism, and Christian theology.
Spiritism is a spiritualistic religion codified in the 19th century by the French educator Hippolyte Léon Denizard Rivail, under the codename Allan Kardec; it proposed the study of "the nature, origin, and destiny of spirits, and their relation with the corporeal world".
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.
Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early 3rd century BC.
Subordinationism is a belief within early Christianity that asserts that the Son and the Holy Spirit are subordinate to God the Father in nature and being.
Substance theory, or substance attribute theory, is an ontological theory about objecthood, positing that a substance is distinct from its properties.
A sunburst is a design or figure commonly used in architectural ornaments and design patterns.
A Surah (also spelled Sura; سورة, plural سور suwar) is the term for a chapter of the Quran.
Beginning with three synods convened between 264 and 269 in the matter of Paul of Samosata, more than thirty councils were held in Antioch in ancient times.
The gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke are referred to as the Synoptic Gospels because they include many of the same stories, often in a similar sequence and in similar or sometimes identical wording.
Tawhid (توحيد, meaning "oneness " also romanized as tawheed, touheed, or tevhid) is the indivisible oneness concept of monotheism in Islam.
The Ten Commandments (עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדִּבְּרוֹת, Aseret ha'Dibrot), also known as the Decalogue, are a set of biblical principles relating to ethics and worship, which play a fundamental role in Judaism and Christianity.
Tertullian, full name Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, c. 155 – c. 240 AD, was a prolific early Christian author from Carthage in the Roman province of Africa.
Textual criticism is a branch of textual scholarship, philology, and literary criticism that is concerned with the identification of textual variants in either manuscripts or printed books.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), often informally known as the Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian, Christian restorationist church that is considered by its members to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ.
The Shepherd's Chapel is a Christian church and broadcast facility based in Gravette, Arkansas.
Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius Augustus; Θεοδόσιος Αʹ; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from AD 379 to AD 395, as the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the empire. His resources were not equal to destroy them, and by the treaty which followed his modified victory at the end of the Gothic War, they were established as Foederati, autonomous allies of the Empire, south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the empire's borders. He was obliged to fight two destructive civil wars, successively defeating the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius, not without material cost to the power of the empire. He also issued decrees that effectively made Nicene Christianity the official state church of the Roman Empire."Edict of Thessalonica": See Codex Theodosianus XVI.1.2 He neither prevented nor punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of classical antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi and the Serapeum in Alexandria. He dissolved the order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome. In 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient Greece. After his death, Theodosius' young sons Arcadius and Honorius inherited the east and west halves respectively, and the Roman Empire was never again re-united, though Eastern Roman emperors after Zeno would claim the united title after Julius Nepos' death in 480 AD.
Theopaschism is the belief that a god can suffer.
Theophany (from Ancient Greek (ἡ) θεοφάνεια theophaneia, meaning "appearance of a god") is the appearance of a deity to a human.
Theophilus, Patriarch of Antioch (Θεόφιλος ὁ Ἀντιοχεύς) succeeded Eros c. 169, and was succeeded by Maximus I c. 183, according to Henry Fynes Clinton, but these dates are only approximations.
Theotokos (Greek Θεοτόκος) is a title of Mary, mother of God, used especially in Eastern Christianity.
Thomas Forsyth Torrance, (30 August 1913 – 2 December 2007), commonly referred to as T. F. Torrance, was a Scottish Protestant theologian.
The Three Pure Ones also translated as the Three Pure Pellucid Ones, the Three Pristine Ones, the Three Divine Teachers, the Three Clarities, or the Three Purities are the Taoist Trinity, the three highest Gods in the Taoist pantheon.
A throne is the seat of state of a potentate or dignitary, especially the seat occupied by a sovereign on state occasions; or the seat occupied by a pope or bishop on ceremonial occasions.
The Trikāya doctrine (Sanskrit, literally "three bodies") is a Mahayana Buddhist teaching on both the nature of reality and the nature of Buddhahood.
The Trimūrti (Sanskrit: त्रिमूर्ति, "three forms") is the trinity of supreme divinity in Hinduism in which the cosmic functions of creation, maintenance, and destruction are personified as a triad of deities, typically Brahma the creator, Vishnu the preserver, and Shiva the destroyer, though individual denominations may vary from that particular line-up.
The trinitarian formula is the phrase "in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit" (original Greek εἰς τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ Πατρὸς καὶ τοῦ Υἱοῦ καὶ τοῦ Ἁγίου Πνεύματος,, or in Latin in nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti), or words to that form and effect referring to the three persons of the Christian Trinity.
The Order of the Most Holy Trinity and of the Captives (Ordo Sanctissimae Trinitatis et captivorum), often shortened to The Order of the Most Holy Trinity (Ordo Sanctissimae Trinitatis), or Trinitarians, is a Catholic religious order that was founded in the area of Cerfroid, some 80 km northeast of Paris, at the end of the twelfth century.
Trinitarian Universalism is a variant of belief in universal salvation, the belief that every person will be saved, that also held the Christian belief in Trinitarianism (as opposed to, or contrasted with, liberal Unitarianism which is more usually associated with Unitarian Universalism).
Trinity Sunday is the first Sunday after Pentecost in the Western Christian liturgical calendar, and the Sunday of Pentecost in Eastern Christianity. Trinity Sunday celebrates the Christian doctrine of the Trinity, the three Persons of God: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.
A triple deity (sometimes referred to as threefold, tripled, triplicate, tripartite, triune or triadic, or as a trinity) is three deities that are worshipped as one.
Tritheism is the belief that cosmic divinity is composed of three powerful entities.
Typology in Christian theology and Biblical exegesis is a doctrine or theory concerning the relationship of the Old Testament to the New Testament.
The Unitarian Universalist Christian Fellowship (UUCF) is the main group serving Christian Unitarian Universalists within the Unitarian Universalist Association of the United States.
Unitarianism (from Latin unitas "unity, oneness", from unus "one") is historically a Christian theological movement named for its belief that the God in Christianity is one entity, as opposed to the Trinity (tri- from Latin tres "three") which defines God as three persons in one being; the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
The United Church of God, an International Association (UCGIA or simply UCG), Tucson, Arizona.
Valentinus (also spelled Valentinius; 100 – 160 AD) was the best known and for a time most successful early Christian gnostic theologian.
The Vulgate is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible that became the Catholic Church's officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible during the 16th century.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
The Westminster Confession of Faith is a Reformed confession of faith.
Wipf and Stock is a publisher in Eugene, Oregon, publishing works in theology, biblical studies, history and philosophy.
The 1689 Baptist Confession of Faith, also called the Second London Baptist Confession, was written by Particular Baptists, who held to a Calvinistic soteriology in England to give a formal expression of their Christian faith from a Baptist perspective.
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