160 relations: Abyssal plain, Adsorption, Alpha particle, Argonne National Laboratory, Arkansas River, Atomic battery, Atomic mass, Atomic nucleus, Barn (unit), Bay of Bengal, Becquerel, Bermuda, Beta decay, Beta particle, Betavoltaic device, Bioaccumulation, Boiling water reactor, Bone tumor, Boosted fission weapon, Boron, Brown dwarf, Cadmium, Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Chlorofluorocarbon, Cold War, Control rod, Cosmic ray, Coulomb's law, Critical mass, Cross section (physics), Decay product, Deuterium, Diffusion, Drinking water, Electricity, Electron, Electron neutrino, Electronvolt, Endothermic process, Equator, Ernest Rutherford, Exit sign, Exothermic process, Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, Fusion power, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf Stream, Hafnium, Half-life, Heavy water, ..., Helium-3, History of the Teller–Ulam design, Hydride, Hydrogen, Hydroxyl radical, Hypertriton, Indian Ocean, Inertial confinement fusion, Institute for Energy and Environmental Research, International System of Units, Ion, Irradiation, Isopycnal, Isotopes of hydrogen, Isotopes of lithium, Isotopes of rhenium, ITER, Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, KATRIN, Krytron, Labrador Sea, Liquid scintillation counting, Lithium, Lithium hydride, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Luis Walter Alvarez, Luminous paint, Luminox, Magnetic confinement fusion, Mark Oliphant, Mississippi River System, Missouri River, Mole (unit), National Ignition Facility, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Neutron, Neutron activation, Neutron generator, Neutron moderator, Neutron temperature, Nitrogen, North Atlantic Deep Water, Norwegian Sea, Nuclear chain reaction, Nuclear fission, Nuclear force, Nuclear fusion, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Nuclear reprocessing, Nuclear weapon, Nuclear weapons testing, Ohio River, Ontario Power Generation, Oxygen, Oxygen-16, Oxygen-17, Pacific Ocean, Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, Particle accelerator, Paul Harteck, Phosphor, Pit (nuclear weapon), Plutonium-239, Potential density, Pressurized heavy-water reactor, Pressurized water reactor, Proton, Radioactive contamination, Radioactive decay, Radioactive tracer, Radioluminescence, Radiometric dating, Radium, Residence time, Robert Cornog, Roentgen equivalent man, Salinity, Savannah River Site, Sievert, Specific activity, Spent nuclear fuel, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Star, START I, Strait of Malacca, Stratosphere, Subtropics, Sulu Sea, Thermonuclear weapon, Trace radioisotope, Tritiated water, Tritium radioluminescence, Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA), Tropics, Unified atomic mass unit, United States Department of Energy, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Uranium-233, Uranium-235, Valentia Island, Variable yield, Warhead, Watch, Water cycle, Watts Bar Nuclear Generating Station, Willard Libby, Wine, 35th parallel south, 45th parallel south. Expand index (110 more) » « Shrink index
An abyssal plain is an underwater plain on the deep ocean floor, usually found at depths between and.
Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions or molecules from a gas, liquid or dissolved solid to a surface.
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.
Argonne National Laboratory is a science and engineering research national laboratory operated by the University of Chicago Argonne LLC for the United States Department of Energy located near Lemont, Illinois, outside Chicago.
The Arkansas River is a major tributary of the Mississippi River.
The terms atomic battery, nuclear battery, tritium battery and radioisotope generator are used to describe a device which uses energy from the decay of a radioactive isotope to generate electricity.
The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
A barn (symbol: b) is a unit of area equal to 10−28 m2 (100 fm2).
The Bay of Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গোপসাগর) is the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean, bounded on the west and north by India and Bangladesh, and on the east by Myanmar and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India).
The becquerel (symbol: Bq) is the SI derived unit of radioactivity.
Bermuda is a British Overseas Territory in the North Atlantic Ocean.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
A beta particle, also called beta ray or beta radiation, (symbol β) is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted by the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus during the process of beta decay.
Betavoltaic devices, also known as betavoltaic cells, are generators of electric current, in effect a form of battery, which use energy from a radioactive source emitting beta particles (electrons).
Bioaccumulation is the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism.
The boiling water reactor (BWR) is a type of light water nuclear reactor used for the generation of electrical power.
A bone tumor (also spelled bone tumour) is a neoplastic growth of tissue in bone.
A boosted fission weapon usually refers to a type of nuclear bomb that uses a small amount of fusion fuel to increase the rate, and thus yield, of a fission reaction.
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
Brown dwarfs are substellar objects that occupy the mass range between the heaviest gas giant planets and the lightest stars, having masses between approximately 13 to 75–80 times that of Jupiter, or approximately to about.
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.
The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC; Commission canadienne de sûreté nucléaire) is the federal regulator of nuclear power and materials in Canada.
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are fully halogenated paraffin hydrocarbons that contain only carbon (С), chlorine (Cl), and fluorine (F), produced as volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and propane.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Control rods are used in nuclear reactors to control the fission rate of uranium and plutonium.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
Coulomb's law, or Coulomb's inverse-square law, is a law of physics for quantifying the amount of force with which stationary electrically charged particles repel or attract each other.
A critical mass is the smallest amount of fissile material needed for a sustained nuclear chain reaction.
When two particles interact, their mutual cross section is the area transverse to their relative motion within which they must meet in order to scatter from each other.
In nuclear physics, a decay product (also known as a daughter product, daughter isotope, radio-daughter, or daughter nuclide) is the remaining nuclide left over from radioactive decay.
Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.
Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation.
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
The electron neutrino is a subatomic lepton elementary particle which has no net electric charge.
In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).
The term endothermic process describes the process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings, usually in the form of heat.
An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).
Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, HFRSE LLD (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937) was a New Zealand-born British physicist who came to be known as the father of nuclear physics.
An exit sign is a device in a public facility (such as a building, aircraft or boat) denoting the location of the closest emergency exit in case of fire or other emergency.
In thermodynamics, the term exothermic process (exo-: "outside") describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system to its surroundings, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or flash), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. explosion heard when burning hydrogen).
The was an energy accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Ōkuma, Fukushima Prefecture, initiated primarily by the tsunami following the Tōhoku earthquake on 11 March 2011.
Fusion power is a form of power generation in which energy is generated by using fusion reactions to produce heat for electricity generation.
The Gulf of Mexico (Golfo de México) is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent.
The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension the North Atlantic Drift, is a warm and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and stretches to the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean.
Hafnium is a chemical element with symbol Hf and atomic number 72.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
Heavy water (deuterium oxide) is a form of water that contains a larger than normal amount of the hydrogen isotope deuterium (or D, also known as heavy hydrogen), rather than the common hydrogen-1 isotope (or H, also called protium) that makes up most of the hydrogen in normal water.
Helium-3 (He-3, also written as 3He, see also helion) is a light, non-radioactive isotope of helium with two protons and one neutron (common helium having two protons and two neutrons).
This article chronicles the history and origins of the Teller–Ulam design, the technical concept behind modern thermonuclear weapons, also known as hydrogen bombs.
In chemistry, a hydride is the anion of hydrogen, H−, or, more commonly, it is a compound in which one or more hydrogen centres have nucleophilic, reducing, or basic properties.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
The hydroxyl radical, •OH, is the neutral form of the hydroxide ion (OH−).
A hypertriton is a type of hypernucleus, formed of a proton, a neutron and any hyperon.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is a type of fusion energy research that attempts to initiate nuclear fusion reactions by heating and compressing a fuel target, typically in the form of a pellet that most often contains a mixture of deuterium and tritium.
The Institute for Energy and Environmental Research (IEER) focuses on the environmental safety of nuclear weapons production, ozone layer depletion, and other issues relating to energy.
The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Irradiation is the process by which an object is exposed to radiation.
An isopycnal is a line connecting points of a specific density or potential density.
Hydrogen (1H) has three naturally occurring isotopes, sometimes denoted 1H, 2H, and 3H.
Naturally occurring lithium (3Li) is composed of two stable isotopes, lithium-6 and lithium-7, with the latter being far more abundant: about 92.5 percent of the atoms.
Naturally occurring rhenium (75Re) is 37.4% 185Re, which is stable, and 62.6% 187Re, which is unstable but has a very long half-life (41.2×109 years).
ITER (Latin for "the way") is an international nuclear fusion research and engineering megaproject, which will be the world's largest magnetic confinement plasma physics experiment.
The Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology is the flagship peer-reviewed scientific journal of the National Institute of Standards and Technology.
KATRIN is a German acronym (Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino Experiment) for an undertaking to measure the mass of the electron antineutrino with sub-eV precision by examining the spectrum of electrons emitted from the beta decay of tritium.
The krytron is a cold-cathode gas-filled tube intended for use as a very high-speed switch, somewhat similar to the thyratron.
The Labrador Sea (French: mer du Labrador, Danish: Labradorhavet) is an arm of the North Atlantic Ocean between the Labrador Peninsula and Greenland.
Liquid scintillation counting is the measurement of activity of a sample of radioactive material which uses the technique of mixing the active material with a liquid scintillator (e.g. Zinc sulfide), and counting the resultant photon emissions.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
Lithium hydride is an inorganic compound with the formula LiH.
Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos or LANL for short) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory initially organized during World War II for the design of nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project.
Luis Walter Alvarez (June 13, 1911 – September 1, 1988) was an American experimental physicist, inventor, and professor who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1968.
Luminous paint or luminescent paint is paint that exhibits luminescence.
Luminox is a brand of watch.
Magnetic confinement fusion is an approach to generate thermonuclear fusion power that uses magnetic fields to confine the hot fusion fuel in the form of a plasma.
Sir Marcus Laurence Elwin "Mark" Oliphant (8 October 1901 – 14 July 2000) was an Australian physicist and humanitarian who played an important role in the first experimental demonstration of nuclear fusion and also the development of nuclear weapons.
The Mississippi River System, also referred to as the Western Rivers, is a mostly riverine network of the United States which includes the Mississippi River and connecting waterways.
The Missouri River is the longest river in North America.
The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.
The National Ignition Facility, or NIF, is a large laser-based inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research device, located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.
Neutron activation is the process in which neutron radiation induces radioactivity in materials, and occurs when atomic nuclei capture free neutrons, becoming heavier and entering excited states.
Neutron generators are neutron source devices which contain compact linear accelerators and that produce neutrons by fusing isotopes of hydrogen together.
In nuclear engineering, a neutron moderator is a medium that reduces the speed of fast neutrons, thereby turning them into thermal neutrons capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction involving uranium-235 or a similar fissile nuclide.
The neutron detection temperature, also called the neutron energy, indicates a free neutron's kinetic energy, usually given in electron volts.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) is a deep water mass formed in the North Atlantic Ocean.
The Norwegian Sea (Norskehavet) is a marginal sea in the Arctic Ocean, northwest of Norway.
A nuclear chain reaction occurs when one single nuclear reaction causes an average of one or more subsequent nuclear reactions, thus leading to the possibility of a self-propagating series of these reactions.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
The nuclear force (or nucleon–nucleon interaction or residual strong force) is a force that acts between the protons and neutrons of atoms.
In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is an independent agency of the United States government tasked with protecting public health and safety related to nuclear energy.
Nuclear reprocessing technology was developed to chemically separate and recover fissionable plutonium from spent nuclear fuel.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
Nuclear weapons tests are experiments carried out to determine the effectiveness, yield, and explosive capability of nuclear weapons.
The Ohio River, which streams westward from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Cairo, Illinois, is the largest tributary, by volume, of the Mississippi River in the United States.
Ontario Power Generation Inc. (OPG) is a Crown corporation wholly owned by the Government of Ontario.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Oxygen-16 (16O) is a stable isotope of oxygen, having 8 neutrons and 8 protons in its nucleus.
Oxygen-17 is a low-abundant, natural, stable isotope of oxygen (0.0373% in seawater; approximately twice as abundant as deuterium).
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
The Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT) is the abbreviated name of the 1963 Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water, which prohibited all test detonations of nuclear weapons except for those conducted underground.
A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.
Paul Karl Maria Harteck (20 July 190222 January 1985) was a German physical chemist.
A phosphor, most generally, is a substance that exhibits the phenomenon of luminescence.
The pit, named after the hard core found in fruits such as peaches and apricots, is the core of an implosion nuclear weapon – the fissile material and any neutron reflector or tamper bonded to it.
Plutonium-239 is an isotope of plutonium.
The potential density of a fluid parcel at pressure P is the density that the parcel would acquire if adiabatically brought to a reference pressure P_, often 1 bar (100 kPa).
A pressurized heavy-water reactor (PHWR) is a nuclear reactor, commonly using natural uranium as its fuel, that uses heavy water (deuterium oxide D2O) as its coolant and neutron moderator.
Pressurized water reactors (PWRs) constitute the large majority of the world's nuclear power plants (notable exceptions being the United Kingdom, Japan, and Canada) and are one of three types of light water reactor (LWR), the other types being boiling water reactors (BWRs) and supercritical water reactors (SCWRs).
Radioactive contamination, also called radiological contamination, is the deposition of, or presence of radioactive substances on surfaces or within solids, liquids or gases (including the human body), where their presence is unintended or undesirable (from the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA - definition).
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
A radioactive tracer, or radioactive label, is a chemical compound in which one or more atoms have been replaced by a radionuclide so by virtue of its radioactive decay it can be used to explore the mechanism of chemical reactions by tracing the path that the radioisotope follows from reactants to products.
Radioluminescence is the phenomenon by which light is produced in a material by bombardment with ionizing radiation such as alpha particles, beta particles, or gamma rays.
Radiometric dating or radioactive dating is a technique used to date materials such as rocks or carbon, in which trace radioactive impurities were selectively incorporated when they were formed.
Radium is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88.
For material flowing through a volume, the residence time is a measure of how much time the matter spends in it.
Robert Alden Cornog (July 7, 1912–July 17, 1998), was a physicist and engineer who helped develop the atomic bomb and missile systems from the Snark to the Minuteman.
The roentgen equivalent man (or rem) is an older, CGS unit of equivalent dose, effective dose, and committed dose which are measures of the health effect of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body.
Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).
The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a nuclear reservation in the United States in the state of South Carolina, located on land in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell counties adjacent to the Savannah River, southeast of Augusta, Georgia.
The sievert (symbol: SvNot be confused with the sverdrup or the svedberg, two non-SI units that sometimes use the same symbol.) is a derived unit of ionizing radiation dose in the International System of Units (SI) and is a measure of the health effect of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body.
Specific activity is the activity per quantity of a radionuclide and is a physical property of that radionuclide.
Spent nuclear fuel, occasionally called used nuclear fuel, is nuclear fuel that has been irradiated in a nuclear reactor (usually at a nuclear power plant).
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
START (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty) was a bilateral treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) on the reduction and limitation of strategic offensive arms.
The Strait of Malacca (Selat Melaka, Selat Malaka; Jawi: سلت ملاک) or Straits of Malacca is a narrow, stretch of water between the Malay Peninsula (Peninsular Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra.
The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere.
The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.
The Sulu Sea (Dagat Sulu, Laut Sulu, Mar de Joló) is a body of water in the southwestern area of the Philippines, separated from the South China Sea in the northwest by Palawan and from the Celebes Sea in the southeast by the Sulu Archipelago.
A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction.
A trace radioisotope is a radioisotope that occurs naturally in trace amounts (i.e. extremely small).
Tritiated water is a radioactive form of water where the usual protium atoms are replaced with tritium.
Tritium lumination is the use of gaseous tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, to create visible light.
The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) was a facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory dedicated to the development and demonstration of technologies required for fusion-relevant Deuterium-Tritium processing.
The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.
The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
Uranium-233 is a fissile isotope of uranium that is bred from thorium-232 as part of the thorium fuel cycle.
Uranium-235 (235U) is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium.
Valentia Island (Dairbhre, meaning "The Oak Wood") is one of Ireland's most westerly points.
Variable yield—or dial-a-yield—is an option available on most modern nuclear weapons.
A warhead is the explosive or toxic material that is delivered by a missile, rocket, or torpedo.
A watch is a timepiece intended to be carried or worn by a person.
The water cycle, also known as the hydrological cycle or the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth.
The Watts Bar Nuclear Power Plant is a Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) nuclear reactor pair used for electric power generation.
Willard Frank Libby (December 17, 1908 – September 8, 1980) was an American physical chemist noted for his role in the 1949 development of radiocarbon dating, a process which revolutionized archaeology and palaeontology.
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.
The 35th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 35 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 45th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 45° south of the Earth's equator.