251 relations: Albuquerque Journal, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Alkali, Allotropes of plutonium, American Mathematical Monthly, Anatomical terms of location, Arjuna, Associated Press, Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Atomic tourism, Autoradiograph, Babcock & Wilcox, Babelsberg, Background radiation, Barberton, Ohio, Berlyn Brixner, Bernard Waldman, Beta particle, Betting pool, Bhagavad Gita, Bhangmeter, Blast wave, Boeing B-29 Superfortress, Brigadier general (United States), Brighter than a Thousand Suns (book), Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Captain (United States O-3), Captain (United States O-6), Carrizozo, New Mexico, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Charles Christian Lauritsen, Cleanroom, Clinton Engineer Works, Code name, Columbia University, Composition B, Continuous track, Corrugated galvanised iron, Critical mass, Cuba, New Mexico, Cyclotron, Cyril Stanley Smith, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Desert Training Center, Dud, Duralumin, Edward Creutz, Edward Teller, El Malpais National Monument, El Paso, Texas, ..., Emilio Segrè, Eminent domain, Engineering, Enriched uranium, Enrico Fermi, Euphemism, Explosive lens, Explosive material, Fascism, Fat Man, First lieutenant, Fissile material, Fizzle (nuclear explosion), Fluid dynamics, Fogging (photography), Frank Oppenheimer, G. I. Taylor, Gadget, Gallium, Gallup, New Mexico, Gamma ray, George Kistiakowsky, George L. Harrison, German nuclear weapon project, Gold, Governor of New Mexico, Grazing rights, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Ground zero, Gun-type fission weapon, Hanford Site, Hanford, Washington, Hans Bethe, Harold Agnew, Harry S. Truman, Harvard University, Henry L. Stimson, Herbert L. Anderson, High Noon, Hindu, Holloman Air Force Base, Holy Sonnets, Husk, Hypocenter, Indiana, Instrumentation, Ionized-air glow, Ionizing radiation, Isidor Isaac Rabi, Isotope, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Jack Aeby, James Bryant Conant, James Chadwick, James F. Byrnes, John Donne, John Harry Williams, John Henry Manley, John J. Dempsey, John von Neumann, Jornada del Muerto, Joseph O. Hirschfelder, Kenneth Bainbridge, Kodak, Land patent, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Leslie Groves, Little Boy, Long Island, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Louis Slotin, Lubbock, Texas, Luis Walter Alvarez, M4 Sherman, Major, Major general (United States), Manhattan Project, Martial law, Mass spectrometry, McDonald Ranch House, Military police, Modulated neutron initiator, Mushroom cloud, National Cancer Institute, National Historic Landmark, National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places, National Safety Council, National Science Digital Library, Nazi Germany, Neutron, Neutron detection, Neutron source, Nevada Test Site, New Mexico, Nickel, Norman Foster Ramsey Jr., Norris Bradbury, Nuclear explosion, Nuclear fallout, Nuclear fission, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear weapon, Nuclear weapon design, Nuclear weapon yield, Nuclear weapons testing, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Obelisk, Operation Crossroads, Padre Island, Paper mill, Peer de Silva, Philip Burton Moon, Physical Review, Piezoelectricity, Pinhole camera, Pit (nuclear weapon), Plutonium, Plutonium-239, Plutonium-240, Polo, Potsdam Conference, President of the United States, Princeton University Press, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Project Alberta, Project Y, Prompt criticality, Pulp (paper), Radiation, Radiation burn, Radiation dose reconstruction, Ranch, Richard C. Tolman, Richard Feynman, Robert Bacher, Robert F. Christy, Robert R. Wilson, Roentgen (unit), Saltwater soap, Samuel King Allison, San Antonio, San Antonio, New Mexico, San Luis Valley, San Nicolas Island, Sandia National Laboratories, Sanskrit, Science News, Sea level, Second Air Force, Shock wave, Siding (rail), Silicon dioxide, Silver, Silver City, New Mexico, Smyth Report, Socorro County, New Mexico, Socorro, New Mexico, Spectrograph, Spontaneous fission, Standard Oil, Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!, Synthetic element, Teletype Corporation, The Making of the Atomic Bomb, The New York Times, The Santa Fe New Mexican, Thin Man (nuclear bomb), Thomas Farrell (general), Thoreau, New Mexico, Time (magazine), Timothy R. Coffin, Trinitite, Trinity, Tularosa Basin, Ultraviolet, United States Army, United States Atomic Energy Commission, United States Navy, United States Secretary of War, University of California, Berkeley, University of Chicago, Upperville, Virginia, Uranium-235, Uzal Girard Ent, Vannevar Bush, Victor Weisskopf, Vishnu, Vishvarupa, Voice of America, Welding goggles, White Sands Missile Range, William L. Laurence, William Penney, Baron Penney, William Sterling Parsons, Wolfgang K. H. Panofsky, Wollensak, X-10 Graphite Reactor, 216th Army Air Forces Base Unit, 3 Quarks Daily. Expand index (201 more) » « Shrink index
The Albuquerque Journal is the largest newspaper in the U.S. state of New Mexico.
Albuquerque (Beeʼeldííl Dahsinil; Arawageeki; Vakêêke; Gołgéeki) is the most populous city in the U.S. state of New Mexico.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
Plutonium occurs in a variety of allotropes, even at ambient pressure.
The American Mathematical Monthly is a mathematical journal founded by Benjamin Finkel in 1894.
Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.
Arjuna (in Devanagari: अर्जुन) is the main central character of the ancient Indian epic Mahabharata and plays a key role in the Bhagavad Gita alongside Krishna.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
During the final stage of World War II, the United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively.
Atomic tourism is a relatively new type of tourism in which visitors learn about the Atomic Age by traveling to significant sites in atomic history such as museums with atomic weapons, vehicles that carried atomic weapons or sites where atomic weapons were detonated.
An autoradiograph is an image on an x-ray film or nuclear emulsion produced by the pattern of decay emissions (e.g., beta particles or gamma rays) from a distribution of a radioactive substance.
Babcock & Wilcox Enterprises, originally Babcock, Wilcox & Company and then The Babcock & Wilcox Company, is an American power generation company headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina.
Babelsberg is the largest district of Potsdam, the capital city of the German state of Brandenburg.
Background radiation is a measure of the ionizing radiation present in the environment at a particular location which is not due to deliberate introduction of radiation sources.
Barberton is a city in Summit County, Ohio, United States.
Berlyn B. Brixner (May 21, 1911 – August 1, 2009) was an American photographer.
Bernard Waldman (October 12, 1913 – November 1, 1986) was an American physicist who flew on the Hiroshima atomic bombing mission as a cameraman during World War II.
A beta particle, also called beta ray or beta radiation, (symbol β) is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted by the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus during the process of beta decay.
A betting pool, sports lottery, sweep, or office pool if done at work, is a form of gambling, specifically a variant of parimutuel betting influenced by lotteries, where gamblers pay a fixed price into a pool (from which taxes and a house "take" or "vig" are removed), and then make a selection on an outcome, usually related to sport.
The Bhagavad Gita (भगवद्गीता, in IAST,, lit. "The Song of God"), often referred to as the Gita, is a 700 verse Hindu scripture in Sanskrit that is part of the Hindu epic Mahabharata (chapters 23–40 of the 6th book of Mahabharata).
A bhangmeter is a non-imaging radiometer installed on reconnaissance and navigation satellites to detect atmospheric nuclear detonations and determine the yield of the nuclear weapon.
In fluid dynamics, a blast wave is the increased pressure and flow resulting from the deposition of a large amount of energy in a small, very localised volume.
The Boeing B-29 Superfortress is a four-engine propeller-driven heavy bomber designed by Boeing, which was flown primarily by the United States during World War II and the Korean War.
In the United States Armed Forces, brigadier general (BG, BGen, or Brig Gen) is a one-star general officer with the pay grade of O-7 in the U.S. Army, U.S. Marine Corps, and U.S. Air Force.
Brighter than a Thousand Suns: A Personal History of the Atomic Scientists, by Austrian Robert Jungk, is the first published account of the Manhattan Project and the German atomic bomb project.
The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists is a nontechnical academic journal, published by Taylor and Francis that covers global security and public policy issues related to the dangers posed by nuclear threats, weapons of mass destruction, climate change, and emerging technologies and biological hazards.
In the United States Army (USA), U.S. Marine Corps (USMC), and U.S. Air Force (USAF), captain (abbreviated "CPT" in the USA and "Capt" in the USMC and USAF) is a company grade officer rank, with the pay grade of O-3.
In the United States Navy, United States Coast Guard, United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (USPHS), and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Officer Corps (NOAA Corps), captain is the senior-most commissioned officer rank below that of flag officer (i.e., admirals).
Carrizozo is a town in Lincoln County, New Mexico and is the county seat with a population of 996 at the 2010 census.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
Charles Christian Lauritsen (April 4, 1892 – April 13, 1968) was a Danish-born American physicist.
A cleanroom or clean room is a situation, ordinarily utilized as a part of assembling, including of pharmaceutical items or logical research, and in addition aviation semiconductor building applications with a low level of natural toxins, for example, tiny, airborne organisms, vaporized particles, and concoction vapors.
The Clinton Engineer Works (CEW) was the production installation of the Manhattan Project that during World War II produced the enriched uranium used in the 1945 bombing of Hiroshima, as well as the first examples of reactor-produced plutonium.
A code name or cryptonym is a word or name used, sometimes clandestinely, to refer to another name, word, project or person.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
Composition B, colloquially "Comp B", is an explosive consisting of castable mixtures of RDX and TNT.
Continuous track, also called tank tread or caterpillar track, is a system of vehicle propulsion in which a continuous band of treads or track plates is driven by two or more wheels.
Corrugated galvanised iron or steel (colloquially corrugated iron (near universal), wriggly tin (taken from UK military slang), pailing (in Caribbean English), corrugated sheet metal (in North America) and occasionally abbreviated CGI) is a building material composed of sheets of hot-dip galvanised mild steel, cold-rolled to produce a linear corrugated pattern in them.
A critical mass is the smallest amount of fissile material needed for a sustained nuclear chain reaction.
Cuba is a village in Sandoval County, New Mexico, in the United States.
A cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator invented by Ernest O. Lawrence in 1929-1930 at the University of California, Berkeley, and patented in 1932.
Cyril Stanley Smith (4 October 1903 – 25 August 1992) was a British metallurgist and historian of science.
The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) is an agency within the United States Department of Defense (DoD) and is the official Combat Support Agency for countering weapons of mass destruction (chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high explosives).
The Desert Training Center (DTC), also known as California-Arizona Maneuver Area (CAMA), was a World War II training facility established in the Mojave Desert and Sonoran Desert, largely in Southern California and Western Arizona in 1942.
A dud is an ammunition round or explosive that fails to fire or detonate, respectively, on time or on command.
Duralumin (also called duraluminum, duraluminium, duralum, dural(l)ium, or dural) is a trade name for one of the earliest types of age-hardenable aluminium alloys.
Edward Creutz (January 23, 1913 – June 27, 2009) was an American physicist who worked on the Manhattan Project at the Metallurgical Laboratory and the Los Alamos Laboratory during World War II.
Edward Teller (Teller Ede; January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Hungarian-American theoretical physicist who is known colloquially as "the father of the hydrogen bomb", although he claimed he did not care for the title.
El Malpais National Monument is a National Monument located in western New Mexico, in the Southwestern United States.
El Paso (from Spanish, "the pass") is a city in and the seat of El Paso County, Texas, United States.
Emilio Gino Segrè (1 February 1905 – 22 April 1989) was an Italian-American physicist and Nobel laureate, who discovered the elements technetium and astatine, and the antiproton, a subatomic antiparticle, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1959.
Eminent domain (United States, Philippines), land acquisition (Singapore), compulsory purchase (United Kingdom, New Zealand, Ireland), resumption (Hong Kong, Uganda), resumption/compulsory acquisition (Australia), or expropriation (France, Italy, Mexico, South Africa, Canada, Brazil, Portugal, Spain, Chile, Denmark, Sweden) is the power of a state, provincial, or national government to take private property for public use.
Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.
Enriched uranium is a type of uranium in which the percent composition of uranium-235 has been increased through the process of isotope separation.
Enrico Fermi (29 September 1901 – 28 November 1954) was an Italian-American physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1.
A euphemism is a generally innocuous word or expression used in place of one that may be found offensive or suggest something unpleasant.
An explosive lens—as used, for example, in nuclear weapons—is a highly specialized shaped charge.
An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
"Fat Man" was the codename for the atomic bomb that was detonated over the Japanese city of Nagasaki by the United States on 9 August 1945.
First lieutenant is a commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces and, in some forces, an appointment.
In nuclear engineering, fissile material is material capable of sustaining a nuclear fission chain reaction.
A fizzle occurs when the detonation of a device for creating a nuclear explosion (such as a nuclear weapon) grossly fails to meet its expected yield.
In physics and engineering, fluid dynamics is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that describes the flow of fluids - liquids and gases.
Fogging in photography is the deterioration in the quality of the image caused either by extraneous light or the effects of a processing chemical.
Sir Geoffrey Ingram Taylor OM (7 March 1886 – 27 June 1975) was a British physicist and mathematician, and a major figure in fluid dynamics and wave theory.
A gadget is a small tool such as a machine that has a particular function, but is often thought of as a novelty.
Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31.
Gallup (Naʼnízhoozhí) is a city in McKinley County, New Mexico, United States, with a population of 21,678 as of the 2010 census.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
George Bogdanovich Kistiakowsky (November 18, 1900 – December 7, 1982) (Георгій Богданович Кістяківський, Георгий Богданович Кистяковский) was a Ukrainian-American physical chemistry professor at Harvard who participated in the Manhattan Project and later served as President Dwight D. Eisenhower's Science Advisor.
George Leslie Harrison (January 26, 1887 – March 5, 1958) was an American banker, insurance executive and advisor to Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson during World War II.
The German nuclear weapon project (Uranprojekt; informally known as the Uranverein; Uranium Society or Uranium Club) was a scientific effort led by Germany to develop and produce nuclear weapons during World War II.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
The Governor of New Mexico (Gobernador de Nuevo México) is the chief executive of the state of New Mexico.
Grazing rights is the right of a user to allow their livestock to feed (graze) in a given area.
Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve is an American national park that conserves an area of large sand dunes up to tall on the eastern edge of the San Luis Valley, and an adjacent national preserve located in the Sangre de Cristo Range, in south-central Colorado, United States.
In terms of nuclear explosions and other large bombs, the term "ground zero" (also known as "surface zero") describes the point on the Earth's surface closest to a detonation.
Gun-type fission weapons are fission-based nuclear weapons whose design assembles their fissile material into a supercritical mass by the use of the "gun" method: shooting one piece of sub-critical material into another.
The Hanford Site is a decommissioned nuclear production complex operated by the United States federal government on the Columbia River in the U.S. state of Washington.
Hanford was a small agricultural community in Benton County, Washington, United States.
Hans Albrecht Bethe (July 2, 1906 – March 6, 2005) was a German-American nuclear physicist who made important contributions to astrophysics, quantum electrodynamics and solid-state physics, and won the 1967 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis.
Harold Melvin Agnew (March 28, 1921 – September 29, 2013) was an American physicist, best known for having flown as a scientific observer on the Hiroshima bombing mission and, later, as the third director of the Los Alamos National Laboratory.
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Henry Lewis Stimson (September 21, 1867 – October 20, 1950) was an American statesman, lawyer and Republican Party politician.
Herbert Lawrence Anderson (May 24, 1914 – July 16, 1988) was a Jewish American nuclear physicist who contributed to the Manhattan Project.
High Noon is a 1952 American Western film produced by Stanley Kramer from a screenplay by Carl Foreman, directed by Fred Zinnemann, and starring Gary Cooper.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
Holloman Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located six miles (10 km) southwest of the central business district of Alamogordo, and a census-designated place in Otero County, New Mexico, United States.
The Holy Sonnets—also known as the Divine Meditations or Divine Sonnets—are a series of nineteen poems by the English poet John Donne (1572–1631).
Husk (or hull) in botany is the outer shell or coating of a seed.
A hypocenter (or hypocentre) (from ὑπόκεντρον for 'below the center') is the point of origin of an earthquake or a subsurface nuclear explosion.
Indiana is a U.S. state located in the Midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America.
Instrumentation is a collective term for measuring instruments used for indicating, measuring and recording physical quantities, and has its origins in the art and science of scientific instrument-making.
Ionized-air glow is the fluorescent emission of characteristic blue–purple–violet light, of color called electric blue, by air subjected to an energy flux.
Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
Isidor Isaac Rabi (born Israel Isaac Rabi, 29 July 1898 – 11 January 1988) was an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1944 for his discovery of nuclear magnetic resonance, which is used in magnetic resonance imaging.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Julius Robert Oppenheimer (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist and professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley.
Jack W. Aeby (August 16, 1923 – June 19, 2015) was an American environmental physicist most famous for having taken the only well-exposed color photograph of the first detonation of a nuclear weapon on July 16, 1945 at the Trinity nuclear test site in New Mexico.
James Bryant Conant (March 26, 1893 – February 11, 1978) was an American chemist, a transformative President of Harvard University, and the first U.S. Ambassador to West Germany.
Sir James Chadwick, (20 October 1891 – 24 July 1974) was an English physicist who was awarded the 1935 Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery of the neutron in 1932.
James Francis Byrnes (May 2, 1882 – April 9, 1972) was an American judge and politician from the state of South Carolina.
John Donne (22 January 1572 – 31 March 1631) was an English poet and cleric in the Church of England.
John Harry Williams (July 7, 1908 – April 18, 1966) was a Canadian-American physicist.
John Henry Manley (July 21, 1907 – June 11, 1990) was an American physicist who worked with J. Robert Oppenheimer at the University of California, Berkeley before becoming a group leader during the Manhattan Project.
John Joseph Dempsey (June 22, 1879 – March 11, 1958) was a United States Representative from New Mexico who also served as the 13th Governor of New Mexico.
John von Neumann (Neumann János Lajos,; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, and polymath.
The name Jornada del Muerto is translated loosely from Spanish, historically referring to it as the "Journey of the Dead Man", though the modern literal translation is closer to "The Working Day of the Dead".
Joseph Oakland Hirschfelder (May 27, 1911 – March 30, 1990) was an American physicist who participated in the Manhattan Project and in the creation of the nuclear bomb.
Kenneth Tompkins Bainbridge (July 27, 1904 – July 14, 1996) was an American physicist at Harvard University who did work on cyclotron research.
The Eastman Kodak Company (referred to simply as Kodak) is an American technology company that produces imaging products with its historic basis on photography.
A land patent is an exclusive land grant made by a sovereign entity with respect to a particular tract of land.
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), commonly referred to as Berkeley Lab, is a United States national laboratory located in the Berkeley Hills near Berkeley, California that conducts scientific research on behalf of the United States Department of Energy (DOE).
Lieutenant General Leslie Richard Groves Jr. (17 August 1896 – 13 July 1970) was a United States Army Corps of Engineers officer who oversaw the construction of the Pentagon and directed the Manhattan Project, a top secret research project that developed the atomic bomb during World War II.
"Little Boy" was the codename for the atomic bomb dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima on 6 August 1945 during World War II by the Boeing B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay, piloted by Colonel Paul W. Tibbets, Jr., commander of the 509th Composite Group of the United States Army Air Forces.
Long Island is a densely populated island off the East Coast of the United States, beginning at New York Harbor just 0.35 miles (0.56 km) from Manhattan Island and extending eastward into the Atlantic Ocean.
Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos or LANL for short) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory initially organized during World War II for the design of nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project.
Louis Alexander Slotin (1 December 1910 – 30 May 1946) was a Canadian physicist and chemist who worked on the Manhattan Project.
Lubbock is a city in and the county seat of Lubbock County, Texas, United States.
Luis Walter Alvarez (June 13, 1911 – September 1, 1988) was an American experimental physicist, inventor, and professor who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1968.
The M4 Sherman, officially Medium Tank, M4, was the most widely used medium tank by the United States and Western Allies in World War II.
Major is a military rank of commissioned officer status, with corresponding ranks existing in many military forces throughout the world.
In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and United States Air Force, major general is a two-star general-officer rank, with the pay grade of O-8.
The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.
Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public.
Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.
The McDonald Ranch House, also known as Trinity Site, in the Oscura Mountains of Socorro County, New Mexico, was the location of assembly of the world's first nuclear weapon.
Military police (MP) are law enforcement agencies connected with, or part of, the military of a state.
A modulated neutron initiator is a neutron source capable of producing a burst of neutrons on activation.
A mushroom cloud is a distinctive pyrocumulus mushroom-shaped cloud of debris/smoke and usually condensed water vapor resulting from a large explosion.
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is one of eleven agencies that are part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
A National Historic Landmark (NHL) is a building, district, object, site, or structure that is officially recognized by the United States government for its outstanding historical significance.
The National Park Service (NPS) is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations.
The National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) is the United States federal government's official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance.
The National Safety Council (NSC) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit, nongovernmental public service organization promoting health and safety in the United States of America.
The United States' National Science Digital Library (NSDL) is an open-access online digital library and collaborative network of disciplinary and grade-level focused education providers.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Neutron detection is the effective detection of neutrons entering a well-positioned detector.
A neutron source is any device that emits neutrons, irrespective of the mechanism used to produce the neutrons.
The Nevada National Security Site (N2S2 or NNSS), previously the Nevada Test Site (NTS), is a United States Department of Energy reservation located in southeastern Nye County, Nevada, about 65 miles (105 km) northwest of the city of Las Vegas.
New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Norman Foster Ramsey Jr. (August 27, 1915 – November 4, 2011) was an American physicist who was awarded the 1989 Nobel Prize in Physics, for the invention of the separated oscillatory field method, which had important applications in the construction of atomic clocks.
Norris Edwin Bradbury (30 May 1909 – 20 August 1997), was an American physicist who served as Director of the Los Alamos National Laboratory for 25 years from 1945 to 1970.
A nuclear explosion is an explosion that occurs as a result of the rapid release of energy from a high-speed nuclear reaction.
Nuclear fallout, or simply fallout, is the residual radioactive material propelled into the upper atmosphere following a nuclear blast, so called because it "falls out" of the sky after the explosion and the shock wave have passed.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
Nuclear weapon designs are physical, chemical, and engineering arrangements that cause the physics package of a nuclear weapon to detonate.
The explosive yield of a nuclear weapon is the amount of energy released when that particular nuclear weapon is detonated, usually expressed as a TNT equivalent (the standardized equivalent mass of trinitrotoluene which, if detonated, would produce the same energy discharge), either in kilotons (kt—thousands of tons of TNT), in megatons (Mt—millions of tons of TNT), or sometimes in terajoules (TJ).
Nuclear weapons tests are experiments carried out to determine the effectiveness, yield, and explosive capability of nuclear weapons.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is an American multiprogram science and technology national laboratory sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and administered, managed, and operated by UT-Battelle as a federally funded research and development center (FFRDC) under a contract with the DOE.
Oak Ridge is a city in Anderson and Roane counties in the eastern part of the U.S. state of Tennessee, about west of Knoxville.
An obelisk (from ὀβελίσκος obeliskos; diminutive of ὀβελός obelos, "spit, nail, pointed pillar") is a tall, four-sided, narrow tapering monument which ends in a pyramid-like shape or pyramidion at the top.
Operation Crossroads was a pair of nuclear weapon tests conducted by the United States at Bikini Atoll in mid-1946.
Padre Island is the largest of the Texas barrier islands and is the world's longest barrier island.
A paper mill is a factory devoted to making paper from vegetable fibres such as wood pulp, old rags and other ingredients.
Peer de Silva (June 26, 1917 – August 13, 1978) was a station chief in the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
Philip Burton Moon FRS (17 May 1907 – 9 October 1994) was a British nuclear physicist.
Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.
Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials (such as crystals, certain ceramics, and biological matter such as bone, DNA and various proteins) in response to applied mechanical stress.
A pinhole camera is a simple camera without a lens but with a tiny aperture, a pinhole – effectively a light-proof box with a small hole in one side.
The pit, named after the hard core found in fruits such as peaches and apricots, is the core of an implosion nuclear weapon – the fissile material and any neutron reflector or tamper bonded to it.
Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
Plutonium-239 is an isotope of plutonium.
Plutonium-240 (/Pu-240) is an isotope of the actinide metal plutonium formed when plutonium-239 captures a neutron.
Polo is a team sport played on horseback.
The Potsdam Conference (Potsdamer Konferenz) was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm, in Potsdam, occupied Germany, from 17 July to 2 August 1945.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
Project Alberta, also known as Project A, was a section of the Manhattan Project which assisted in delivering the first nuclear weapons in the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War II.
The Los Alamos Laboratory, also known as Project Y, was a secret laboratory established by the Manhattan Project and operated by the University of California during World War II.
In nuclear engineering, prompt criticality is said to be reached during a nuclear fission event if one or more of the immediate or prompt neutrons released by an atom in the event causes an additional fission event resulting in a rapid, exponential increase in the number of fission events.
Pulp is a lignocellulosic fibrous material prepared by chemically or mechanically separating cellulose fibres from wood, fiber crops, waste paper, or rags.
In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.
A radiation burn is damage to the skin or other biological tissue as an effect of radiation.
Radiation dose reconstruction refers to the process of estimating radiation doses that were received by individuals or populations in the past as a result of particular exposure situations of concern.
A ranch is an area of land, including various structures, given primarily to the practice of ranching, the practice of raising grazing livestock such as cattle or sheep for meat or wool.
Richard Chace Tolman (March 4, 1881 – September 5, 1948) was an American mathematical physicist and physical chemist who was an authority on statistical mechanics.
Richard Phillips Feynman (May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988) was an American theoretical physicist, known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as in particle physics for which he proposed the parton model.
Robert Fox Bacher (August 31, 1905 – November 18, 2004) was an American nuclear physicist and one of the leaders of the Manhattan Project.
Robert Frederick Christy (May 14, 1916 – October 3, 2012) was a Canadian-American theoretical physicist and later astrophysicist who was one of the last surviving people to have worked on the Manhattan Project during World War II.
Robert Rathbun Wilson (March 4, 1914 – January 16, 2000) was an American physicist known for his work on the Manhattan Project during World War II, as a sculptor, and as an architect of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), where he was the first director from 1967 to 1978.
The roentgen or röntgen (symbol R) is a legacy unit of measurement for the exposure of X-rays and gamma rays.
Saltwater soap, also called sailors' soap, is a potassium-based soap for use with seawater.
Samuel King Allison (November 13, 1900 – September 15, 1965) was an American physicist, most notable for his role in the Manhattan Project, for which he was awarded the Medal for Merit.
San Antonio (Spanish for "Saint Anthony"), officially the City of San Antonio, is the seventh most populous city in the United States and the second most populous city in both Texas and the Southern United States.
San Antonio is an unincorporated community in Socorro County, New Mexico, United States, roughly in the center of the state, on the Rio Grande.
The San Luis Valley is a region in south-central Colorado with a small portion overlapping into New Mexico.
San Nicolas Island (Tongva: Haraasnga) is the most remote of California's Channel Islands, located 61 miles (98 km) from the nearest point on the mainland coast.
The Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), managed and operated by the National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia (a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International), is one of three National Nuclear Security Administration research and development laboratories.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Science News is an American bi-weekly magazine devoted to short articles about new scientific and technical developments, typically gleaned from recent scientific and technical journals.
Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.
The Second Air Force (2 AF; 2d Air Force in 1942) is a USAF numbered air force responsible for conducting basic military and technical training for Air Force enlisted members and non-flying officers.
In physics, a shock wave (also spelled shockwave), or shock, is a type of propagating disturbance.
A siding, in rail terminology, is a low-speed track section distinct from a running line or through route such as a main line or branch line or spur.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Silver City is a town in Grant County, New Mexico, United States.
The Smyth Report is the common name of an administrative history written by American physicist Henry DeWolf Smyth about the Manhattan Project, the Allied effort to develop atomic bombs during World War II.
Socorro County is a county in the U.S. state of New Mexico.
Socorro is a city in Socorro County in the U.S. state of New Mexico.
A spectrograph is an instrument that separates light into a frequency spectrum and records the signal using a camera.
Spontaneous fission (SF) is a form of radioactive decay that is found only in very heavy chemical elements.
Standard Oil Co.
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In chemistry, a synthetic element is a chemical element that does not occur naturally on Earth, and can only be created artificially.
The Teletype Corporation, a part of American Telephone and Telegraph Company's Western Electric manufacturing arm since 1930, came into being in 1928 when the Morkrum-Kleinschmidt Company changed its name to the name of its trademark equipment.
The Making of the Atomic Bomb is a contemporary history book written by the American journalist and historian Richard Rhodes, first published by Simon & Schuster in 1987.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Santa Fe New Mexican or simply The New Mexican is a daily newspaper published in Santa Fe, New Mexico.
"Thin Man" was the codename for a proposed plutonium gun-type nuclear bomb using plutonium-239 which the United States was developing during the Manhattan Project.
Major General Thomas Francis Farrell (3 December 1891 – 11 April 1967) was the Deputy Commanding General and Chief of Field Operations of the Manhattan Project, acting as executive officer to Major General Leslie R. Groves, Jr. Farrell graduated from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute with a degree in civil engineering in 1912.
Thoreau (Dlǫ́ʼí Yázhí) is a census-designated place (CDP) in McKinley County, New Mexico, United States.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Timothy R. Coffin is a United States Army brigadier general who became the 33rd Commanding General of the White Sands Missile Range on 2 July 2014.
Trinitite, also known as atomsite or Alamogordo glass, is the glassy residue left on the desert floor after the plutonium-based Trinity nuclear bomb test on July 16, 1945, near Alamogordo, New Mexico.
The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (from Greek τριάς and τριάδα, from "threefold") holds that God is one but three coeternal consubstantial persons or hypostases—the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit—as "one God in three Divine Persons".
The Tularosa Basin is a graben basin in the Basin and Range Province and within the Chihuahuan Desert, east of the Rio Grande in southern New Mexico, in the Southwestern United States.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Atomic Energy Commission, commonly known as the AEC, was an agency of the United States government established after World War II by U.S. Congress to foster and control the peacetime development of atomic science and technology.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
The Secretary of War was a member of the United States President's Cabinet, beginning with George Washington's administration.
The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.
The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.
Upperville is a small unincorporated town in Fauquier County, Virginia, United States, along U.S. Route 50 fifty miles from downtown Washington, D.C..
Uranium-235 (235U) is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium.
Uzal Girard Ent was an American Army Air Forces officer who served as the commander of the Second Air Force during World War II.
Vannevar Bush (March 11, 1890 – June 28, 1974) was an American engineer, inventor and science administrator, who during World War II headed the U.S. Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), through which almost all wartime military R&D was carried out, including initiation and early administration of the Manhattan Project.
Victor Frederick "Viki" Weisskopf (September 19, 1908 – April 22, 2002) was an Austrian-born American theoretical physicist.
Vishnu (Sanskrit: विष्णु, IAST) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism, and the Supreme Being in its Vaishnavism tradition.
Vishvarupa ("Universal form", "Omni-form"), also known popularly as Vishvarupa Darshan, Vishwaroopa and Virata rupa, is an iconographical form and theophany of the Hindu god Vishnu or his avatar Krishna.
Voice of America (VOA) is a U.S. government-funded international radio broadcast source that serves as the United States federal government's official institution for non-military, external broadcasting.
Welding goggles provide a degree of eye protection while some forms of welding and cutting are being done.
White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) is a United States Army military testing area of almost in parts of five counties in southern New Mexico.
William Leonard Laurence (March 7, 1888 – March 19, 1977) was a Jewish Lithuanian-born American journalist known for his science journalism writing of the 1940s and 1950s while working for The New York Times.
William George Penney, Baron Penney (24 June 1909 – 3 March 1991), was an English mathematician and professor of mathematical physics at the Imperial College London and later the rector of Imperial College.
Rear Admiral William Sterling "Deak" Parsons (26 November 1901 – 5 December 1953) was an American naval officer who worked as an ordnance expert on the Manhattan Project during World War II.
Wolfgang Kurt Hermann "Pief" Panofsky (April 24, 1919 – September 24, 2007), was a German-American physicist who won many awards including the National Medal of Science.
Wollensak was an American manufacturer of audio-visual products located in Rochester New York.
The X-10 Graphite Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, formerly known as the Clinton Pile and X-10 Pile, was the world's second artificial nuclear reactor (after Enrico Fermi's Chicago Pile-1), and the first designed and built for continuous operation.
The 216th Army Air Forces Base Unit (AAF BU) (Special) provided base services at Wendover Army Airfield, where the 509th Composite Group was stationed during World War II.
3 Quarks Daily (3QD) is an online news aggregator and blog that curates commentary, essays, and multimedia from high quality periodicals, newspapers, journals, and blogs.
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