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Index Truth

Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard. [1]

325 relations: Abrahamic religions, Absolute (philosophy), Agglutinative language, Alan Turing, Aletheia, Alfred North Whitehead, Alfred Tarski, Alonzo Church, Analytic–synthetic distinction, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Egyptian religion, Ancient Greece, Anthony F. C. Wallace, Aristotle, Arthur Burks, Arthur Schopenhauer, Asha, Aufheben, Augustine of Hippo, Authenticity (philosophy), Avicenna, Axiom, Bad faith, Baruch Spinoza, Being and Time, Belief, Bertrand Russell, Beyond Good and Evil, Boolean algebra, Brand Blanshard, C. J. F. Williams, Carl Gustav Hempel, Charles Hartshorne, Charles Sanders Peirce, Charles Sanders Peirce bibliography, Chivalric romance, Christianity, Church–Turing thesis, Code of Ur-Nammu, Coherence theory of truth, Coherentism, Comprehension (logic), Concept, Confirmation holism, Consensus theory of truth, Consistency, Constructivist epistemology, Contextualism, Continuous or discrete variable, Continuum hypothesis, ..., Contradiction, Cornel West, Correspondence theory of truth, Crispin Wright, Criteria of truth, Critique of Pure Reason, Dagobert D. Runes, David Pears, Debate, Deductive reasoning, Deflationary theory of truth, Degree of truth, Deity, Derek Pearsall, Diagonal lemma, Dialectic, Diophantine equation, Discovery (observation), Disposition, Divine judgment, Donald Davidson (philosopher), Doubt, Early Islamic philosophy, Ecclesiastes, Eclecticism, Empirical evidence, Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Episteme, Epistemic theories of truth, Epistemology, Erich Fromm, Essence, Existence, F. H. Bradley, Fact, Factual relativism, Fallibilism, Falsity, Finite-valued logic, Formal language, Formal system, Frank P. Ramsey, Friedrich Nietzsche, Fuzzy logic, Gödel's incompleteness theorems, Gender, Geometry, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, German language, Giambattista Vico, God, Good faith, Gothic language, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Gottlob Frege, Greek language, Hadith, Half-truth, Harold H. Joachim, Hartry Field, Heinemann (publisher), Heinrich Moritz Chalybäus, Hilbert's problems, Hilbert's program, Hilbert's tenth problem, Hinduism, Holtzmann's law, Human sexuality, Hypochondriasis, Iconoclasm, Ideal speech situation, Imagination, Immanuel Kant, Independence (mathematical logic), Independence (probability theory), India, Inductive reasoning, Infinite-valued logic, Information, Inquiry, Intellect, Intelligence, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Interpretation (logic), Invariant (mathematics), Isaac Israeli ben Solomon, Islam, J. L. Austin, James Hayden Tufts, James Mark Baldwin, Jürgen Habermas, Jean Baudrillard, John Dewey, John Rajchman, John Rawls, Journalism, Judaism, Judgement, Karl Marx, Karl Popper, Karl-Otto Apel, Kitaro Nishida, Knowledge, Kurt Gödel, Language, Latin, Law, Law of noncontradiction, Liar paradox, Lie, Loeb Classical Library, Logic, Logical intuition, Logical positivism, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Manusmriti, Many-valued logic, Mark Poster, Martha Kneale, Martin Heidegger, Mathematical logic, Mathematics, McNamara fallacy, Mechanics, Metaphysics, Metaphysics (Aristotle), Michael P. Lynch, Michael Polanyi, Michel Foucault, Middle Ages, Middle English, Model theory, Modern Language Review, Modernity, Moral skepticism, Muhammad, Natural environment, Natural philosophy, Necessity and sufficiency, Neoplatonism, New High German, Nicholas Rescher, Ninian Smart, Noam Chomsky, Non-Euclidean geometry, Normative science, North Germanic languages, Nuel Belnap, Object (philosophy), Objectivity (philosophy), Old English, Old High German, Old Norse, Old Saxon, On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason, On the Soul, On Truth and Lies in a Nonmoral Sense, Otto Neurath, Oxford English Dictionary, P. F. Strawson, Paradox, Paul Cohen, Paul Grice, Paul Horwich, Paul Weiss (philosopher), Periphrasis, Perjury, Perspectivism, Philosophical skepticism, Physical symbol system, Plato, Post-truth politics, Pragmatism, Principia Mathematica, Principle of bivalence, Principle of sufficient reason, Prior Analytics, Pro-sentence, Proof (truth), Proof sketch for Gödel's first incompleteness theorem, Proof theory, Proposition, Propositional calculus, Proto-Germanic language, Public opinion, Race (human categorization), Radical interpretation, Rationalism, Reality, Reason, Redundancy theory of truth, Relativism, Religion, Religious skepticism, Religious views on truth, Revision theory, Richard Feynman, Richard Firth Green, Richard II of England, Richard J. Bernstein, Richard Kirkham, Richard Rorty, Robert Audi, Romance languages, Rule of inference, Russell's paradox, Satya, Saul Kripke, Søren Kierkegaard, Science, Scientific method, Semantic theory of truth, Sense, Set theory, Sign relation, Simon Blackburn, Simulacrum, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Skeptical movement, Slingshot argument, Socrates, Speculum (journal), Speech act, Spirituality, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford University Press, Subjectivism, Subjectivity, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Subset, Supernatural, Susan Haack, Symbol (formal), T-schema, Tarski's undefinability theorem, Tautology (logic), Tautology (rhetoric), The Book of Healing, The Chaucer Review, The Phenomenology of Spirit, Theory of justification, Thesis, antithesis, synthesis, Thomas Aquinas, Thomas Kingsmill Abbott, Thought, Three-valued logic, Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, Troth, Truth predicate, Truth prevails, Truth table, Truth value, Truth-bearer, Truth-conditional semantics, Truthiness, Two truths doctrine, Type system, Type theory, Ummah, Understanding, Unity of the proposition, Verisimilitude, Veritas, Watergate scandal, Well-formed formula, Wessex, West Germanic languages, Western canon, Will to power, Willard Van Orman Quine, William Ernest Hocking, William James, William Kneale, World, Zeitgeist. Expand index (275 more) »

Abrahamic religions

The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as Abrahamism, are a group of Semitic-originated religious communities of faith that claim descent from the practices of the ancient Israelites and the worship of the God of Abraham.

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Absolute (philosophy)

In philosophy, the concept of The Absolute, also known as The (Unconditioned) Ultimate, The Wholly Other, The Supreme Being, The Absolute/Ultimate Reality, and other names, is the thing, being, entity, power, force, reality, presence, law, principle, etc.

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Agglutinative language

An agglutinative language is a type of synthetic language with morphology that primarily uses agglutination.

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Alan Turing

Alan Mathison Turing (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, and theoretical biologist.

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Aletheia (Ancient Greek: ἀλήθεια) is revolution or rising in philosophy.

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Alfred North Whitehead

Alfred North Whitehead (15 February 1861 – 30 December 1947) was an English mathematician and philosopher.

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Alfred Tarski

Alfred Tarski (January 14, 1901 – October 26, 1983), born Alfred Teitelbaum,School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews,, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews.

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Alonzo Church

Alonzo Church (June 14, 1903 – August 11, 1995) was an American mathematician and logician who made major contributions to mathematical logic and the foundations of theoretical computer science.

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Analytic–synthetic distinction

The analytic–synthetic distinction (also called the analytic–synthetic dichotomy) is a semantic distinction, used primarily in philosophy to distinguish propositions (in particular, statements that are affirmative subject–predicate judgments) into two types: analytic propositions and synthetic propositions.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Ancient Egyptian religion

Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals which were an integral part of ancient Egyptian society.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Anthony F. C. Wallace

Anthony Francis Clarke Wallace (April 15, 1923 – October 5, 2015) was a Canadian-American anthropologist who specialized in Native American cultures, especially the Iroquois.

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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Arthur Burks

Arthur Walter Burks (October 13, 1915 – May 14, 2008) was an American mathematician who worked in the 1940s as a senior engineer on the project that contributed to the design of the ENIAC, the first general-purpose electronic digital computer.

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Arthur Schopenhauer

Arthur Schopenhauer (22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher.

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Asha (also arta; Avestan: aša/arta) is a concept of cardinal importance.

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Aufheben or Aufhebung is a German word with several seemingly contradictory meanings, including "to lift up", "to abolish", "cancel" or "suspend", or "to sublate".

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Augustine of Hippo

Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.

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Authenticity (philosophy)

Authenticity is a concept in psychology (in particular existential psychiatry) as well as existentialist philosophy and aesthetics (in regard to various arts and musical genres).

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Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.

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An axiom or postulate is a statement that is taken to be true, to serve as a premise or starting point for further reasoning and arguments.

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Bad faith

Bad faith (Latin: mala fides) is double mindedness or double heartedness in duplicity, fraud, or deception.

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Baruch Spinoza

Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa,; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.

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Being and Time

Being and Time (Sein und Zeit) is a 1927 book by the German philosopher Martin Heidegger, in which the author seeks to analyse the concept of Being.

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Belief is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case with or without there being empirical evidence to prove that something is the case with factual certainty.

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Bertrand Russell

Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.

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Beyond Good and Evil

Beyond Good and Evil: Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future (Jenseits von Gut und Böse: Vorspiel einer Philosophie der Zukunft) is a book by philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche that expands the ideas of his previous work, Thus Spoke Zarathustra, with a more critical and polemical approach.

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Boolean algebra

In mathematics and mathematical logic, Boolean algebra is the branch of algebra in which the values of the variables are the truth values true and false, usually denoted 1 and 0 respectively.

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Brand Blanshard

Percy Brand Blanshard (August 27, 1892 – November 19, 1987) was an American philosopher known primarily for his defense of reason.

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C. J. F. Williams

Christopher John Fardo Williams (31 December 1930 – 25 March 1997) was a British philosopher.

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Carl Gustav Hempel

Carl Gustav "Peter" Hempel (January 8, 1905 – November 9, 1997) was a German writer and philosopher.

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Charles Hartshorne

Charles Hartshorne (June 5, 1897 – October 9, 2000) was an American philosopher who concentrated primarily on the philosophy of religion and metaphysics.

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Charles Sanders Peirce

Charles Sanders Peirce ("purse"; 10 September 1839 – 19 April 1914) was an American philosopher, logician, mathematician, and scientist who is sometimes known as "the father of pragmatism".

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Charles Sanders Peirce bibliography

This Charles Sanders Peirce bibliography consolidates numerous references to Charles Sanders Peirce's writings, including letters, manuscripts, publications, and Nachlass.

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Chivalric romance

As a literary genre of high culture, romance or chivalric romance is a type of prose and verse narrative that was popular in the aristocratic circles of High Medieval and Early Modern Europe.

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ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Church–Turing thesis

In computability theory, the Church–Turing thesis (also known as computability thesis, the Turing–Church thesis, the Church–Turing conjecture, Church's thesis, Church's conjecture, and Turing's thesis) is a hypothesis about the nature of computable functions.

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Code of Ur-Nammu

The Code of Ur-Nammu is the oldest known law code surviving today.

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Coherence theory of truth

Coherence theory of truth regards truth as coherence within some specified set of sentences, propositions or beliefs.

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Coherentism is the name given to a few philosophical theories in modern epistemology.

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Comprehension (logic)

In logic, the comprehension of an object is the totality of intensions, that is, attributes, characters, marks, properties, or qualities, that the object possesses, or else the totality of intensions that are pertinent to the context of a given discussion.

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Concepts are mental representations, abstract objects or abilities that make up the fundamental building blocks of thoughts and beliefs.

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Confirmation holism

In the epistemology of science, confirmation holism, also called epistemological holism, is the view that no individual statement can be confirmed or disconfirmed by an empirical test, but only a set of statements (a whole theory).

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Consensus theory of truth

A consensus theory of truth is the process of taking statements to be true simply because people generally agree upon them.

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In classical deductive logic, a consistent theory is one that does not contain a contradiction.

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Constructivist epistemology

Constructivist epistemology is a branch in philosophy of science maintaining that scientific knowledge is constructed by the scientific community, who seek to measure and construct models of the natural world.

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Contextualism describes a collection of views in philosophy which emphasize the context in which an action, utterance, or expression occurs, and argues that, in some important respect, the action, utterance, or expression can only be understood relative to that context.

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Continuous or discrete variable

In mathematics, a variable may be continuous or discrete.

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Continuum hypothesis

In mathematics, the continuum hypothesis (abbreviated CH) is a hypothesis about the possible sizes of infinite sets.

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In classical logic, a contradiction consists of a logical incompatibility between two or more propositions.

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Cornel West

Cornel Ronald West (born June 2, 1953) is an American philosopher, political activist, social critic, author, and public intellectual.

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Correspondence theory of truth

The correspondence theory of truth states that the truth or falsity of a statement is determined only by how it relates to the world and whether it accurately describes (i.e., corresponds with) that world.

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Crispin Wright

Crispin James Garth Wright (born 1942) is a British philosopher, who has written on neo-Fregean (neo-logicist) philosophy of mathematics, Wittgenstein's later philosophy, and on issues related to truth, realism, cognitivism, skepticism, knowledge, and objectivity.

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Criteria of truth

In epistemology, criteria of truth (or tests of truth) are standards and rules used to judge the accuracy of statements and claims.

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Critique of Pure Reason

The Critique of Pure Reason (Kritik der reinen Vernunft, KrV) (1781, Riga; second edition 1787) is a book by Immanuel Kant that has exerted an enduring influence on Western philosophy.

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Dagobert D. Runes

Dagobert David Runes (January 6, 1902 – September 24, 1982) was a philosopher and author.

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David Pears

David Pears (8 August 1921 – 1 July 2009) was a British philosopher renowned for his work on Ludwig Wittgenstein.

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Debate is a process that involves formal discussion on a particular topic.

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Deductive reasoning

Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic, logical deduction is the process of reasoning from one or more statements (premises) to reach a logically certain conclusion.

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Deflationary theory of truth

In philosophy and logic, a deflationary theory of truth is one of a family of theories that all have in common the claim that assertions of predicate truth of a statement do not attribute a property called "truth" to such a statement.

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Degree of truth

In standard mathematics, propositions can typically be considered unambiguously true or false.

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A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.

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Derek Pearsall

Derek Pearsall is a prominent medievalist and Chaucerian who has written and published widely on Chaucer, Langland, Gower, manuscript studies, and medieval history and culture.

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Diagonal lemma

In mathematical logic, the diagonal lemma or fixed point theorem establishes the existence of self-referential sentences in certain formal theories of the natural numbers—specifically those theories that are strong enough to represent all computable functions.

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Dialectic or dialectics (διαλεκτική, dialektikḗ; related to dialogue), also known as the dialectical method, is at base a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned arguments.

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Diophantine equation

In mathematics, a Diophantine equation is a polynomial equation, usually in two or more unknowns, such that only the integer solutions are sought or studied (an integer solution is a solution such that all the unknowns take integer values).

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Discovery (observation)

Discovery is the act of detecting something new, or something "old" that had been unrecognized as meaningful.

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A disposition is a quality of character, a habit, a preparation, a state of readiness, or a tendency to act in a specified way that may be learned.

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Divine judgment

Divine judgment means the judgment of God or other supreme beings within a religion.

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Donald Davidson (philosopher)

Donald Herbert Davidson (March 6, 1917 – August 30, 2003) was an American philosopher.

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Doubt is a mental state in which the mind remains suspended between two or more contradictory propositions, unable to assent to any of them.

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Early Islamic philosophy

Early Islamic philosophy or classical Islamic philosophy is a period of intense philosophical development beginning in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar (early 9th century CE) and lasting until the 6th century AH (late 12th century CE).

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Ecclesiastes (Greek: Ἐκκλησιαστής, Ekklēsiastēs, קֹהֶלֶת, qōheleṯ) is one of 24 books of the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible, where it is classified as one of the Ketuvim (or "Writings").

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Eclecticism is a conceptual approach that does not hold rigidly to a single paradigm or set of assumptions, but instead draws upon multiple theories, styles, or ideas to gain complementary insights into a subject, or applies different theories in particular cases.

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Empirical evidence

Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.

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Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The Encyclopedia of Philosophy is one of the major English encyclopedias of philosophy.

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"Episteme" is a philosophical term derived from the Ancient Greek word ἐπιστήμη epistēmē, which can refer to knowledge, science or understanding, and which comes from the verb ἐπίστασθαι, meaning "to know, to understand, or to be acquainted with".

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Epistemic theories of truth

In philosophy, epistemic theories of truth are attempts to analyze the notion of truth in terms of epistemic notions such as knowledge, belief, acceptance, verification, justification, and perspective.

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Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.

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Erich Fromm

Erich Seligmann Fromm (March 23, 1900 – March 18, 1980) was a German-born American social psychologist, psychoanalyst, sociologist, humanistic philosopher, and democratic socialist.

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In philosophy, essence is the property or set of properties that make an entity or substance what it fundamentally is, and which it has by necessity, and without which it loses its identity.

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Existence, in its most generic terms, is the ability to, directly or indirectly, interact with reality or, in more specific cases, the universe.

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F. H. Bradley

Francis Herbert Bradley OM (30 January 1846 – 18 September 1924) was a British idealist philosopher.

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A fact is a statement that is consistent with reality or can be proven with evidence.

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Factual relativism

Factual relativism (also called epistemic relativism, epistemological relativism, alethic relativism or cognitive relativism) is a way to reason where facts used to justify any claims are understood to be relative and subjective to the perspective of those proving or falsifying the proposition.

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Broadly speaking, fallibilism (from Medieval Latin: fallibilis, "liable to err") is the philosophical claim that no belief can have justification which guarantees the truth of the belief.

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Falsity (from Latin falsitas) or falsehood is a perversion of truth originating in the deceitfulness of one party, and culminating in the damage of another party.

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Finite-valued logic

In logic, a finite-valued logic (also finitely many-valued logic) is a propositional calculus in which truth values are discrete.

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Formal language

In mathematics, computer science, and linguistics, a formal language is a set of strings of symbols together with a set of rules that are specific to it.

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Formal system

A formal system is the name of a logic system usually defined in the mathematical way.

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Frank P. Ramsey

Frank Plumpton Ramsey (22 February 1903 – 19 January 1930) was a British philosopher, mathematician and economist who made fundamental contributions to abstract algebra before his death at the age of 26.

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Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.

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Fuzzy logic

Fuzzy logic is a form of many-valued logic in which the truth values of variables may be any real number between 0 and 1.

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Gödel's incompleteness theorems

Gödel's incompleteness theorems are two theorems of mathematical logic that demonstrate the inherent limitations of every formal axiomatic system containing basic arithmetic.

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Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity.

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Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.

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Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Giambattista Vico

Giambattista Vico (B. Giovan Battista Vico, 23 June 1668 – 23 January 1744) was an Italian political philosopher and rhetorician, historian and jurist, of the Age of Enlightenment.

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In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.

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Good faith

Good faith (bona fides), in human interactions, is a sincere intention to be fair, open, and honest, regardless of the outcome of the interaction.

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Gothic language

Gothic is an extinct East Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths.

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Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.

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Gottlob Frege

Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (8 November 1848 – 26 July 1925) was a German philosopher, logician, and mathematician.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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A half-truth is a deceptive statement that includes some element of truth.

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Harold H. Joachim

Harold Henry Joachim (28 May 1868 – 30 July 1938) was a British idealist philosopher.

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Hartry Field

Hartry H. Field (born November 30, 1946) is an American philosopher.

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Heinemann (publisher)

Heinemann is a publisher of professional resources and a provider of educational services established in 1978 in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, as a U.S. subsidiary of Heinemann UK.

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Heinrich Moritz Chalybäus

Heinrich Moritz Chalybäus (3 July 1796, in Pfaffroda – 22 September 1862, in Dresden) was a German philosopher best known for his exegetical work on philosophy, such as his characterisation of Hegel's dialectic ("an sich", "fuer sich", "an sich und fuer sich") positing a triad of "thesis–antithesis–synthesis.".

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Hilbert's problems

Hilbert's problems are twenty-three problems in mathematics published by German mathematician David Hilbert in 1900.

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Hilbert's program

In mathematics, Hilbert's program, formulated by German mathematician David Hilbert in the early part of the 20th century, was a proposed solution to the foundational crisis of mathematics, when early attempts to clarify the foundations of mathematics were found to suffer from paradoxes and inconsistencies.

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Hilbert's tenth problem

Hilbert's tenth problem is the tenth on the list of mathematical problems that the German mathematician David Hilbert posed in 1900.

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Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.

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Holtzmann's law

Holtzmann's law is a Proto-Germanic sound law originally noted by Adolf Holtzmann in 1838.

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Human sexuality

Human sexuality is the way people experience and express themselves sexually.

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Hypochondriasis or hypochondria is a condition in which a person is excessively and unduly worried about having a serious illness.

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IconoclasmLiterally, "image-breaking", from κλάω.

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Ideal speech situation

An ideal speech situation was a term introduced in the early philosophy of Jürgen Habermas.

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Imagination is the capacity to produce images, ideas and sensations in the mind without any immediate input of the senses (such as seeing or hearing).

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Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.

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Independence (mathematical logic)

In mathematical logic, independence refers to the unprovability of a sentence from other sentences.

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Independence (probability theory)

In probability theory, two events are independent, statistically independent, or stochastically independent if the occurrence of one does not affect the probability of occurrence of the other.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Inductive reasoning

Inductive reasoning (as opposed to ''deductive'' reasoning or ''abductive'' reasoning) is a method of reasoning in which the premises are viewed as supplying some evidence for the truth of the conclusion.

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Infinite-valued logic

In logic, an infinite-valued logic (or real-valued logic or infinitely many-valued logic) is a many-valued logic in which truth values comprise a continuous range.

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Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty.

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An inquiry is any process that has the aim of augmenting knowledge, resolving doubt, or solving a problem.

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Intellect is a term used in studies of the human mind, and refers to the ability of the mind to come to correct conclusions about what is true or real, and about how to solve problems.

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Intelligence has been defined in many different ways to include the capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, and problem solving.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (IEP) is a scholarly online encyclopedia, dealing with philosophy, philosophical topics, and philosophers.

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Interpretation (logic)

An interpretation is an assignment of meaning to the symbols of a formal language.

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Invariant (mathematics)

In mathematics, an invariant is a property, held by a class of mathematical objects, which remains unchanged when transformations of a certain type are applied to the objects.

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Isaac Israeli ben Solomon

Isaac Israeli ben Solomon (Hebrew: Yitzhak ben Shlomo ha-Yisraeli; Arabic: Abu Ya'qub Ishaq ibn Suleiman al-Isra'ili) (c. 832 – c. 932), also known as Isaac Israeli the Elder and Isaac Judaeus, was one of the foremost Arab Jewish physicians and philosophers of his time.

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IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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J. L. Austin

John Langshaw "J.

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James Hayden Tufts

James Hayden Tufts (1862–1942), an influential American philosopher, was a professor of the then newly founded Chicago University.

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James Mark Baldwin

James Mark Baldwin (January 12, 1861, Columbia, South Carolina – November 8, 1934, Paris) was an American philosopher and psychologist who was educated at Princeton under the supervision of Scottish philosopher James McCosh and who was one of the founders of the Department of Psychology at the university.

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Jürgen Habermas

Jürgen Habermas (born 18 June 1929) is a German sociologist and philosopher in the tradition of critical theory and pragmatism.

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Jean Baudrillard

Jean Baudrillard (27 July 1929 – 6 March 2007) was a French sociologist, philosopher, cultural theorist, political commentator, and photographer.

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John Dewey

John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, Georgist, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform.

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John Rajchman

John Rajchman (born June 25, 1946) is a philosopher working in the areas of art history, architecture, and continental philosophy.

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John Rawls

John Bordley Rawls (February 21, 1921 – November 24, 2002) was an American moral and political philosopher in the liberal tradition.

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Journalism refers to the production and distribution of reports on recent events.

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Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.

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Judgement (or judgment) is the evaluation of evidence to make a decision.

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Karl Marx

Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.

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Karl Popper

Sir Karl Raimund Popper (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher and professor.

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Karl-Otto Apel

Karl-Otto Apel (15 March 1922 – 15 May 2017) was a German philosopher and Professor Emeritus at the University of Frankfurt am Main.

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Kitaro Nishida

was a prominent Japanese philosopher, founder of what has been called the Kyoto School of philosophy.

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Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.

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Kurt Gödel

Kurt Friedrich Gödel (April 28, 1906 – January 14, 1978) was an Austrian, and later American, logician, mathematician, and philosopher.

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Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.

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Law of noncontradiction

In classical logic, the law of non-contradiction (LNC) (also known as the law of contradiction, principle of non-contradiction (PNC), or the principle of contradiction) states that contradictory statements cannot both be true in the same sense at the same time, e.g. the two propositions "A is B" and "A is not B" are mutually exclusive.

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Liar paradox

In philosophy and logic, the classical liar paradox or liar's paradox is the statement of a liar who states that he or she is lying: for instance, declaring that "I am lying" or "everything I say is false".

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A lie is a statement used intentionally for the purpose of deception.

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Loeb Classical Library

The Loeb Classical Library (LCL; named after James Loeb) is a series of books, today published by Harvard University Press, which presents important works of ancient Greek and Latin literature in a way designed to make the text accessible to the broadest possible audience, by presenting the original Greek or Latin text on each left-hand page, and a fairly literal translation on the facing page.

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Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.

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Logical intuition

Logical Intuition, or mathematical intuition or rational intuition, is the ability to perceive logical or mathematical truth.

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Logical positivism

Logical positivism and logical empiricism, which together formed neopositivism, was a movement in Western philosophy whose central thesis was verificationism, a theory of knowledge which asserted that only statements verifiable through empirical observation are cognitively meaningful.

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Ludwig Wittgenstein

Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.

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The Manusmṛti (Sanskrit: मनुस्मृति), also spelled as Manusmriti, is an ancient legal text among the many of Hinduism.

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Many-valued logic

In logic, a many-valued logic (also multi- or multiple-valued logic) is a propositional calculus in which there are more than two truth values.

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Mark Poster

Mark Poster (July 5, 1941 – October 10, 2012) was Professor Emeritus of History and Film and Media Studies at UC Irvine, where he also taught in the Critical Theory Emphasis.

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Martha Kneale

Martha Kneale (née Hurst; 14 August 1909 – 2 December 2001) was a British philosopher.

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Martin Heidegger

Martin Heidegger (26 September 188926 May 1976) was a German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition and philosophical hermeneutics, and is "widely acknowledged to be one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20th century." Heidegger is best known for his contributions to phenomenology and existentialism, though as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy cautions, "his thinking should be identified as part of such philosophical movements only with extreme care and qualification".

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Mathematical logic

Mathematical logic is a subfield of mathematics exploring the applications of formal logic to mathematics.

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Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

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McNamara fallacy

The McNamara fallacy (also known as quantitative fallacy), named for Robert McNamara, the United States Secretary of Defense from 1961 to 1968, involves making a decision based solely on quantitative observations (or metrics) and ignoring all others.

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Mechanics (Greek μηχανική) is that area of science concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment.

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Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.

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Metaphysics (Aristotle)

Metaphysics (Greek: τὰ μετὰ τὰ φυσικά; Latin: Metaphysica) is one of the principal works of Aristotle and the first major work of the branch of philosophy with the same name.

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Michael P. Lynch

Michael Patrick Lynch is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Connecticut and Associate Fellow at both the Arché Centre for Logic, Language, Metaphysics, and Epistemology at the University of St. Andrews and the Northern Institute of Philosophy at the University of Aberdeen.

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Michael Polanyi

Michael Polanyi, (11 March 1891 – 22 February 1976) was a Hungarian-British polymath, who made important theoretical contributions to physical chemistry, economics, and philosophy.

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Michel Foucault

Paul-Michel Foucault (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault, was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Middle English

Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.

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Model theory

In mathematics, model theory is the study of classes of mathematical structures (e.g. groups, fields, graphs, universes of set theory) from the perspective of mathematical logic.

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Modern Language Review

Modern Language Review is the journal of the Modern Humanities Research Association (MHRA).

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Modernity, a topic in the humanities and social sciences, is both a historical period (the modern era), as well as the ensemble of particular socio-cultural norms, attitudes and practices that arose in the wake of Renaissance, in the "Age of Reason" of 17th-century thought and the 18th-century "Enlightenment".

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Moral skepticism

Moral skepticism (or moral scepticism) is a class of metaethical theories all members of which entail that no one has any moral knowledge.

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MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.

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Natural environment

The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.

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Natural philosophy

Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.

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Necessity and sufficiency

In logic, necessity and sufficiency are terms used to describe an implicational relationship between statements.

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Neoplatonism is a term used to designate a strand of Platonic philosophy that began with Plotinus in the third century AD against the background of Hellenistic philosophy and religion.

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New High German

New High German (NHG) is the term used for the most recent period in the history of the German language.

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Nicholas Rescher

Nicholas Rescher (born 15 July 1928) is a German-American philosopher at the University of Pittsburgh.

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Ninian Smart

Roderick Ninian Smart (6 May 1927 – 9 January 2001) was a Scottish writer and university educator.

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Noam Chomsky

Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.

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Non-Euclidean geometry

In mathematics, non-Euclidean geometry consists of two geometries based on axioms closely related to those specifying Euclidean geometry.

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Normative science

In the applied sciences, normative science is a type of information that is developed, presented, or interpreted based on an assumed, usually unstated, preference for a particular policy or class of policies.

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North Germanic languages

The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.

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Nuel Belnap

Nuel D. Belnap Jr. (born 1930) is an American logician and philosopher who has made contributions to the philosophy of logic, temporal logic, and structural proof theory.

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Object (philosophy)

An object is a technical term in modern philosophy often used in contrast to the term subject.

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Objectivity (philosophy)

Objectivity is a central philosophical concept, objective means being independent of the perceptions thus objectivity means the property of being independent from the perceptions, which has been variously defined by sources.

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Old English

Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

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Old High German

Old High German (OHG, Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050.

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Old Norse

Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.

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Old Saxon

Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German, was a Germanic language and the earliest recorded form of Low German (spoken nowadays in Northern Germany, the northeastern Netherlands, southern Denmark, the Americas and parts of Eastern Europe).

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On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason

On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason (Ueber die vierfache Wurzel des Satzes vom zureichenden Grunde) is an elaboration on the classical Principle of Sufficient Reason, written by German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer as his doctoral dissertation in 1813.

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On the Soul

On the Soul (Greek Περὶ Ψυχῆς, Peri Psychēs; Latin De Anima) is a major treatise written by Aristotle c.350 B.C..

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On Truth and Lies in a Nonmoral Sense

On Truth and Lies in a Nonmoral Sense (Über Wahrheit und Lüge im aussermoralischen Sinne, also called On Truth and Lie in an Extra-Moral SenseWalter Kaufmann's translation, appearing in The Portable Nietzsche, 1976 edition. Viking Press.) is a philosophical essay by Friedrich Nietzsche.

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Otto Neurath

Otto Neurath (December 10, 1882 – December 22, 1945) was an Austrian philosopher, philosopher of science, sociologist, and political economist.

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Oxford English Dictionary

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.

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P. F. Strawson

Sir Peter Frederick Strawson FBA (23 November 1919 – 13 February 2006), usually cited as P. F. Strawson, was an English philosopher.

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A paradox is a statement that, despite apparently sound reasoning from true premises, leads to an apparently self-contradictory or logically unacceptable conclusion.

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Paul Cohen

Paul Joseph Cohen (April 2, 1934 – March 23, 2007) was an American mathematician.

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Paul Grice

Herbert Paul Grice (13 March 1913 – 28 August 1988), usually publishing under the name H. P. Grice, H. Paul Grice, or Paul Grice, was a British philosopher of language, whose work on meaning has influenced the philosophical study of semantics.

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Paul Horwich

Paul Horwich (born 1947) is a British analytic philosopher at New York University, whose work includes writings on causality and philosophy of science and philosophy of physics, the philosophy of language (especially truth, and meaning) and Wittgenstein's later philosophy.

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Paul Weiss (philosopher)

Paul Weiss (May 19, 1901 – July 5, 2002) was an American philosopher.

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In linguistics, periphrasis is the usage of multiple separate words to carry the meaning of prefixes, suffixes or verbs, among other things, where either would be possible.

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Perjury is the intentional act of swearing a false oath or falsifying an affirmation to tell the truth, whether spoken or in writing, concerning matters a generation material to an official proceeding.

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Perspectivism (Perspektivismus) is the philosophical view (touched upon as far back as Plato's rendition of Protagoras) that all ideations take place from particular perspectives, and that there are many possible conceptual schemes, or perspectives in which judgment of truth or value can be made.

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Philosophical skepticism

Philosophical skepticism (UK spelling: scepticism; from Greek σκέψις skepsis, "inquiry") is a philosophical school of thought that questions the possibility of certainty in knowledge.

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Physical symbol system

A physical symbol system (also called a formal system) takes physical patterns (symbols), combining them into structures (expressions) and manipulating them (using processes) to produce new expressions.

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Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.

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Post-truth politics

Post-truth politics (also called post-factual politics and post-reality politics) is a political culture in which debate is framed largely by appeals to emotion disconnected from the details of policy, and by the repeated assertion of talking points to which factual rebuttals are ignored.

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Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870.

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Principia Mathematica

The Principia Mathematica (often abbreviated PM) is a three-volume work on the foundations of mathematics written by Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell and published in 1910, 1912, and 1913.

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Principle of bivalence

In logic, the semantic principle (or law) of bivalence states that every declarative sentence expressing a proposition (of a theory under inspection) has exactly one truth value, either true or false.

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Principle of sufficient reason

The principle of sufficient reason states that everything must have a reason or a cause.

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Prior Analytics

The Prior Analytics (Ἀναλυτικὰ Πρότερα; Analytica Priora) is Aristotle's work on deductive reasoning, which is known as his syllogistic.

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A pro-sentence is a sentence where the subject pronoun has been dropped and therefore the sentence has a null subject.

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Proof (truth)

A proof is sufficient evidence or a sufficient argument for the truth of a proposition.

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Proof sketch for Gödel's first incompleteness theorem

This article gives a sketch of a proof of Gödel's first incompleteness theorem.

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Proof theory

Proof theory is a major branchAccording to Wang (1981), pp.

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The term proposition has a broad use in contemporary analytic philosophy.

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Propositional calculus

Propositional calculus is a branch of logic.

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Proto-Germanic language

Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Public opinion

Public opinion consists of the desires, wants, and thinking of the majority of the people; it is the collective opinion of the people of a society or state on an issue or problem.

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Race (human categorization)

A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.

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Radical interpretation

Radical interpretation is interpretation of a speaker, including attributing beliefs and desires to them and meanings to their words, from scratch—that is, without relying on translators, dictionaries, or specific prior knowledge of their mental states.

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In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".

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Reality is all of physical existence, as opposed to that which is merely imaginary.

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Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.

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Redundancy theory of truth

According to the redundancy theory of truth (or the disquotational theory of truth), asserting that a statement is true is completely equivalent to asserting the statement itself.

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Relativism is the idea that views are relative to differences in perception and consideration.

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Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.

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Religious skepticism

Religious skepticism is a type of skepticism relating to religion.

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Religious views on truth

Religious views on truth vary from religion and cultures around the world.

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Revision theory

Revision theory is a subfield of philosophical logic.

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Richard Feynman

Richard Phillips Feynman (May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988) was an American theoretical physicist, known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as in particle physics for which he proposed the parton model.

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Richard Firth Green

Richard Firth Green is a Canadian scholar who specializes in Middle English literature.

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Richard II of England

Richard II (6 January 1367 – c. 14 February 1400), also known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399.

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Richard J. Bernstein

Richard Jacob Bernstein (born May 14, 1932) is an American philosopher who teaches at The New School for Social Research, and has written extensively about a broad array of issues and philosophical traditions including Classical American Pragmatism, Neopragmatism, Critical Theory, Deconstruction, Social Philosophy, Political Philosophy, and Hermeneutics.

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Richard Kirkham

Richard Ladd Kirkham (born June 18, 1955) is an American philosopher.

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Richard Rorty

Richard McKay Rorty (October 4, 1931 – June 8, 2007) was an American philosopher.

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Robert Audi

Robert Audi (born November 1941) is an American philosopher whose major work has focused on epistemology, ethics – especially on ethical intuitionism – and the theory of action.

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Romance languages

The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.

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Rule of inference

In logic, a rule of inference, inference rule or transformation rule is a logical form consisting of a function which takes premises, analyzes their syntax, and returns a conclusion (or conclusions).

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Russell's paradox

In the foundations of mathematics, Russell's paradox (also known as Russell's antinomy), discovered by Bertrand Russell in 1901, showed that some attempted formalizations of the naïve set theory created by Georg Cantor led to a contradiction.

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Satya is the Sanskrit word for truth.

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Saul Kripke

Saul Aaron Kripke (born November 13, 1940) is an American philosopher and logician.

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Søren Kierkegaard

Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher.

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R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.

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Scientific method

Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.

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Semantic theory of truth

A semantic theory of truth is a theory of truth in the philosophy of language which holds that truth is a property of sentences.

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A sense is a physiological capacity of organisms that provides data for perception.

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Set theory

Set theory is a branch of mathematical logic that studies sets, which informally are collections of objects.

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Sign relation

A sign relation is the basic construct in the theory of signs, also known as semiotics, as developed by Charles Sanders Peirce.

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Simon Blackburn

Simon Blackburn (born 12 July 1944) is an English academic philosopher known for his work in metaethics, where he defends quasi-realism, and in the philosophy of language; more recently, he has gained a large general audience from his efforts to popularise philosophy.

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A simulacrum (plural: simulacra from simulacrum, which means "likeness, similarity") is a representation or imitation of a person or thing.

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Sir Gawain and the Green Knight

Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (Middle English: Sir Gawayn and þe Grene Knyȝt) is a late 14th-century Middle English chivalric romance.

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Skeptical movement

The skeptical movement (also spelled sceptical) is a modern social movement based on the idea of scientific skepticism (also called rational skepticism).

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Slingshot argument

In logic, a slingshot argument is one of a group of arguments claiming to show that all true sentences stand for the same thing.

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Socrates (Sōkrátēs,; – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.

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Speculum (journal)

Speculum: A Journal of Medieval Studies is a quarterly academic journal published by University of Chicago Press on behalf of the Medieval Academy of America.

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Speech act

A speech act in linguistics and the philosophy of language is an utterance that has performative function in language and communication.

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Traditionally, spirituality refers to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man," oriented at "the image of God" as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world.

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Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.

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Stanford University Press

The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.

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Subjectivism is the doctrine that "our own mental activity is the only unquestionable fact of our experience.", instead of shared or communal, and that there is no external or objective truth.

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Subjectivity is a central philosophical concept, related to consciousness, agency, personhood, reality, and truth, which has been variously defined by sources.

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Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar FRS (19 October 1910 – 21 August 1995) was an Indian American astrophysicist who spent his professional life in the United States.

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In mathematics, a set A is a subset of a set B, or equivalently B is a superset of A, if A is "contained" inside B, that is, all elements of A are also elements of B. A and B may coincide.

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The supernatural (Medieval Latin: supernātūrālis: supra "above" + naturalis "natural", first used: 1520–1530 AD) is that which exists (or is claimed to exist), yet cannot be explained by laws of nature.

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Susan Haack

Susan Haack (born 1945) is Distinguished Professor in the Humanities, Cooper Senior Scholar in Arts and Sciences, Professor of Philosophy, and Professor of Law at the University of Miami.

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Symbol (formal)

A logical symbol is a fundamental concept in logic, tokens of which may be marks or a configuration of marks which form a particular pattern.

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The T-schema or truth schema (not to be confused with 'Convention T') is used to give an inductive definition of truth which lies at the heart of any realisation of Alfred Tarski's semantic theory of truth.

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Tarski's undefinability theorem

Tarski's undefinability theorem, stated and proved by Alfred Tarski in 1936, is an important limitative result in mathematical logic, the foundations of mathematics, and in formal semantics.

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Tautology (logic)

In logic, a tautology (from the Greek word ταυτολογία) is a formula or assertion that is true in every possible interpretation.

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Tautology (rhetoric)

In rhetoric, a tautology (from Greek ταὐτός, "the same" and λόγος, "word/idea") is an argument which repeats an assertion using different phrasing.

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The Book of Healing

The Book of Healing (Arabic: کتاب الشفاء Kitāb al-Šifāʾ, Latin: Sufficientia) is a scientific and philosophical encyclopedia written by Abū Alī ibn Sīnā (Avicenna) from ancient Persia, near Bukhara in Greater Khorasan.

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The Chaucer Review

The Chaucer Review: A Journal of Medieval Studies and Literary Criticism is an academic journal published by the Penn State University Press.

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The Phenomenology of Spirit

The Phenomenology of Spirit (Phänomenologie des Geistes) (1807) is Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's most widely discussed philosophical work.

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Theory of justification

Theory of justification is a part of epistemology that attempts to understand the justification of propositions and beliefs.

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Thesis, antithesis, synthesis

The triad thesis, antithesis, synthesis (These, Antithese, Synthese; originally: Thesis, Antithesis, Synthesis) is often used to describe the thought of German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel.

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Thomas Aquinas

Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.

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Thomas Kingsmill Abbott

Reverend Thomas Kingsmill Abbott (26 March 1829 – 18 December 1913) was an Irish scholar and educator.

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Thought encompasses a “goal oriented flow of ideas and associations that leads to reality-oriented conclusion.” Although thinking is an activity of an existential value for humans, there is no consensus as to how it is defined or understood.

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Three-valued logic

In logic, a three-valued logic (also trinary logic, trivalent, ternary, or trilean, sometimes abbreviated 3VL) is any of several many-valued logic systems in which there are three truth values indicating true, false and some indeterminate third value.

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Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus

The Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (TLP) (Latin for "Logico-Philosophical Treatise") is the only book-length philosophical work published by the Austrian philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein in his lifetime.

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Troth may refer to.

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Truth predicate

In formal theories of truth, a truth predicate is a fundamental concept based on the sentences of a formal language as interpreted logically.

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Truth prevails

"Truth prevails" (Pravda vítězí, Pravda víťazí, Veritas vincit) is the national motto of the Czech Republic.

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Truth table

A truth table is a mathematical table used in logic—specifically in connection with Boolean algebra, boolean functions, and propositional calculus—which sets out the functional values of logical expressions on each of their functional arguments, that is, for each combination of values taken by their logical variables (Enderton, 2001).

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Truth value

In logic and mathematics, a truth value, sometimes called a logical value, is a value indicating the relation of a proposition to truth.

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A truth-bearer is an entity that is said to be either true or false and nothing else.

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Truth-conditional semantics

Truth-conditional semantics is an approach to semantics of natural language that sees meaning (or at least the meaning of assertions) as being the same as, or reducible to, their truth conditions.

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Truthiness is the belief or assertion that a particular statement is true based on the intuition or perceptions of some individual or individuals, without regard to evidence, logic, intellectual examination, or facts.

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Two truths doctrine

The Buddhist doctrine of the two truths differentiates between two levels of satya (Sanskrit), meaning truth or "really existing" in the discourse of the Buddha: the "conventional" or "provisional" truth, and the "ultimate" truth.

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Type system

In programming languages, a type system is a set of rules that assigns a property called type to the various constructs of a computer program, such as variables, expressions, functions or modules.

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Type theory

In mathematics, logic, and computer science, a type theory is any of a class of formal systems, some of which can serve as alternatives to set theory as a foundation for all mathematics.

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(أمة) is an Arabic word meaning "community".

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Understanding is a psychological process related to an abstract or physical object, such as a person, situation, or message whereby one is able to think about it and use concepts to deal adequately with that object.

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Unity of the proposition

In philosophy, the unity of the proposition is the problem of explaining how a sentence in the indicative mood expresses more than just what a list of proper names expresses.

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Verisimilitude (or truthlikeness) is a philosophical concept that distinguishes between the relative and apparent (or seemingly so) truth and falsity of assertions and hypotheses.

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In Roman mythology, Veritas, meaning truth, is the goddess of truth, a daughter of Chronos, the God of Time (who has been identified with Saturn-Cronus, perhaps first by Plutarch), and the mother of Virtus.

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Watergate scandal

The Watergate scandal was a major political scandal that occurred in the United States during the early 1970s, following a break-in by five men at the Democratic National Committee (DNC) headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C. on June 17, 1972, and President Richard Nixon's administration's subsequent attempt to cover up its involvement.

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Well-formed formula

In mathematical logic, propositional logic and predicate logic, a well-formed formula, abbreviated WFF or wff, often simply formula, is a finite sequence of symbols from a given alphabet that is part of a formal language.

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Wessex (Westseaxna rīce, the "kingdom of the West Saxons") was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom in the south of Great Britain, from 519 until England was unified by Æthelstan in the early 10th century.

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West Germanic languages

The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages).

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Western canon

The Western canon is the body of Western literature, European classical music, philosophy, and works of art that represents the high culture of Europe and North America: "a certain Western intellectual tradition that goes from, say, Socrates to Wittgenstein in philosophy, and from Homer to James Joyce in literature".

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Will to power

The will to power (der Wille zur Macht) is a prominent concept in the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche.

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Willard Van Orman Quine

Willard Van Orman Quine (known to intimates as "Van"; June 25, 1908 – December 25, 2000) was an American philosopher and logician in the analytic tradition, recognized as "one of the most influential philosophers of the twentieth century." From 1930 until his death 70 years later, Quine was continually affiliated with Harvard University in one way or another, first as a student, then as a professor of philosophy and a teacher of logic and set theory, and finally as a professor emeritus who published or revised several books in retirement.

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William Ernest Hocking

William Ernest Hocking (August 10, 1873, Cleveland, Ohio – June 12, 1966, Madison, New Hampshire) was an American idealist philosopher at Harvard University.

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William James

William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States.

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William Kneale

William Calvert Kneale (22 June 1906 – 24 June 1990) was an English logician best known for his 1962 book The Development of Logic, a history of logic from its beginnings in Ancient Greece written with his wife Martha.

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The world is the planet Earth and all life upon it, including human civilization.

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The Zeitgeist is a concept from 18th to 19th-century German philosophy, translated as "spirit of the age" or "spirit of the times".

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Epistematic theory of truth, Epistemic theory of truth, Introduction to Truth theory, Mathematical truth, TheoriesOfTruth, Theory of truth, Treowe, Triuwa, Triuwe, Truth (philosophy), Truth Theory, Truth theories, Truth theory, Truthfullness, Truths.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Truth

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