23 relations: Aneuploidy, Autosome, Chromosome, Chromosome 21, Chromosome abnormality, Down syndrome, Edwards syndrome, Intellectual disability, Karyotype, Klinefelter syndrome, Meiosis, Miscarriage, Monosomy, Nondisjunction, Patau syndrome, Polysomy, Sex chromosome, Sexual reproduction, Triple X syndrome, Trisomy 16, Trisomy 8, Trisomy 9, XYY syndrome.
Aneuploidy is the presence of an abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell, for example a human cell having 45 or 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46.
An autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome (a sex chromosome).
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
Chromosome 21 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
A chromosome abnormality, disorder, anomaly, aberration, or mutation is a missing, extra, or irregular portion of chromosomal DNA.
Down syndrome (DS or DNS), also known as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21.
Edwards syndrome, also known as trisomy 18, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all, or part of a third copy of chromosome 18.
Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability, and mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.
A karyotype is the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.
Klinefelter syndrome (KS) also known as 47,XXY or XXY, is the set of symptoms that result from two or more X chromosomes in males.
Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.
Miscarriage, also known as spontaneous abortion and pregnancy loss, is the natural death of an embryo or fetus before it is able to survive independently.
Monosomy is a form of aneuploidy with the presence of only one chromosome from a pair.
Nondisjunction is the failure of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate properly during cell division.
Patau syndrome is a syndrome caused by a chromosomal abnormality, in which some or all of the cells of the body contain extra genetic material from chromosome 13.
Polysomy is a condition found in many species, including fungi, plants, insects, and mammals, in which an organism has at least one more chromosome than normal, i.e., there may be three or more copies of the chromosome rather than the expected two copies.
An allosome (also referred to as a sex chromosome, heterotypical chromosome, heterochromosome, or idiochromosome) is a chromosome that differs from an ordinary autosome in form, size, and behavior.
Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.
Triple X syndrome, also known as trisomy X and 47,XXX, is characterized by the presence of an extra X chromosome in each cell of a female.
Trisomy 16 is a chromosomal abnormality in which there are 3 copies of chromosome 16 rather than two.
Trisomy 8, also known as Warkany syndrome 2, is a human chromosomal disorder caused by having three copies (trisomy) of chromosome 8.
Full trisomy 9 is a lethal chromosomal disorder caused by having three copies (trisomy) of chromosome number 9.
XYY syndrome is a genetic condition in which a male has an extra Y chromosome.