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Index Troy

Troy (Τροία, Troia or Τροίας, Troias and Ἴλιον, Ilion or Ἴλιος, Ilios; Troia and Ilium;Trōia is the typical Latin name for the city. Ilium is a more poetic term: Hittite: Wilusha or Truwisha; Truva or Troya) was a city in the far northwest of the region known in late Classical antiquity as Asia Minor, now known as Anatolia in modern Turkey, near (just south of) the southwest mouth of the Dardanelles strait and northwest of Mount Ida. [1]

212 relations: A Latin Dictionary, Achaeans (Homer), Achilles, Acropolis, Aegean Sea, Aeneas, Aeneid, Aeschylus, Alaksandu, Alexander the Great, Alexandria Troas, Alluvium, American Journal of Archaeology, Anatolia, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Libya, Antigonus I Monophthalmus, Antiochus I Soter, Apamea Myrlea, Arianism, Asgard, Augustus, Ḫattušili III, Æsir, Çanakkale, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Çanakkale Province, Bakırçay, Bard, Bastille, Battle of Corupedium, Biga, Çanakkale, Black Sea, Blurb, Bouleuterion, Bronze Age, Brutus of Troy, Byzantine Empire, C. Brian Rose, Carl Blegen, Cebren, Celtic settlement of Eastern Europe, Chalcedon, Charidemus, Charles Maclaren, Chronicle of Fredegar, Classical antiquity, Constantinople, Consul, Council of Chalcedon, ..., Council of Philippopolis, Council of Serdica, Cyzicus, Dardanelles, Dardanians (Trojan), Dascylium, Deir el-Medina, Delian League, Dercylidas, Digamma, Diocese of Asia, Duris of Samos, Earthquake, Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, Emil Forrer, Epic Cycle, Eratosthenes, First Council of Nicaea, Foot (prosody), Fourth Council of Constantinople (Eastern Orthodox), Frank Calvert, Frank Kolb, Gaius Flavius Fimbria, Geoffrey of Monmouth, Geographica, Geography (Ptolemy), Geological Society of America, Groningen, Hamaxitus, Heinrich Schliemann, Helladic chronology, Hellespontine Phrygia, Herodotus, Herzegovina, Hisarlik, Historia Brittonum, Historicity of Homer, Hittite language, Hittite texts, Homer, House of Bourbon, House of Valois, Iceland, Iliad, Inner Traditions – Bear & Company, Jean Baptiste LeChevalier, John V. Luce, Julio-Claudian dynasty, Julius Caesar, Karamenderes River, Kenneth W. Harl, Koinon, Kolonai, Lampsacus, Larisa (Troad), Lesbos, List of ancient settlements in Turkey, List of cities of the ancient Near East, List of legendary kings of Britain, Lists of World Heritage Sites in Europe, Lucius Julius Caesar (consul 64 BC), Lucullus, Luwians, Lysimachia (Thrace), Lysimachus, Manapa-Tarhunta letter, Manfred Korfmann, Megaron, Memnon (mythology), Menon (Trojan), Merneptah, Merneptah Stele, Metre (poetry), Middle Bronze Age migrations (Ancient Near East), Mount Ida (Turkey), Muršili II, Museum Island, Muwatalli II, Mycenaean Greece, Mysia, Mytilene, Mytilenean revolt, Natural History (Pliny), Nature (journal), Neandreia, New Kingdom of Egypt, Nicaea, Nicolas Fréret, Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt, Norse mythology, Odyssey, Oresteia, Oreus, Origin myth, Paris (mythology), Patroclus, Peace of Antalcidas, Pergamon, Pharnabazus II, Photios I of Constantinople, Pierre Belon, Pietro Della Valle, Pliny the Elder, Pompey, Priam, Priam's Treasure, Prose Edda, Proxeny, Ptolemy Keraunos, Ramesses III, Rochester, Vermont, Roman de Troie, Roman emperor, Roman province, Romulus and Remus, San Antonio, Scamander, Scandinavia, Sea of Marmara, Sea Peoples, Second Council of Constantinople, Second Council of Nicaea, Seleucus I Nicator, Skepsis, Snorri Sturluson, Society of Jesus, Strabo, Strait, Suffragan bishop, Sulla, Switzerland, Synoecism, Tawagalawa letter, The Baltic Origins of Homer's Epic Tales, The Golden Bough (mythology), Thor, Titular bishop, Titular see, Topography, Trafford Publishing, Trevor R. Bryce, Trinity College Dublin, Troad, Trojan language, Trojan War, Troy VII, Turkey, Twentieth Dynasty of Egypt, United Kingdom, University of Cincinnati, University of Delaware, University of Tübingen, Víðarr, Victoria, British Columbia, Virgil, Water tunnel (physical infrastructure), Where Troy Once Stood, Wilhelm Dörpfeld, Wilusa, World Heritage Committee, World Heritage site, Xerxes I. Expand index (162 more) »

A Latin Dictionary

A Latin Dictionary (or Harpers' Latin Dictionary, often referred to as Lewis and Short or L&S) is a popular English-language lexicographical work of the Latin language, published by Harper and Brothers of New York in 1879 and printed simultaneously in the United Kingdom by Oxford University Press.

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Achaeans (Homer)

The Achaeans (Ἀχαιοί Akhaioí, "the Achaeans" or "of Achaea") constitute one of the collective names for the Greeks in Homer's Iliad (used 598 times) and Odyssey.

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In Greek mythology, Achilles or Achilleus (Ἀχιλλεύς, Achilleus) was a Greek hero of the Trojan War and the central character and greatest warrior of Homer's Iliad.

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An acropolis (Ancient Greek: ἀκρόπολις, tr. Akrópolis; from ákros (άκρος) or ákron (άκρον) "highest, topmost, outermost" and pólis "city"; plural in English: acropoles, acropoleis or acropolises) is a settlement, especially a citadel, built upon an area of elevated ground—frequently a hill with precipitous sides, chosen for purposes of defense.

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Aegean Sea

The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.

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In Greco-Roman mythology, Aeneas (Greek: Αἰνείας, Aineías, possibly derived from Greek αἰνή meaning "praised") was a Trojan hero, the son of the prince Anchises and the goddess Aphrodite (Venus).

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The Aeneid (Aeneis) is a Latin epic poem, written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC, that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans.

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Aeschylus (Αἰσχύλος Aiskhulos;; c. 525/524 – c. 456/455 BC) was an ancient Greek tragedian.

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Alaksandu or Alaksandus was a king of Wilusa who sealed a treaty with Hittite king Muwatalli II ca.

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Alexander the Great

Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.

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Alexandria Troas

Alexandria Troas ("Alexandria of the Troad"; Αλεξάνδρεια Τρωάς; Eski Stambul) is the site of an ancient Greek city situated on the Aegean Sea near the northern tip of Turkey's western coast, a little south of Tenedos (modern Bozcaada).

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Alluvium (from the Latin alluvius, from alluere, "to wash against") is loose, unconsolidated (not cemented together into a solid rock) soil or sediments, which has been eroded, reshaped by water in some form, and redeposited in a non-marine setting.

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American Journal of Archaeology

The American Journal of Archaeology (AJA), the peer-reviewed journal of the Archaeological Institute of America, has been published since 1897 (continuing the American Journal of Archaeology and of the History of the Fine Arts founded by the institute in 1885).

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Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Ancient Libya

The Latin name Libya (from Greek Λιβύη, Libyē) referred to the region west of the Nile generally corresponding to the modern Maghreb.

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Antigonus I Monophthalmus

Antigonus I Monophthalmus (Antigonos ho Monophthalmos, Antigonus the One-eyed, 382–301 BC), son of Philip from Elimeia, was a Macedonian nobleman, general, and satrap under Alexander the Great.

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Antiochus I Soter

Antiochus I Soter (Ἀντίοχος Α΄ ὁ Σωτήρ; epithet means "the Saviour"; c. 324/3261 BC), was a king of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire.

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Apamea Myrlea

Apamea Myrlea (Απάμεια Μύρλεια) was an ancient city and bishopric (Apamea in Bithynia) on the Sea of Marmara, in Bithynia, Anatolia; its ruins are a few kilometers south of Mudanya, Bursa Province in the Marmara Region of Asian Turkey.

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Arianism is a nontrinitarian Christological doctrine which asserts the belief that Jesus Christ is the Son of God who was begotten by God the Father at a point in time, a creature distinct from the Father and is therefore subordinate to him, but the Son is also God (i.e. God the Son).

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In Norse religion, Asgard ("Enclosure of the Æsir") is one of the Nine Worlds and home to the Æsir tribe of gods.

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Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.

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Ḫattušili III

Hattusili III (Hittite: "from Hattusa") was king of the Hittite empire (New Kingdom) c. 1267–1237 BC (short chronology timeline).

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In Old Norse, ǫ́ss (or áss, ás, plural æsir; feminine ásynja, plural ásynjur) is a member of the principal pantheon in Norse religion.

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Çanakkale (pronounced) is a city and seaport in Turkey, in Çanakkale Province, on the southern (Asian) coast of the Dardanelles at their narrowest point.

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Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University

Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University (informally ÇOMÜ) is a Turkish public research university located in Çanakkale (Dardannelles) province (near Gallipoli) and its surrounding towns.

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Çanakkale Province

Çanakkale Province (Çanakkale ili) is a province of Turkey, located in the northwestern part of the country. It takes its name from the city of Çanakkale. Like Istanbul, Çanakkale province has a European (Thrace) and an Asian (Anatolia) part. The European part is formed by the Gallipoli (Gelibolu) peninsula, while the Asian part is largely coterminous with the historic region of Troad in Anatolia. They are separated by the Dardanelles strait, connecting the Sea of Marmara and the Aegean Sea. The archaeological site of Troy is found in Çanakkale province.

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Bakırçay (Latin name: Caicus, also Caecus;, transliterated as Kaïkos; formerly Astraeus) is the current name of a river of Asia Minor that rises in the Temnus mountains and flows through Lydia, Mysia, and Aeolis before it debouches into the Elaitic Gulf.

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In medieval Gaelic and British culture, a bard was a professional story teller, verse-maker and music composer, employed by a patron (such as a monarch or noble), to commemorate one or more of the patron's ancestors and to praise the patron's own activities.

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The Bastille was a fortress in Paris, known formally as the Bastille Saint-Antoine.

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Battle of Corupedium

The Battle of Corupedium, also called Corupedion or Curupedion (Κύρου πεδίον or Κόρου πεδίον, "the plain of Kyros or Koros") is the name of the last battle of the Diadochi, the rival successors to Alexander the Great.

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Biga, Çanakkale

Biga is a town and district of Çanakkale Province in the Marmara region of Turkey.

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Black Sea

The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.

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A blurb is a short promotional piece accompanying a creative work.

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A bouleuterion (βουλευτήριον, bouleutērion), also translated as and was a building in ancient Greece which housed the council of citizens (βουλή, boulē) of a democratic city state.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Brutus of Troy

Brutus, or Brute of Troy, is a legendary descendant of the Trojan hero Aeneas, known in medieval British history as the eponymous founder and first king of Britain.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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C. Brian Rose

Charles Brian Rose is an American archaeologist, classical scholar, and author.

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Carl Blegen

Carl William Blegen (January 27, 1887 – August 24, 1971) was an American archaeologist who worked on the site of Pylos in Greece and Troy in modern-day Turkey.

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Cebren was a Greek river-god, whose river was located near Troy.

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Celtic settlement of Eastern Europe

Gallic groups, originating from the various La Tène chiefdoms, began a south-eastern movement into the Balkan peninsula from the 4th century BC.

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Chalcedon (or;, sometimes transliterated as Chalkedon) was an ancient maritime town of Bithynia, in Asia Minor.

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Charidemus (Χαρίδημος), of Oreus in Euboea, was a Greek mercenary leader of the 4th century BC.

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Charles Maclaren

Charles Maclaren (7 October 1782 – 10 September 1866) was a Scottish journalist and geologist.

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Chronicle of Fredegar

The Chronicle of Fredegar is the conventional title used for a 7th-century Frankish chronicle that was probably written in Burgundy.

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Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.

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Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.

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Consul (abbrev. cos.; Latin plural consules) was the title of one of the chief magistrates of the Roman Republic, and subsequently a somewhat significant title under the Roman Empire.

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Council of Chalcedon

The Council of Chalcedon was a church council held from October 8 to November 1, AD 451, at Chalcedon.

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Council of Philippopolis

The Council of Philippopolis in 343, 344, or 347 was a result of Arian bishops from the Eastern Roman Empire leaving the Council of Sardica to form their own counter council.

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Council of Serdica

The Council of Serdica, or Synod of Serdica (also Sardica), was a synod convened in 343 at Serdica in the civil diocese of Dacia, by Roman dominate Emperors Constans I, augustus in the West, and Constantius II, augustus in the East.

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Cyzicus (Κύζικος Kyzikos; آیدینجق, Aydıncıḳ) was an ancient town of Mysia in Anatolia in the current Balıkesir Province of Turkey.

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The Dardanelles (Çanakkale Boğazı, translit), also known from Classical Antiquity as the Hellespont (Ἑλλήσποντος, Hellespontos, literally "Sea of Helle"), is a narrow, natural strait and internationally-significant waterway in northwestern Turkey that forms part of the continental boundary between Europe and Asia, and separates Asian Turkey from European Turkey.

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Dardanians (Trojan)

The Dardanoi (Δάρδανοι; its anglicized modern terms being Dardanians or Dardans) in classical writings were either the same people as, or a people closely related to, the Trojans, an ancient people of the Troad, located in northwestern Anatolia.

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Dascylium (Δασκύλιον, Δασκυλεῖον) was a town in Anatolia some 30 kilometres inland from the coast of the Propontis, at modern Ergili, Turkey.

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Deir el-Medina

Deir el-Medina (دير المدينة) is an ancient Egyptian village which was home to the artisans who worked on the tombs in the Valley of the Kings during the 18th to 20th dynasties of the New Kingdom period (ca. 1550–1080 BC)Oakes, p. 110 The settlement's ancient name was "Set Maat" (translated as "The Place of Truth"), and the workmen who lived there were called “Servants in the Place of Truth”.

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Delian League

The Delian League, founded in 478 BC, was an association of Greek city-states, with the amount of members numbering between 150 to 330under the leadership of Athens, whose purpose was to continue fighting the Persian Empire after the Greek victory in the Battle of Plataea at the end of the Second Persian invasion of Greece.

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Dercylidas (Greek: Δερκυλίδας) was a Spartan commander during the 4th century BC.

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Digamma, waw, or wau (uppercase: Ϝ, lowercase: ϝ, numeral: ϛ) is an archaic letter of the Greek alphabet.

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Diocese of Asia

The Diocese of Asia (Dioecesis Asiana, Διοίκησις Ασίας/Ασιανής) was a diocese of the later Roman Empire, incorporating the provinces of western Asia Minor and the islands of the eastern Aegean Sea.

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Duris of Samos

Duris of Samos (Δοῦρις ὁ Σάμιος; BCafter 281BC) was a Greek historian and was at some period tyrant of Samos.

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An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.

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Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople

The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople (Οἰκουμενικόν Πατριαρχεῖον Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Oikoumenikón Patriarkhíon Konstantinoupóleos,; Patriarchatus Oecumenicus Constantinopolitanus; Rum Ortodoks Patrikhanesi, "Roman Orthodox Patriarchate") is one of the fourteen autocephalous churches (or "jurisdictions") that together compose the Eastern Orthodox Church.

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Emil Forrer

Emil Orgetorix Gustav Forrer (also Emilio O. Forrer;; 19 February 1894, Straßburg, Alsace-Lorraine – 10 January 1986, San Salvador) was a Swiss Assyriologist and pioneering Hittitologist.

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Epic Cycle

The Epic Cycle (Ἐπικὸς Κύκλος, Epikos Kyklos) was a collection of Ancient Greek epic poems, composed in dactylic hexameter and related to the story of the Trojan War, including the Cypria, the Aethiopis, the so-called Little Iliad, the Iliupersis, the Nostoi, and the Telegony.

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Eratosthenes of Cyrene (Ἐρατοσθένης ὁ Κυρηναῖος,; –) was a Greek mathematician, geographer, poet, astronomer, and music theorist.

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First Council of Nicaea

The First Council of Nicaea (Νίκαια) was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea (now İznik, Bursa province, Turkey) by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325.

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Foot (prosody)

The foot is the basic repeating rhythmic unit that forms part of a line of verse in most Western traditions of poetry, including English accentual-syllabic verse and the quantitative meter of classical ancient Greek and Latin poetry.

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Fourth Council of Constantinople (Eastern Orthodox)

The Fourth Council of Constantinople was held in 879–880.

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Frank Calvert

Frank Calvert (1828–1908) was an English expatriate who was a consular official in the eastern Mediterranean region and an amateur archaeologist.

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Frank Kolb

Frank Kolb (born February 27, 1945 in Rheinbach, North Rhine-Westphalia) is a German professor of ancient history at the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen in Germany.

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Gaius Flavius Fimbria

Gaius Flavius Fimbria (died 84 BC) was a Roman politician and a violent partisan of Gaius Marius.

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Geoffrey of Monmouth

Geoffrey of Monmouth (Galfridus Monemutensis, Galfridus Arturus, Gruffudd ap Arthur, Sieffre o Fynwy; c. 1095 – c. 1155) was a British cleric and one of the major figures in the development of British historiography and the popularity of tales of King Arthur.

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The Geographica (Ancient Greek: Γεωγραφικά Geōgraphiká), or Geography, is an encyclopedia of geographical knowledge, consisting of 17 'books', written in Greek by Strabo, an educated citizen of the Roman Empire of Greek descent.

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Geography (Ptolemy)

The Geography (Γεωγραφικὴ Ὑφήγησις, Geōgraphikḕ Hyphḗgēsis, "Geographical Guidance"), also known by its Latin names as the Geographia and the Cosmographia, is a gazetteer, an atlas, and a treatise on cartography, compiling the geographical knowledge of the 2nd-century Roman Empire.

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Geological Society of America

The Geological Society of America (GSA) is a nonprofit organization dedicated to the advancement of the geosciences.

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Groningen (Gronings: Grunnen) is the main municipality as well as the capital city of the eponymous province in the Netherlands.

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Hamaxitus (Hamaxitos) was an ancient Greek city in the south-west of the Troad region of Anatolia which was considered to mark the boundary between the Troad and Aeolis.

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Heinrich Schliemann

Heinrich Schliemann (6 January 1822 – 26 December 1890) was a German businessman and a pioneer in the field of archaeology.

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Helladic chronology

Helladic chronology is a relative dating system used in archaeology and art history.

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Hellespontine Phrygia

Hellespontine Phrygia (Ἑλλησποντιακὴ Φρυγία, Hellēspontiakē Phrygia) or Lesser Phrygia (μικρᾶ Φρυγία, mikra Phrygia) was a Persian satrapy (province) in northwestern Anatolia, directly southeast of the Hellespont.

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Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.

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Herzegovina (or; Serbian: Hercegovina, Херцеговина) is the southern region of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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Hisarlik (Turkish: Hisarlık, "Place of Fortresses"), often spelled Hissarlik, is the modern name for the generally agreed-upon site of ancient Troy, also known as Ilion, and is located in what is now Turkey (historically Anatolia) near to the modern city of Çanakkale.

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Historia Brittonum

The History of the Britons (Historia Brittonum) is a purported history of the indigenous British (Brittonic) people that was written around 828 and survives in numerous recensions that date from after the 11th century.

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Historicity of Homer

The extent of the historical basis of the Homeric epics has been a topic of scholarly debate for centuries.

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Hittite language

Hittite (natively " of Neša"), also known as Nesite and Neshite, is an Indo-European-language that was spoken by the Hittites, a people of Bronze Age Anatolia who created an empire, centred on Hattusa.

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Hittite texts

The corpus of texts written in the Hittite language is indexed by the Catalogue des Textes Hittites (CTH, since 1971).

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Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.

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House of Bourbon

The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.

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House of Valois

The House of Valois was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty.

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Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.

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The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.

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Inner Traditions – Bear & Company

Inner Traditions – Bear & Company, also known as Inner Traditions, is a book publisher founded by Ehud Sperling in 1975 and based in Rochester, Vermont in the United States.

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Jean Baptiste LeChevalier

Jean Baptiste LeChevalier (July 1 1752 in Trelly, Manche department to July 2 1836 in Paris, Saint-Étienne-du-Mont) was a French scholar, astronomer and archaeologist.

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John V. Luce

John Victor Luce (21 May 1920 – 11 February 2011) was an Irish classicist, former professor and emeritus Fellow of Classics at Trinity College, Dublin.

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Julio-Claudian dynasty

The Julio-Claudian dynasty was the first Roman imperial dynasty, consisting of the first five emperors—Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero—or the family to which they belonged.

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Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.

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Karamenderes River

Karamenderes is the modern name of the river Scamander, along the lower course of which, according to the Iliad, the battles of the Trojan War were fought.

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Kenneth W. Harl

Kenneth W. Harl is an American scholar, author and classicist.

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Koinon (Κοινόν, pl. Κοινά, Koina), meaning "common," in the sense of "public," had many interpretations, some societal, some governmental.

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Kolonai (hai Kolōnai) was an ancient Greek city in the south-west of the Troad region of Anatolia.

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Lampsacus (translit) was an ancient Greek city strategically located on the eastern side of the Hellespont in the northern Troad.

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Larisa (Troad)

Larisa (Larisa) was an ancient Greek city in the south-west of the Troad region of Anatolia.

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Lesbos (Λέσβος), or Lezbolar in Turkish sometimes referred to as Mytilene after its capital, is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea.

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List of ancient settlements in Turkey

Below is the list of ancient settlements in Turkey.

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List of cities of the ancient Near East

The earliest cities in history appear in the ancient Near East.

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List of legendary kings of Britain

The following list of legendary kings of Britain derives predominantly from Geoffrey of Monmouth's circa 1136 work Historia Regum Britanniae ("the History of the Kings of Britain").

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Lists of World Heritage Sites in Europe

The following are lists of World Heritage Sites in Europe.

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Lucius Julius Caesar (consul 64 BC)

Lucius Julius Caesar (fl. 1st century BC) was a Roman politician and senator who was elected consul of the Roman Republic in 64 BC.

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Lucius Licinius Lucullus (118 – 57/56 BC) was an optimate politician of the late Roman Republic, closely connected with Lucius Cornelius Sulla.

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The Luwians were a group of Indo-European speaking people who lived in central, western, and southern Asia Minor as well as the northern part of western Levant in the Bronze Age and the Iron Age.

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Lysimachia (Thrace)

Lysimachia (Λυσιμάχεια) was an important Hellenistic Greek town on the north-western extremity of the Thracian Chersonese (the modern Gallipoli peninsula) in the neck where the peninsula joins the mainland in what is now the European part of Turkey, not far from the bay of Melas (the modern Gulf of Saros).

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Lysimachus (Greek: Λυσίμαχος, Lysimachos; c. 360 BC – 281 BC) was a Macedonian officer and diadochus (i.e. "successor") of Alexander the Great, who became a basileus ("King") in 306 BC, ruling Thrace, Asia Minor and Macedon.

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Manapa-Tarhunta letter

The Manapa-Tarhunta letter (CTH 191; KUB 19.5 + KBo 19.79) is a Hittite letter discovered in the 1980s.

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Manfred Korfmann

Manfred Osman Korfmann (April 26, 1942 in Cologne – August 11, 2005, in Ofterdingen, Baden-Württemberg) was a German archaeologist.

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The megaron (μέγαρον), plural megara, was the great hall in ancient Greek palace complexes.

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Memnon (mythology)

In Greek mythology, Memnon (Μέμνων) was an Ethiopian king and son of Tithonus and Eos.

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Menon (Trojan)

Menon (in Greek Mένων) was a Trojan soldier killed by Leonteus in the Trojan War as detailed by Homer in the Iliad (XII.201).

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Merneptah or Merenptah was the fourth ruler of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt.

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Merneptah Stele

The Merneptah Stele—also known as the Israel Stele or the Victory Stele of Merneptah—is an inscription by the ancient Egyptian king Merneptah (reign: 1213 to 1203 BC) discovered by Flinders Petrie in 1896 at Thebes, and now housed in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.

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Metre (poetry)

In poetry, metre is the basic rhythmic structure of a verse or lines in verse.

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Middle Bronze Age migrations (Ancient Near East)

Various and currently outdated theories have been proposed that postulate waves of migration during the Middle Bronze Age in the Ancient Near East.

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Mount Ida (Turkey)

Mount Ida (Kazdağı, pronounced, meaning "Goose Mountain", Kaz Dağları, or Karataş Tepesi) is a mountain in northwestern Turkey, some 20 miles southeast of the ruins of Troy, along the north coast of the.

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Muršili II

Mursili II (also spelled Mursilis II) was a king of the Hittite Empire (New kingdom) c. 1321–1295 BC (short chronology).

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Museum Island

Museum Island (Museumsinsel) is the name of the northern half of an island in the Spree river in the central Mitte district of Berlin, Germany, the site of the old city of Cölln.

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Muwatalli II

Muwatalli II (also Muwatallis, or Muwatallish) was a king of the New Kingdom of the Hittite empire (c. 1295–1272 BC (short chronology)).

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Mycenaean Greece

Mycenaean Greece (or Mycenaean civilization) was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece, spanning the period from approximately 1600–1100 BC.

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Mysia (UK, US or; Μυσία, Mysia, Misya) was a region in the northwest of ancient Asia Minor (Anatolia, Asian part of modern Turkey).

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Mytilene (Μυτιλήνη) is a city founded in the 11th century BC.

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Mytilenean revolt

The Mytilenean revolt was an incident in the Peloponnesian War in which the city of Mytilene attempted to unify the island of Lesbos under its control and revolt from the Athenian Empire.

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Natural History (Pliny)

The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Neandreia (Ancient Greek Νεάνδρεια) was a Greek city in the south-west of the Troad region of Anatolia.

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New Kingdom of Egypt

The New Kingdom, also referred to as the Egyptian Empire, is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the 18th, 19th, and 20th dynasties of Egypt.

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Nicaea or Nicea (Νίκαια, Níkaia; İznik) was an ancient city in northwestern Anatolia, and is primarily known as the site of the First and Second Councils of Nicaea (the first and seventh Ecumenical councils in the early history of the Christian Church), the Nicene Creed (which comes from the First Council), and as the capital city of the Empire of Nicaea following the Fourth Crusade in 1204, until the recapture of Constantinople by the Byzantines in 1261.

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Nicolas Fréret

Nicolas Fréret (15 February 1688 – 8 March 1749) was a French scholar.

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Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt

The Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XIX, alternatively 19th Dynasty or Dynasty 19) is classified as the second Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian New Kingdom period, lasting from 1292 BC to 1189 BC.

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Norse mythology

Norse mythology is the body of myths of the North Germanic people stemming from Norse paganism and continuing after the Christianization of Scandinavia and into the Scandinavian folklore of the modern period.

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The Odyssey (Ὀδύσσεια Odýsseia, in Classical Attic) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer.

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The Oresteia (Ὀρέστεια) is a trilogy of Greek tragedies written by Aeschylus in the 5th century BC, concerning the murder of Agamemnon by Clytaemnestra, the murder of Clytaemnestra by Orestes, the trial of Orestes, the end of the curse on the House of Atreus and pacification of the Erinyes.

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Oreus (Ὠρεός - Ōreos), known before the 5th century BC as Histiaea (Ἱστίαια - Histiaia), was an ancient town on the island of Euboea, Greece.

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Origin myth

An origin myth is a myth that purports to describe the origin of some feature of the natural or social world.

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Paris (mythology)

Paris (Πάρις), also known as Alexander (Ἀλέξανδρος, Aléxandros), the son of King Priam and Queen Hecuba of Troy, appears in a number of Greek legends.

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In Greek mythology, as recorded in Homer's Iliad, Patroclus (Πάτροκλος, Pátroklos, "glory of the father") was the son of Menoetius, grandson of Actor, King of Opus.

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Peace of Antalcidas

The King's Peace (387 BC), also known as the Peace of Antalcidas, was a peace treaty guaranteed by the Persian King Artaxerxes II that ended the Corinthian War in ancient Greece.

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Pergamon, or Pergamum (τὸ Πέργαμον or ἡ Πέργαμος), was a rich and powerful ancient Greek city in Aeolis.

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Pharnabazus II

Pharnabazus II was a Persian soldier and statesman.

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Photios I of Constantinople

Photios I (Φώτιος Phōtios), (c. 810/820 – 6 February 893), also spelled PhotiusFr.

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Pierre Belon

Pierre Belon (1517–1564) was a French traveler, naturalist, writer and diplomat.

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Pietro Della Valle

Pietro della Valle (2 April 1586 – 21 April 1652) was an Italian composer, musicologist, and author who traveled throughout Asia during the Renaissance period.

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Pliny the Elder

Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.

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Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), usually known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic.

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In Greek mythology, Priam (Πρίαμος, Príamos) was the king of Troy during the Trojan War and youngest son of Laomedon.

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Priam's Treasure

Priam’s Treasure is a cache of gold and other artifacts discovered by classical archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann.

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Prose Edda

The Prose Edda, also known as the Younger Edda, Snorri's Edda (Snorra Edda) or, historically, simply as Edda, is an Old Norse work of literature written in Iceland in the early 13th century.

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Proxeny or proxenia (προξενία) in ancient Greece was an arrangement whereby a citizen (chosen by the city) hosted foreign ambassadors at his own expense, in return for honorary titles from the state.

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Ptolemy Keraunos

Ptolemy Keraunos (Πτολεμαῖος Κεραυνός, after 321 BC – 279 BC) was the King of Macedon from 281 BC to 279 BC.

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Ramesses III

Usermaatre Ramesses III (also written Ramses and Rameses) was the second Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt.

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Rochester, Vermont

Rochester is a town in Windsor County, Vermont, United States.

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Roman de Troie

Le Roman de Troie (The Romance of Troy) by Benoît de Sainte-Maure, probably written between 1155 and 1160,Roberto Antonelli "The Birth of Criseyde - An Exemplary Triangle: 'Classical' Troilus and the Question of Love at the Anglo-Norman Court" in Boitani, P. (ed) The European Tragedy of Troilus (Oxford: Clarendon Press) 1989 pp.21-48.

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Roman emperor

The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).

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Roman province

In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the Tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.

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Romulus and Remus

In Roman mythology, Romulus and Remus are twin brothers, whose story tells the events that led to the founding of the city of Rome and the Roman Kingdom by Romulus.

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San Antonio

San Antonio (Spanish for "Saint Anthony"), officially the City of San Antonio, is the seventh most populous city in the United States and the second most populous city in both Texas and the Southern United States.

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Scamander, Skamandros (Ancient Greek: Σκάμανδρος) Xanthos (Ξάνθος), was the name of a river god in Greek mythology.

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Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.

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Sea of Marmara

The Sea of Marmara (Marmara Denizi), also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea, and in the context of classical antiquity as the Propontis is the inland sea, entirely within the borders of Turkey, that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating Turkey's Asian and European parts.

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Sea Peoples

The Sea Peoples are a purported seafaring confederation that attacked ancient Egypt and other regions of the East Mediterranean prior to and during the Late Bronze Age collapse (1200–900 BC).

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Second Council of Constantinople

The Second Council of Constantinople is the fifth of the first seven ecumenical councils recognized by both the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church.

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Second Council of Nicaea

The Second Council of Nicaea is recognized as the last of the first seven ecumenical councils by the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church.

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Seleucus I Nicator

Seleucus I Nicator (Σέλευκος Α΄ Νικάτωρ Séleukos Α΄ Nikátōr; "Seleucus the Victor") was one of the Diadochi.

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Skepsis or Scepsis (Σκέψις) was an ancient settlement in the Troad, Asia Minor that is at the present site of the village of Kurşunlutepe, near the town of Bayramiç in Turkey.

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Snorri Sturluson

Snorri Sturluson (1179 – 23 September 1241) was an Icelandic historian, poet, and politician.

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Society of Jesus

The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.

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Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.

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A strait is a naturally formed, narrow, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water.

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Suffragan bishop

A suffragan bishop is a bishop subordinate to a metropolitan bishop or diocesan bishop.

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Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (c. 138 BC – 78 BC), known commonly as Sulla, was a Roman general and statesman.

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Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Synoecism or synecism (συνοικισμóς, sunoikismos), also spelled synoikism, was originally the amalgamation of villages in Ancient Greece into poleis, or city-states.

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Tawagalawa letter

The Tawagalawa letter (CTH 181) was written by a Hittite king (generally accepted as Hattusili III) to a king of Ahhiyawa around 1250 BC.

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The Baltic Origins of Homer's Epic Tales

The Baltic Origins of Homer's Epic Tales is an essay written by Felice Vinci, a nuclear engineer and amateur historian, published for the first time in 1995.

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The Golden Bough (mythology)

The Golden Bough is one of the episodic tales written in the epic Aeneid, book VI, by the Roman poet Virgil (70–19 BC), which narrates the adventures of the Trojan hero Aeneas after the Trojan War.

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In Norse mythology, Thor (from Þórr) is the hammer-wielding god of thunder, lightning, storms, oak trees, strength, the protection of mankind, in addition to hallowing, and fertility.

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Titular bishop

A titular bishop in various churches is a bishop who is not in charge of a diocese.

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Titular see

A titular see in various churches is an episcopal see of a former diocese that no longer functions, sometimes called a "dead diocese".

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Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids.

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Trafford Publishing

Trafford Publishing is a company for self publishing using print on demand technology, formerly based in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, and now based in Bloomington, Indiana, USA.

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Trevor R. Bryce

Trevor Robert Bryce (born 1940) is an Australian Hittitologist specializing in ancient and classical Near-eastern history.

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Trinity College Dublin

Trinity College (Coláiste na Tríonóide), officially the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, is the sole constituent college of the University of Dublin, a research university located in Dublin, Ireland.

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The Troada or Troad (Anglicized; or; Τρωάδα, Troáda), or Troas (Τρωάς, Troás), is the historical name of the Biga Peninsula (modern Turkish: Biga Yarımadası) in the northwestern part of Anatolia, Turkey.

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Trojan language

The language spoken by the Trojans in the Iliad is Homeric Greek.

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Trojan War

In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans (Greeks) after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus, king of Sparta.

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Troy VII

Troy VII, in the mound at Hisarlik, is an archaeological layer of Troy that chronologically spans from c. 1300 to c. 950 BC.

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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Twentieth Dynasty of Egypt

The Twentieth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XX, alternatively 20th Dynasty or Dynasty 20) is classified as the third and last dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian New Kingdom period, lasting from 1189 BC to 1077 BC.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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University of Cincinnati

The University of Cincinnati (commonly referred to as UC or Cincinnati) is a comprehensive public research university in Cincinnati, in the U.S. state of Ohio, and a part of the University System of Ohio.

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University of Delaware

The University of Delaware (colloquially UD, UDel, or U of D) is a public research university located in Newark, Delaware.

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University of Tübingen

The University of Tübingen, officially the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen (Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen; Universitas Eberhardina Carolina), is a German public research university located in the city of Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg.

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In Norse mythology, Víðarr (Old Norse, possibly "wide ruler",Orchard (1997:174—175). sometimes anglicized as Vidar, Vithar, Vidarr, and Vitharr) is a god among the Æsir associated with vengeance.

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Victoria, British Columbia

Victoria, the capital city of the Canadian province of British Columbia, is on the southern tip of Vancouver Island off Canada's Pacific coast.

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Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.

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Water tunnel (physical infrastructure)

Water tunnels are tunnels (below-ground channels) used to transport water to areas with large populations or agriculture.

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Where Troy Once Stood

Where Troy Once Stood is a 1990 book by Iman Wilkens that argues that the city of Troy was located in England and that the Trojan War was fought between groups of Celts.

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Wilhelm Dörpfeld

Wilhelm Dörpfeld (26 December 1853 – 25 April 1940) was a German architect and archaeologist, a pioneer of stratigraphic excavation and precise graphical documentation of archaeological projects.

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Wilusa, (𒌷𒃾𒇻𒊭) or Wilusiya, was a major city of the late Bronze Age in western Anatolia.

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World Heritage Committee

The World Heritage Committee selects the sites to be listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including the World Heritage List and the List of World Heritage in Danger, monitors the state of conservation of the World Heritage properties, defines the use of the World Heritage Fund and allocates financial assistance upon requests from States Parties.

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World Heritage site

A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.

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Xerxes I

Xerxes I (𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠 x-š-y-a-r-š-a Xšayaṛša "ruling over heroes", Greek Ξέρξης; 519–465 BC), called Xerxes the Great, was the fourth king of kings of the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia.

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Ancient Troya National Park, Archaeological Site of Troy, City of Troy, Classical troy, Fortifications of Troy, Homeric troy, Iliam, Ilion (Asia Minor), Ilion (extinct city), Ilios, Ilios (Asia Minor), Ilios (extinct city), Ilium (Asia Minor), People of Troy, TROY, Teukroi, Troias, Troie, Trojan people, Troy (Asia Minor), Troy (Extinct city), Troy (mythology), Troy Ilium, Troy VIII, Troía, Troías, Truva, Wilusha, Ílion (Asia Minor), Ílion (extinct city), Ílios.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Troy

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