120 relations: Acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase, Acree-Rosenheim reaction, Adamkiewicz reaction, Almond, Anthranilic acid, Antidepressant, Anxiolytic, Apoptosis, Aromatic amino acids, Atlantic cod, Attenuator (genetics), Auxin, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus subtilis, Baking chocolate, Banana, Beef, Blood–brain barrier, Blurred vision, Branched-chain amino acid, Canada, Carbohydrate, Casein, CD98, Cerebrospinal fluid, Cheddar cheese, Chicken (food), Chickpea, Chloroform, Chocolate, Contryphan, Cottage cheese, Date palm, Diarrhea, Dietary supplement, Egg (food), Egg white, Enzyme, Eosinophilia–myalgia syndrome, Escherichia coli, Essential amino acid, Euphoria, Felix Ehrlich, Fish, Food and Drug Administration, Frederick Gowland Hopkins, Fructose malabsorption, Genetic code, Genetic engineering, Gram, ..., Headache, Hopkins-Cole reaction, Hydrolysis, Indole, Industrial fermentation, Insomnia, Insulin, Kynurenine, Lactose intolerance, Lamb and mutton, Lightheadedness, Major depressive disorder, Melatonin, Microorganism, Milk, N,N-Dimethyltryptamine, N-acetyltransferase, Nausea, Neurohormone, Neurotransmitter, Niacin, Nystagmus, Oat, Operon, Over-the-counter drug, Peanut, Pepita, Peptide, Perch, Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate, Pineal gland, Plant hormone, Postprandial somnolence, Poultry, Precursor (chemistry), Protein biosynthesis, Proteinogenic amino acid, Pyrophosphate, Quinoa, Quinolinic acid, Raphe nuclei, Red meat, Repressor, Salmon, Scleroprotein, Sedation, Serine, Serotonin, Serotonin syndrome, Sesame, Shikimic acid, Showa Denko, Sieve tube element, Somnolence, Soybean, Spirulina (dietary supplement), Stereoisomerism, Sunflower seed, Tamarind, Trp operon, Tryptamine, Tryptophan hydroxylase, Tryptophan synthase, Tryptophol, Turkey meat, United Kingdom, United States, Xerostomia, Yogurt, 5-Hydroxytryptophan. Expand index (70 more) » « Shrink index
N-Acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase also known as ASMT is an enzyme that catalyzes the final reaction in melatonin biosynthesis, converting Normelatonin to melatonin.
The Acree-Rosenheim reaction is a chemical test used for detecting the presence of tryptophan in proteins.
The Adamkiewicz reaction is part of a biochemical test used to detect the presence of the amino acid tryptophan in proteins.
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The almond (Prunus dulcis, syn. Prunus amygdalus, Amygdalus communis, Amygdalus dulcis) (or badam in Indian English, from بادام) is a species of tree native to the Middle East and South Asia.
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Anthranilic acid (or o-amino-benzoic acid) is an aromatic acid with the formula C6H4(NH2)(CO2H).
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Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
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An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.
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Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπό apo, "by, from, of, since, than" and πτῶσις ptōsis, "fall") is the process of programmed cell death that may occur in multicellular organisms.
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Aromatic amino acids (AAA) are amino acids that include an aromatic ring.
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The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is a well-known benthopelagic fish of the family Gadidae, widely consumed by humans.
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Attenuation (in genetics) is a proposed mechanism of control in some bacterial operons which results in premature termination of transcription and which is based on the fact that, in bacteria, transcription and translation proceed simultaneously.
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Auxins (plural of auxin) are a class of plant hormones (or plant growth substances) with some morphogen-like characteristics.
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Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is a species of bacterium in the genus Bacillus that is the source of the BamH1 restriction enzyme.
Bacillus subtilis, known also as the hay bacillus or grass bacillus, is a Gram-positive, catalase-positive bacterium, found in soil and the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants and humans.
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Baking chocolate, also referred to as bitter chocolate, cooking chocolate and unsweetened chocolate, is a type of chocolate that is prepared or manufactured for baking.
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The banana is an edible fruit, botanically a berry, produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus Musa.
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Beef is the culinary name for meat from bovines, especially cattle.
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The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective permeability barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain extracellular fluid (BECF) in the central nervous system (CNS).
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Blurred vision is an ocular symptom.
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A branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) is an amino acid having aliphatic side-chains with a branch (a central carbon atom bound to three or more carbon atoms).
Canada is a country, consisting of ten provinces and three territories, in the northern part of the continent of North America.
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A carbohydrate is a biological molecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen:oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m could be different from n).
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Casein (or, from Latin caseus, "cheese") is the name for a family of related phosphoproteins (αS1, αS2, β, κ).
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CD98 is a glycoprotein that is a heterodimer composed of SLC3A2 and SLC7A5 that forms the large neutral amino acid transporter (LAT1).
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Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spine.
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Cheddar cheese is a relatively hard, off-white (or orange if spices such as annatto are added), sometimes "sharp" (i.e., acidic)-tasting, natural cheese.
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Chicken is the most common type of poultry in the world.
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The chickpea or chick pea (Cicer arietinum) is a legume of the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae.
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Chloroform is an organic compound with formula CHCl3.
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Chocolate is a typically sweet, usually brown, food preparation of Theobroma cacao seeds, roasted and ground, often flavored, as with vanilla.
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The contryphans (conus + tryptophan) are a family of peptides that are active constituents of the potent venom produced by cone snail (genus conus).
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Cottage cheese is a fresh cheese curd product with a mild flavor.
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Phoenix dactylifera (date or date palm) is a flowering plant species in the palm family Arecaceae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit.
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Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
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A dietary supplement is intended to provide nutrients that may otherwise not be consumed in sufficient quantities.
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Eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish, and have been eaten by humans for thousands of years.
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Egg white is the common name for the clear liquid (also called the albumen or the glair/glaire) contained within an egg.
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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
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Eosinophilia–myalgia syndrome (EMS) is an incurable and sometimes fatal flu-like neurological condition linked to the ingestion of the dietary supplement L-tryptophan.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
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An essential amino acid or indispensable amino acid is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized de novo (from scratch) by the organism being considered, and therefore must be supplied in its diet.
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Euphoria (from Ancient Greek εὐφορία, from εὖ eu, "well", and φέρω pherō, "to bear") (semantically opposite of dysphoria) is medically recognized as a mental and emotional condition in which a person experiences intense feelings of well-being, elation, happiness, excitement and joy.
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Felix Ehrlich (born 1 June 1877 in Harriehausen (today incorporated in Bad Gandersheim), died in 1942 in Obernigk near Breslau) was a German chemist and biochemist.
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A fish is any member of a paraphyletic group of organisms that consist of all gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
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The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins OM FRS (20 June 1861 – 16 May 1947) was an English biochemist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1929, with Christiaan Eijkman, for the discovery of vitamins.
Fructose malabsorption, formerly named "dietary fructose intolerance" (DFI), is a digestive disorder in which absorption of fructose is impaired by deficient fructose carriers in the small intestine's enterocytes.
The genetic code is the set of rules by which information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) is translated into proteins by living cells.
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Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genome using biotechnology.
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The gram (alternative British English spelling: gramme; SI unit symbol: g) (Greek/Latin root grámma) is a metric system unit of mass.
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A headache or cephalalgia is pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
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The Hopkins-Cole reaction, also known as the glyoxylic acid reaction, is a chemical test used for detecting the presence of tryptophan in proteins.
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Hydrolysis usually means the cleavage of chemical bonds by the addition of water.
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Indole is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound.
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Industrial fermentation is the intentional use of fermentation by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi to make products useful to humans.
Insomnia, or trouble sleeping, is a sleep disorder in which there is an inability to fall asleep or to stay asleep as long as desired.
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Insulin (from the Latin, insula meaning island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells in the pancreas.
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L-Kynurenine is a metabolite of the amino acid L-tryptophan used in the production of niacin.
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Lactose intolerance is the inability of adults to digest lactose, a sugar found in milk and to a lesser extent dairy products, causing side effects.
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Lamb, hogget, and mutton (UK, India, South Africa, Canada, New Zealand and Australia) are terms for the meat of domestic sheep (species Ovis aries) at different ages.
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Lightheadedness is a common and typically unpleasant sensation of dizziness and/or a feeling that one may faint.
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Major depressive disorder (MDD) (also known as clinical depression, major depression, unipolar depression, or unipolar disorder; or as recurrent depression in the case of repeated episodes) is a mental disorder characterized by a pervasive and persistent low mood that is accompanied by low self-esteem and by a loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities.
Melatonin, chemically N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, is a substance found in animals, plants, fungi and bacteria.
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A microorganism (from the μικρός, mikros, "small" and ὀργανισμός, organismós, "organism") is a microscopic living organism, which may be single celled or multicellular.
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Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.
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N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT or N,N-DMT) is a psychedelic compound of the tryptamine family.
N-acetyltransferase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from acetyl-CoA to arylamines.
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Nausea (Latin nausea, from Greek ναυσία - nausia, "ναυτία" - nautia, motion sickness", "feeling sick or queasy") is a sensation of unease and discomfort in the upper stomach with an involuntary urge to vomit.
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A neurohormone is any hormone produced and released by neuroendocrine cells (also called neurosecretory cells) into the blood.
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Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
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Niacin (also known as vitamin B3 or nicotinic acid) is an organic compound with the formula and, depending on the definition used, one of the 20 to 80 essential human nutrients.
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Nystagmus is a condition of involuntary (or voluntary, in rare cases) eye movement, acquired in infancy or later in life, that may result in reduced or limited vision.
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The oat (Avena sativa), sometimes called the common oat, is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed, which is known by the same name (usually in the plural, unlike other cereals and pseudocereals).
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In genetics, an operon is a functioning unit of genomic DNA containing a cluster of genes under the control of a single promoter.
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Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription, from a healthcare professional, as compared to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.
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Peanut, also known as groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) is a crop of global importance.
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Pepita (from Mexican pepita de calabaza, "little seed of squash") is a Spanish culinary term for the pumpkin seed, the edible seed of a pumpkin or other cultivar of squash (genus Cucurbita).
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Peptides (from Gr. πεπτός, "digested", derived from πέσσειν, "to digest") are biologically occurring short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
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Perch is a common name for fish of the genus Perca, freshwater gamefish belonging to the family Percidae.
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Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP) is a pentosephosphate.
The pineal gland, also known as the pineal body, conarium or epiphysis cerebri, is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain.
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Plant hormones (also known as phytohormones) are chemicals that regulate plant growth, which, in the UK, are termed 'plant growth substances'.
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Postprandial somnolence (colloquially known as a food coma or carb coma) is a normal state of drowsiness or lassitude following a meal.
Poultry are domesticated birds kept by humans for the eggs they produce, their meat, their feathers, or sometimes as pets.
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In chemistry, a precursor is a compound that participates in the chemical reaction that produces another compound.
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Protein biosynthesis is the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export.
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Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are precursors to proteins, and are incorporated into proteins cotranslationally — that is, during translation.
In chemistry, pyrophosphate is a phosphorus oxyanion.
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Quinoa (from Quechua kinwa or kinuwa) is a species of the goosefoot genus (Chenopodium quinoa), a grain crop grown primarily for its edible seeds.
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Quinolinic acid (abbreviated QUIN or QA), also known as pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid, is a dicarboxylic acid with a pyridine backbone.
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The raphe nuclei ("raffe", Greek: ῥαφή.
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In gastronomy, red meat is mammal meat which is red when raw and not white when cooked; it includes the meat of most adult mammals.
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In molecular genetics, a repressor is a DNA- or RNA-binding protein that inhibits the expression of one or more genes by binding to the operator or associated silencers.
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Salmon is the common name for several species of fish in the family Salmonidae.
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Scleroproteins, or fibrous proteins, constitute one of the three main types of proteins (alongside globular, disordered and membrane proteins).
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Sedation is the reduction of irritability or agitation by administration of sedative drugs, generally to facilitate a medical procedure or diagnostic procedure.
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Serine (abbreviated as Ser or S) is an amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2OH.
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Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
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Serotonin syndrome is a potential symptom of any number of life-threatening drug interactions which may follow therapeutic drug use, combination, overdose of particular drugs, or the recreational use of certain drugs.
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Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum.
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Shikimic acid, more commonly known as its anionic form shikimate, is a cyclohexene, a cyclitol and a cyclohexanecarboxylic acid.
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is a leading Japanese chemical engineering firm.
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In plant anatomy, sieve tube elements, also called sieve tube members, are a specialised type of elongated cell in the phloem tissue of flowering plants.
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Somnolence (alternatively "sleepiness" or "drowsiness") is a state of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods (cf. hypersomnia).
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The soybean in the US, also called the soya bean in Europe (Glycine max) is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean which has numerous uses.
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Spirulina is a cyanobacterium that can be consumed by humans and other animals.
Stereoisomers are isomeric molecules that have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms (constitution), but differ in the three-dimensional orientations of their atoms in space.
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The sunflower seed is the fruit of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus).
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Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) (from تمر هندي, romanized tamar hindi, "Indian date") is a leguminous tree in the family Fabaceae indigenous to tropical Africa.
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The trp operon is an operon — a group of genes that are used, or transcribed, together — that codes for the components for production of tryptophan.
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Tryptamine is a monoamine alkaloid.
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Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) is an enzyme involved in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin.
Tryptophan synthase or tryptophan synthetase is an enzyme that catalyzes the final two steps in the biosynthesis of tryptophan.
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Tryptophol is an aromatic alcohol that induces sleep in humans.
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Turkey meat is the meat from turkeys, typically domesticated turkeys.
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The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign state in Europe.
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The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.
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Xerostomia (also termed dry mouth as a symptom or dry mouth syndrome as a syndrome) is dryness in the mouth (xero- + stom- + -ia), which may be associated with a change in the composition of saliva, or reduced salivary flow (hyposalivation), or have no identifiable cause.
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Yogurt, yoghurt, or yoghourt (or; from yoğurt; other spellings listed below) is a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk.
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5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), also known as oxitriptan (INN), is a naturally occurring amino acid and chemical precursor as well as a metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitters serotonin and melatonin from tryptophan.
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ATC code N06AX02, ATCvet code QN06AX02, Alti-Tryptophan, Aminomine, L-Tryptophan, L-tryptophan, Lyphan, Triptafan, Triptaphan, Triptofan, Triptofen, Triptophan, Triptophane, Tryptafan, Tryptan, Tryptaphan, Trypthophan, Tryptofan, Tryptopan, Tryptophan biosynthesis, Tryptophan metabolism, Tryptophane, Turkey meat and drowsiness.