97 relations: Abscission, Adaptive immune system, African trypanosomiasis, Ancient Greek, Animal trypanosomiasis, Antibody, Antigenic variation, Apolipoprotein L1, Assay, Axoneme, Baboon, Basal body, Base J, Beta sheet, Blood–brain barrier, Cardiolipin, CD163, Cell division, Cell nucleus, Central nervous system, Centrosome, Chloride, Chromosome, Clade, Complement system, Cysteine protease, Cytokinesis, Cytosine, David Bruce (microbiologist), Dinoflagellate, Endoplasmic reticulum, Endosome, Euglenid, Euglenozoa, Eukaryote, Excavata, Fission (biology), Flagellum, Gene, GeneDB, Genetic recombination, Genome, Glomerulus, Glycoprotein, Golgi apparatus, Gorilla, Haptoglobin, High-density lipoprotein, HPR (gene), Hypertension, ..., Immune system, Immunogenicity, In vitro, Insect, Interferon, Intrinsic and extrinsic properties, Kinetoplast, Kinetoplastida, List of parasites of humans, Lymphatic system, Lysis, Lysosome, Malaria, Mandrill, Mass spectrometry data format, Matthew Meselson, Meiosis, Micrograph, Microtubule, Mitochondrial DNA, Mitochondrion, Mononuclear phagocyte system, Natural reservoir, Nuclear DNA, Offspring, Parasitemia, Phosphatidic acid, Ploidy, Podocyte, Procyclin, Pseudogene, Queen Mary University of London, Ribosome, Salivary gland, Simon Gaskell, Sooty mangabey, Thymidine, Trypanosoma, Trypanosoma equiperdum, Trypanosoma evansi, Trypanosomatida, Tryptophol, Tsetse fly, Tumor necrosis factor superfamily, Variant surface glycoprotein, Vector (epidemiology), Whip. Expand index (47 more) » « Shrink index
Abscission (from Latin ab, "away", and scindere, "to cut'") is the shedding of various parts of an organism, such as a plant dropping a leaf, fruit, flower, or seed.
The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune system or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth.
African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, is an insect-borne parasitic disease of humans and other animals.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Animal trypanosomiasis, also known as nagana and nagana pest, or sleeping sickness, is a disease of vertebrates.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
Antigenic variation refers to the mechanism by which an infectious agent such as a protozoan, bacterium or virus alters its surface proteins in order to evade a host immune response.
Apolipoprotein L1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOL1 gene.
An assay is an investigative (analytic) procedure in laboratory medicine, pharmacology, environmental biology and molecular biology for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence, amount, or functional activity of a target entity (the analyte).
Numerous eukaryotic cells carry whip-like appendages (cilia or eukaryotic flagella) whose inner core consists of a cytoskeletal structure called the axoneme.
Baboons are Old World monkeys belonging to the genus Papio, part of the subfamily Cercopithecinae which are found natively in very specific areas of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.
A basal body (synonymous with basal granule, kinetosome, and in older cytological literature with blepharoplast) is a protein structure found at the base of a eukaryotic undulipodium (cilium or flagellum).
β-D-Glucopyranosyloxymethyluracil or base J is a hypermodified nucleobase found in the DNA of kinetoplastids including the human pathogenic trypanosomes.
The β-sheet (also β-pleated sheet) is a common motif of regular secondary structure in proteins.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
Cardiolipin (IUPAC name "1,3-bis(sn-3’-phosphatidyl)-sn-glycerol") is an important component of the inner mitochondrial membrane, where it constitutes about 20% of the total lipid composition.
CD163 (Cluster of Differentiation 163) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD163 gene.
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
In cell biology, the centrosome (Latin centrum 'center' + Greek sōma 'body') is an organelle that serves as the main microtubule organizing center (MTOC) of the animal cell as well as a regulator of cell-cycle progression.
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".
The complement system is a part of the immune system that enhances (complements) the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism, promotes inflammation, and attacks the pathogen's cell membrane.
Cysteine proteases, also known as thiol proteases, are enzymes that degrade proteins.
Cytokinesis is the part of the cell division process during which the cytoplasm of a single eukaryotic cell divides into two daughter cells.
Cytosine (C) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
Major-General Sir David Bruce (29 May 1855 in Melbourne – 27 November 1931 in London) was a Scottish pathologist and microbiologist who investigated Malta fever (later called brucellosis in his honour) and African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in animals).
The dinoflagellates (Greek δῖνος dinos "whirling" and Latin flagellum "whip, scourge") are a large group of flagellate eukaryotes that constitute the phylum Dinoflagellata.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.
In cell biology, an endosome is a membrane-bound compartment inside eukaryotic cells.
Euglenids (euglenoids, or euglenophytes, formally Euglenida/Euglenoida, ICZN, or Euglenophyceae, ICBN) are one of the best-known groups of flagellates, which are excavate eukaryotes of the phylum Euglenophyta and their cell structure is typical of that group.
The euglenozoa are a large group of flagellate excavates.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Excavata is a major supergroup of unicellular organisms belonging to the domain Eukaryota.
Fission, in biology, is the division of a single entity into two or more parts and the regeneration of those parts into separate entities resembling the original.
A flagellum (plural: flagella) is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
GeneDB is a genome database for eukaryotic and prokaryotic pathogens.
Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
Glomerulus is a common term used in anatomy to describe globular structures of entwined vessels, fibers, or neurons.
Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains.
The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.
Gorillas are ground-dwelling, predominantly herbivorous apes that inhabit the forests of central Sub-Saharan Africa.
Haptoglobin (abbreviated as Hp) is the protein that in humans is encoded by the HP gene.
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are one of the five major groups of lipoproteins.
laxman is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HPR gene.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Immunogenicity is the ability of a particular substance, such as an antigen or epitope, to provoke an immune response in the body of a human and other animal.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells.
An intrinsic property is a property of a system or of a material itself or within.
A kinetoplast is a network of circular DNA (called kDNA) inside a large mitochondrion that contains many copies of the mitochondrial genome.
Kinetoplastida (or Kinetoplastea, as a class) is a group of flagellated protists belonging to the phylum Euglenozoa, and characterised by the presence of an organelle with a large massed DNA called kinetoplast (hence the name).
* Parasites Category:Foodborne illnesses.
The lymphatic system is part of the vascular system and an important part of the immune system, comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph (from Latin, lympha meaning "water") directionally towards the heart.
Lysis (Greek λύσις lýsis, "a loosing" from λύειν lýein, "to unbind") refers to the breaking down of the membrane of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic (that is, "lytic") mechanisms that compromise its integrity.
A lysosome is a membrane-bound organelle found in nearly all animal cells.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
The mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx) is a primate of the Old World monkey (Cercopithecidae) family.
Mass spectrometry is a scientific technique for measuring the mass-to-charge ratio of ions.
Matthew Stanley Meselson (born May 24, 1930) is a geneticist and molecular biologist currently at Harvard University, known for his demonstration, with Franklin Stahl, of the semi-conservative DNA replication.
Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.
A micrograph or photomicrograph is a photograph or digital image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an item.
Microtubules are tubular polymers of tubulin that form part of the cytoskeleton that provides the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells and some bacteria with structure and shape.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
In immunology, the mononuclear phagocyte system or mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS) (also known as the reticuloendothelial system or macrophage system) is a part of the immune system that consists of the phagocytic cells located in reticular connective tissue.
In infectious disease ecology and epidemiology, a natural reservoir, also known as a disease reservoir or a reservoir of infection, is the population of organisms or the specific environment in which an infectious pathogen naturally lives and reproduces, or upon which the pathogen primarily depends for its survival.
Nuclear DNA, or nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid (nDNA), is the DNA contained within the nucleus of a eukaryotic organism.
In biology, offspring are the young born of living organisms, produced either by a single organism or, in the case of sexual reproduction, two organisms.
Parasitemia is the quantitative content of parasites in the blood.
Phosphatidic acids are phospholipids which on hydrolysis give rise to one molecule of glycerol and phosphoric acid and two molecules of fatty acids.
Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.
Podocytes are cells in the Bowman's capsule in the kidneys that wrap around capillaries of the glomerulus.
Procyclins also known as procyclic acidic repetitive proteins or PARP are proteins developed in the surface coating of Trypanosoma brucei parasites while in their tsetse fly vector.
Pseudogenes are segments of DNA that are related to real genes.
Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).
The salivary glands in mammals are exocrine glands that produce saliva through a system of ducts.
Professor Simon J. Gaskell (born 2 May 1950) is the previous principal of Queen Mary University of London.
The sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys) is an Old World monkey found in forests from Senegal in a margin along the coast down to Ghana.
Thymidine (deoxythymidine; other names deoxyribosylthymine, thymine deoxyriboside) is a pyrimidine deoxynucleoside.
Trypanosoma is a genus of kinetoplastids (class Kinetoplastida), a monophyletic group of unicellular parasitic flagellate protozoa.
Τrypanosoma equiperdum is a species of excavate parasites that causes Dourine or covering sickness in horses and other animals in the family equidae.
Trypanosoma evansi is a species of excavate trypanosome in the genus Trypanosoma that causes one form of surra in animals.
Trypanosomatida is a group of kinetoplastid excavates distinguished by having only a single flagellum.
Tryptophol is an aromatic alcohol that induces sleep in humans.
Tsetse, sometimes spelled tzetze and also known as tik-tik flies, are large biting flies that inhabit much of tropical Africa.
The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily is a protein superfamily of type II transmembrane proteins containing TNF homology domain and forming trimers.
Variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) is a ~60kDa protein which densely packs the cell surface of protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Trypanosoma.
In epidemiology, a disease vector is any agent that carries and transmits an infectious pathogen into another living organism; most agents regarded as vectors are organisms, such as intermediate parasites or microbes, but it could be an inanimate medium of infection such as dust particles.
A whip is a tool which was traditionally designed to strike animals or people to aid guidance or exert control over animals or other people, through pain compliance or fear of pain, although in some activities, whips can be used without use of pain, such as an additional pressure aid or visual directional cue in equestrianism.