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Index Tsar

Tsar (Old Bulgarian / Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe. [1]

207 relations: Alexis of Russia, All-Russian nation, Andrew Johnson, Armenia, Assistant to the President and Deputy National Security Advisor for Iraq and Afghanistan, Astrakhan, Autocracy, Autokrator, Šćepan Mali, Basileus, Belozersk, Białystok, Black Sox Scandal, Boris Godunov, Boris I of Bulgaria, Boris III of Bulgaria, Boris Uspensky, Bosnian language, Bulgaria, Bulgarian language, By the Grace of God, Byzantine Empire, Caesar (title), Catherine the Great, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Chernihiv, Chersonesus, Christianization of Bulgaria, Church Slavonic language, Circassia, Commissioner of Baseball, Computer security, Congress of Vienna, Congress Poland, Constantinople, Courland, Crimea, Croatia, Croatian language, Dithmarschen, Drug czar, Drug lord, Duchy of Oldenburg, Duma, Easter, Eastern Europe, Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, Emperor, Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, Epiousios, ..., Estonia, Fall of Constantinople, False Dmitry I, Feodor I of Russia, Ferdinand I of Bulgaria, First Bulgarian Empire, George Ostrogorsky, Georgia within the Russian Empire, Golden Horde, Governing Senate, Grand Duchy of Finland, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Grand Duchy of Moscow, Grand duke, Grand prince, Hanseatic League, Heir apparent, Helena of Bulgaria, Hellenistic period, Holy Roman Empire, Ichirgu-boil, Imperator, Information security, Iraq War, Istoriya Slavyanobolgarskaya, Ivan III of Russia, Ivan the Terrible, Jacques Margeret, John Uroš, Jovan Nenad, Kabardians, Kaloyan of Bulgaria, Kanasubigi, Karelia, Kartli, Kazan, Kazan Chronicle, Kenesaw Mountain Landis, Khan (title), Khanate of Kazan, Khanate of Sibir, Kiev, Kievan Rus', Kingdom of Bulgaria, Kingdom of Iberia, Kirov, Kirov Oblast, Knyaz, Kondia, Krol, Kuchum, Latin, Lazar of Serbia, List of Bulgarian monarchs, List of Russian rulers, List of Serbian monarchs, Livonia, Lord's Prayer, Macedonia (region), Magnate, Male, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, Medieval Greek, Metaphor, Mikhail of Tver, Monarch, Mongol invasion of Rus', Mongols, Moscow, Mostich, Mstsislaw, Names of Rus', Russia and Ruthenia, Nayden Gerov, Nicholas II of Russia, Nizhny Novgorod, Office of National Drug Control Policy, Old Church Slavonic, Orthodox Slavs, Ottoman Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Serbia, Paisius of Hilendar, Paul Menesius, Perm, Peter I of Bulgaria, Peter the Great, Podolia, Polotsk, Pope, Pope Clement VII, Pope Clement X, Pope Innocent III, Pskov, Queen consort, Reforms of Russian orthography, Roman emperor, Roman Empire, Rostov, Royal and noble ranks, Russian conquest of Siberia, Russian Constitution of 1906, Russian Empire, Russian language, Ryazan, Salekhard, Samogitia, Samuel Collins (physician), Samuel of Bulgaria, Schleswig-Holstein, Second Bulgarian Empire, Semigallia, Serbian Empire, Serbian epic poetry, Serbian language, Serbo-Croatian, Siberia, Sigismund III Vasa, Simeon I of Bulgaria, Simeon Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Simeon Uroš, Skopje, Slovene language, Smolensk, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, Stefan Dušan, Stefan Uroš V, Stormarn (gau), Sultan, Tatars, Third Rome, Thomas Brackett Reed, Time of Troubles, Titlo, Tsardom of Russia, Tsarevich, Tsarevna, Tsarina, Tsarist autocracy, Tsesarevich, Turkestan, Tver, Udorsky District, United States Department of Homeland Security, United States House of Representatives, Vasili III of Russia, Veliki Preslav, Veliky Novgorod, Vitebsk, Vladimir-Suzdal, Volga Bulgaria, Volhynia, Vukašin of Serbia, War in Afghanistan (2001–present), Władysław IV Vasa, West Slavic languages, Yaroslav the Wise, Yaroslavl, Yugra. Expand index (157 more) »

Alexis of Russia

Aleksey Mikhailovich (p; –) was the tsar of Russia from 12 July 1645 until his death, 29 January 1676.

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All-Russian nation

The All-Russian nation (obshcherusskiy narod), also known as the pan-Russian nation or the triune Russian nation (triyedinyy russkiy narod) is a Russophile and Russian irredentist ideology which sees the Russian nation as comprising the three historical and geographic regions of Kievan Rus' (Great Russia, Little Russia and White Russia) and branches of Rus' people, which include modern East Slavs (namely, Russians, Ukrainians and Belarusians), rather than only modern Russia and ethnic Russians.

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Andrew Johnson

Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 July 31, 1875) was the 17th President of the United States, serving from 1865 to 1869.

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Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.

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Assistant to the President and Deputy National Security Advisor for Iraq and Afghanistan

The Assistant to the President and Deputy National Security Advisor for Iraq and Afghanistan, also known by the informal expression War Czar, is a position the George W. Bush administration created to oversee the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan with authority to issue directions to the Pentagon, the State Department, and other agencies.

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Astrakhan (p) is a city in southern Russia and the administrative center of Astrakhan Oblast.

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An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).

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Autokratōr (αὐτοκράτωρ, autokrátor, αὐτοκράτορες, autokrátores, Ancient Greek pronunciation, Byzantine pronunciation lit. "self-ruler", "one who rules by himself", from αὐτός and κράτος) is a Greek epithet applied to an individual who exercises absolute power, unrestrained by superiors.

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Šćepan Mali

"Tsar" Šćepan Mali (Stephen the Little) (? - 22 September 1773) was the de facto ruler tsar of Montenegro from 1767 until his death in 1773.

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Basileus (βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title that has signified various types of monarchs in history.

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Belozersk (Белозе́рск) is a town and the administrative center of Belozersky District in Vologda Oblast, Russia, located on the southern bank of Lake Beloye, from which it takes the name, northwest of Vologda, the administrative center of the oblast.

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Białystok (Bielastok, Balstogė, Belostok, Byalistok) is the largest city in northeastern Poland and the capital of the Podlaskie Voivodeship.

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Black Sox Scandal

The Black Sox Scandal was a Major League Baseball match fixing incident in which eight members of the Chicago White Sox were accused of intentionally losing the 1919 World Series against the Cincinnati Reds in exchange for money from a gambling syndicate led by Arnold Rothstein.

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Boris Godunov

Boris Fyodorovich Godunov (Бори́с Фёдорович Годуно́в,; c. 1551) ruled the Tsardom of Russia as de facto regent from c. 1585 to 1598 and then as the first non-Rurikid tsar from 1598 to 1605.

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Boris I of Bulgaria

Boris I, also known as Boris-Mikhail (Michael) and Bogoris (Борис I / Борис-Михаил; died 2 May 907), was the ruler of the First Bulgarian Empire in 852–889.

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Boris III of Bulgaria

Boris III (Борѝс III; 28 August 1943), originally Boris Klemens Robert Maria Pius Ludwig Stanislaus Xaver (Boris Clement Robert Mary Pius Louis Stanislaus Xavier), was Tsar of Bulgaria from 1918 until his death.

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Boris Uspensky

Boris Andreyevich Uspensky (Бори́с Андре́евич Успе́нский) (born 1 March 1937, Moscow) is a Russian philologist and mythographer.

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Bosnian language

The Bosnian language (bosanski / босански) is the standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian mainly used by Bosniaks.

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Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.

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Bulgarian language

No description.

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By the Grace of God

By the Grace of God (Latin Dei Gratia, abbreviated D.G.) is an introductory part of the full styles of a monarch historically considered to be ruling by divine right, not a title in its own right.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Caesar (title)

Caesar (English Caesars; Latin Caesares) is a title of imperial character.

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Catherine the Great

Catherine II (Russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Yekaterina Alekseyevna; –), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader.

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Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor

Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.

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Chernihiv (Чернігів) also known as Chernigov (p, Czernihów) is a historic city in northern Ukraine, which serves as the administrative center of the Chernihiv Oblast (province), as well as of the surrounding Chernihiv Raion (district) within the oblast.

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Chersonesus (Khersónēsos; Chersonesus; modern Russian and Ukrainian: Херсонес, Khersones; also rendered as Chersonese, Chersonesos), in medieval Greek contracted to Cherson (Χερσών; Old East Slavic: Корсунь, Korsun) is an ancient Greek colony founded approximately 2,500 years ago in the southwestern part of the Crimean Peninsula.

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Christianization of Bulgaria

The Christianization of Bulgaria was the process by which 9th-century medieval Bulgaria converted to Christianity.

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Church Slavonic language

Church Slavonic, also known as Church Slavic, New Church Slavonic or New Church Slavic, is the conservative Slavic liturgical language used by the Orthodox Church in Bulgaria, Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, Russia, Belarus, Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Macedonia and Ukraine.

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Circassia (Адыгэ Хэку, Черке́сия, ჩერქეზეთი, شيركاسيا, Çerkesya) is a region in the and along the northeast shore of the Black Sea.

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Commissioner of Baseball

The Commissioner of Baseball is the chief executive of Major League Baseball (MLB) and the associated Minor League Baseball (MiLB) – a constellation of leagues and clubs known as organized baseball.

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Computer security

Cybersecurity, computer security or IT security is the protection of computer systems from theft of or damage to their hardware, software or electronic data, as well as from disruption or misdirection of the services they provide.

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Congress of Vienna

The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.

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Congress Poland

The Kingdom of Poland, informally known as Congress Poland or Russian Poland, was created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna as a sovereign state of the Russian part of Poland connected by personal union with the Russian Empire under the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland until 1832.

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Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.

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Courland, or Kurzeme (in Latvian; Kurāmō; German and Kurland; Curonia/Couronia; Курляндия; Kuršas; Kurlandia), is one of the historical and cultural regions in western Latvia.

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Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.

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Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.

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Croatian language

Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries.

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Dithmarschen (Low Saxon pronunciation:, archaic English: Ditmarsh, Ditmarsken, Medieval Latin: Tedmarsgo) is a district in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.

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Drug czar

Drug czar is an informal name for the person who directs drug-control policies in various areas.

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Drug lord

A drug lord, drug baron, kingpin, or narcotrafficker is a person who controls a sizable network of people involved in the illegal drug trade.

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Duchy of Oldenburg

The Duchy of Oldenburg (Herzogtum Oldenburg) — named after its capital, the town of Oldenburg — was a state in the north-west of present-day Germany.

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A duma (дума) is a Russian assembly with advisory or legislative functions.

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Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, also called Pascha (Greek, Latin) or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary 30 AD.

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Eastern Europe

Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.

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Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople

The Ecumenical Patriarch (Η Αυτού Θειοτάτη Παναγιότης, ο Αρχιεπίσκοπος Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Νέας Ρώμης και Οικουμενικός Πατριάρχης, "His Most Divine All-Holiness the Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome, and Ecumenical Patriarch") is the Archbishop of Constantinople–New Rome and ranks as primus inter pares (first among equals) among the heads of the several autocephalous churches that make up the Eastern Orthodox Church.

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An emperor (through Old French empereor from Latin imperator) is a monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm.

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Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition

The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica.

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The word epiousios (ἐπιούσιος) is a hapax legomenon found only in the Lord's Prayer as reported in the New Testament passages Matthew 6:11 and Luke 11:3.

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Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.

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Fall of Constantinople

The Fall of Constantinople (Ἅλωσις τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Halōsis tēs Kōnstantinoupoleōs; İstanbul'un Fethi Conquest of Istanbul) was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading Ottoman army on 29 May 1453.

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False Dmitry I

Dmitry I (Dmitrii) (historically known as Pseudo-Demetrius I) was the Tsar of Russia from 10 June 1605 until his death on 17 May 1606 under the name of Dimitriy Ivanovich (Дмитрий Иванович).

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Feodor I of Russia

Fyodor (Theodore) I Ivanovich (Фёдор I Иванович) or Feodor I Ioannovich (Феодор I Иоаннович); 31 May 1557 – 16 or 17 January (NS) 1598), also known as Feodor the Bellringer, was the last Rurikid Tsar of Russia (1584–1598). Feodor's mother died when he was three, and he grew up in the shadow of his father, Ivan the Terrible. A pious man of retiring disposition, Feodor took little interest in politics, and the country was effectively administered in his name by Boris Godunov, the brother of his beloved wife Irina. His childless death left the Rurikid dynasty extinct, and spurred Russia's descent into the catastrophic Time of Troubles. In Russian documents, Feodor is sometimes called blessed (Блаженный). He is also listed in the "Great Synaxaristes" of the Orthodox Church, with his feast day on January 7 (OS).

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Ferdinand I of Bulgaria

Ferdinand I (Фердинанд I; 26 February 1861 – 10 September 1948),Louda, 1981, ''Lines of Succession'', Table 149 born Ferdinand Maximilian Karl Leopold Maria of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, was the second monarch of the Third Bulgarian State, firstly as knyaz (ruling prince) from 1887 to 1908, and later as tsar (emperor) from 1908 until his abdication in 1918.

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First Bulgarian Empire

The First Bulgarian Empire (Old Bulgarian: ц︢рьство бл︢гарское, ts'rstvo bl'garskoe) was a medieval Bulgarian state that existed in southeastern Europe between the 7th and 11th centuries AD.

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George Ostrogorsky

Georgy Alexandrovič Ostrogorsky (Гео́ргий Алекса́ндрович Острого́рский; 19 January 1902–24 October 1976), known in Serbian as Georgije Ostrogorski (Георгије Острогорски) and English as George Ostrogorsky, was a Russian-born Yugoslavian historian and Byzantinist who acquired worldwide reputations in Byzantine studies.

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Georgia within the Russian Empire

The country of Georgia became part of the Russian Empire in the 19th century.

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Golden Horde

The Golden Horde (Алтан Орд, Altan Ord; Золотая Орда, Zolotaya Orda; Алтын Урда, Altın Urda) was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.

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Governing Senate

The Governing Senate (Правительствующий сенат) was a legislative, judicial, and executive body of the Russian Emperors, instituted by Peter the Great to replace the Boyar Duma and lasted until the very end of the Russian Empire.

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Grand Duchy of Finland

The Grand Duchy of Finland (Suomen suuriruhtinaskunta, Storfurstendömet Finland, Великое княжество Финляндское,; literally Grand Principality of Finland) was the predecessor state of modern Finland.

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Grand Duchy of Lithuania

The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria.

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Grand Duchy of Moscow

The Grand Duchy or Grand Principality of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское, Velikoye Knyazhestvo Moskovskoye), also known in English simply as Muscovy from the Moscovia, was a late medieval Russian principality centered on Moscow and the predecessor state of the early modern Tsardom of Russia.

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Grand duke

The monarchic title of grand duke (feminine: grand duchess) ranked in order of precedence below emperor and king, and above that of sovereign prince and sovereign duke.

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Grand prince

The title grand prince or great prince (magnus princeps, Greek: megas archon) ranked in honour below king and emperor and above a sovereign prince.

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Hanseatic League

The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.

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Heir apparent

An heir apparent is a person who is first in a line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting by the birth of another person.

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Helena of Bulgaria

Helena (Елена, Јелена; 1332–59) was a Bulgarian princess, the daughter of Sratsimir of Kran and Keratsa Petritsa and the sister of tsar (emperor) Ivan Alexander of Bulgaria, who married Serbian King and later Emperor Stefan Dušan (r. 1331–55).

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Hellenistic period

The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.

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Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.

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The Ichirgu-boila or Chargobilya (Old Bulgarian чрьгѹбылꙗ, Ичиргу боила) was a high-ranking official in the First Bulgarian Empire.

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The Latin word imperator derives from the stem of the verb imperare, meaning ‘to order, to command’.

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Information security

Information security, sometimes shortened to InfoSec, is the practice of preventing unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, inspection, recording or destruction of information.

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Iraq War

The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.

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Istoriya Slavyanobolgarskaya

Istoriya Slavyanobolgarskaya (Cyrillic: История славяноболгарская; Modern Bulgarian: История славянобългарска, Istoriya slavyanobalgarska, and translated as Slavonic-Bulgarian History) is a book by Bulgarian scholar and clergyman Saint Paisius of Hilendar.

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Ivan III of Russia

Ivan III Vasilyevich (Иван III Васильевич; 22 January 1440, Moscow – 27 October 1505, Moscow), also known as Ivan the Great, was a Grand Prince of Moscow and Grand Prince of all Rus'.

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Ivan the Terrible

Ivan IV Vasilyevich (pron; 25 August 1530 –), commonly known as Ivan the Terrible or Ivan the Fearsome (Ivan Grozny; a better translation into modern English would be Ivan the Formidable), was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547, then Tsar of All Rus' until his death in 1584.

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Jacques Margeret

Jacques Margeret (ca. 1565–1619) was a French mercenary captain who, in 1607, wrote the first printed French travel account of Muscovy, entitled, "Estate de l’Empire de Russie et de Grand Duché de Moscovie".

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John Uroš

John Uroš Nemanjić (Јован Урош, (Jovan Uroš)) or John Ouresis Doukas Palaiologos (Ιωάννης Ούρεσης Δούκας Παλαιολόγος, (Iōannēs Ouresēs Doukas Palaiologos)) was the ruler of Thessaly from c. 1370 to c. 1373, thereafter retiring as a monk.

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Jovan Nenad

Jovan Nenad (Јован Ненад; ca. 1492 – 26 July 1527), known as the Black was a Serb military commander in the service of the Kingdom of Hungary who took advantage of a Hungarian military defeat at Mohács and subsequent struggle over the Hungarian throne to carve out his own state in the southern Pannonian Plain.

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The Kabardians (Highland Adyghe: Къэбэрдей адыгэхэр; Lowland Adyghe: Къэбэртай адыгэхэр; Кабардинцы), or Kabardinians, are the largest one of the twelve Adyghe (Circassian) tribes (sub-ethnic groups).

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Kaloyan of Bulgaria

Kaloyan, also known as Kalojan, Johannitsa or Ioannitsa (Калоян; 1170 – October 1207) was emperor (or tsar) of Bulgaria from 1196 to 1207.

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Kanasubigi, possibly read as Kanas Ubigi or Kanas U Bigi was a title of the early rulers of the Bulgars.

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Karelia (Karelian, Finnish and Estonian: Karjala; Карелия, Kareliya; Karelen), the land of the Karelian peoples, is an area in Northern Europe of historical significance for Finland, Russia, and Sweden.

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Kartli (ქართლი) is a historical region in central-to-eastern Georgia traversed by the river Mtkvari (Kura), on which Georgia's capital, Tbilisi, is situated.

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Kazan (p; Казан) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia.

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Kazan Chronicle

Kazan Chronicle (Russian: Казанская летопись) or Story of the Tsardom of Kazan (Russian: История Казанского Царства) is a document written between 1560 and 1565 by a Muscovite chronicler.

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Kenesaw Mountain Landis

Kenesaw Mountain Landis (November 20, 1866 – November 25, 1944) was an American jurist who served as a federal judge from 1905 to 1922 and as the first Commissioner of Baseball from 1920 until his death.

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Khan (title)

Khan خان/khan; is a title for a sovereign or a military ruler, used by Mongolians living to the north of China. Khan has equivalent meanings such as "commander", "leader", or "ruler", "king" and "chief". khans exist in South Asia, Middle East, Central Asia, Eastern Europe, East Africa and Turkey. The female alternatives are Khatun and Khanum. These titles or names are sometimes written as Khan/خان in Persian, Han, Kan, Hakan, Hanum, or Hatun (in Turkey) and as "xan", "xanım" (in Azerbaijan), and medieval Turkic tribes.

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Khanate of Kazan

The Khanate of Kazan (Казан ханлыгы; Russian: Казанское ханство, Romanization: Kazanskoye khanstvo) was a medieval Tatar Turkic state that occupied the territory of former Volga Bulgaria between 1438 and 1552.

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Khanate of Sibir

The Khanate of Sibir, also historically called the Khanate of Turan, was a Tatar Khanate located in southwestern Siberia with a Turco-Mongol ruling class.

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Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.

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Kievan Rus'

Kievan Rus' (Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.

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Kingdom of Bulgaria

The Kingdom of Bulgaria (Царство България, Tsarstvo Bǎlgariya), also referred to as the Tsardom of Bulgaria and the Third Bulgarian Tsardom, was a constitutional monarchy in Eastern and Southeastern Europe, which was established on 5 October (O.S. 22 September) 1908 when the Bulgarian state was raised from a principality to a kingdom.

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Kingdom of Iberia

In Greco-Roman geography, Iberia (Ancient Greek: Ἰβηρία; Hiberia) was an exonym (foreign name) for the Georgian kingdom of Kartli (ქართლი), known after its core province, which during Classical Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages was a significant monarchy in the Caucasus, either as an independent state or as a dependent of larger empires, notably the Sassanid and Roman empires.

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Kirov, Kirov Oblast

Kirov (p), formerly known as Vyatka (Вя́тка) and Khlynov (Хлы́нов), is a city and the administrative center of Kirov Oblast, Russia, located on the Vyatka River.

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Knyaz or knez is a historical Slavic title, used both as a royal and noble title in different times of history and different ancient Slavic lands.

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Kondia or Konda was the name of a Mansi principality which existed independently until the mid-18th century.

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Krol is a Dutch surname.

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Kuchum Khan (Kuchum Khan of Sibir - Tatar: Küçüm, Күчүм, Russian: Кучум; in Siberian Tatar Köçöm is pronounced approximately as /kœtsœm/ - Көцөм; the name in English comes from the Tatar pronunciation) (died ca. 1605) was the last khan (ruled 1563–1598) of the Khanate of Sibir.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Lazar of Serbia

Prince Lazar Hrebeljanović (Лазар Хребељановић; ca. 1329 – 15 June 1389) was a medieval Serbian ruler who created the largest and most powerful state on the territory of the disintegrated Serbian Empire.

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List of Bulgarian monarchs

The monarchs of Bulgaria ruled the country during three periods of its history as an independent country: from the establishment of the First Bulgarian Empire in 681 to the Byzantine conquest of Bulgaria in 1018; from the Uprising of Asen and Peter that established the Second Bulgarian Empire in 1185 to the annexation of the rump Bulgarian principality into the Ottoman Empire in 1422; and from the re-establishment of an independent Bulgaria in 1878 to the abolition of monarchy in a manipulated referendum held on 15 September 1946.

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List of Russian rulers

This is a list of all reigning monarchs in the history of Russia.

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List of Serbian monarchs

This is an archontological list of Serbian monarchs, containing monarchs of the medieval principalities, to heads of state of modern Serbia.

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Livonia (Līvõmō, Liivimaa, German and Scandinavian languages: Livland, Latvian and Livonija, Inflanty, archaic English Livland, Liwlandia; Liflyandiya) is a historical region on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea.

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Lord's Prayer

The Lord's Prayer (also called the Our Father, Pater Noster, or the Model Prayer) is a venerated Christian prayer which, according to the New Testament, Jesus taught as the way to pray: Two versions of this prayer are recorded in the gospels: a longer form within the Sermon on the Mount in the Gospel of Matthew, and a shorter form in the Gospel of Luke when "one of his disciples said to him, 'Lord, teach us to pray, as John taught his disciples.'" Lutheran theologian Harold Buls suggested that both were original, the Matthaen version spoken by Jesus early in his ministry in Galilee, and the Lucan version one year later, "very likely in Judea".

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Macedonia (region)

Macedonia is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan peninsula in southeastern Europe.

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Magnate, from the Late Latin magnas, a great man, itself from Latin magnus, 'great', designates a noble or other man in a high social position, by birth, wealth or other qualities.

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A male (♂) organism is the physiological sex that produces sperm.

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Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor

Maximilian I (22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519) was King of the Romans (also known as King of the Germans) from 1486 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death, though he was never crowned by the Pope, as the journey to Rome was always too risky.

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Medieval Greek

Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th–6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453.

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A metaphor is a figure of speech that directly refers to one thing by mentioning another for rhetorical effect.

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Mikhail of Tver

Mikhail Yaroslavich (Михаил Ярославич) (1271 – 22 November 1318), also known as Michael of Tver, was a Prince of Tver (from 1285) who ruled as Grand Prince of Vladimir from 1304 until 1314 and again from 1315–1318.

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A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.

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Mongol invasion of Rus'

As part of the Mongol invasion of Europe, the Mongol Empire invaded Kievan Rus' in the 13th century, destroying numerous cities, including Ryazan, Kolomna, Moscow, Vladimir and Kiev.

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The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

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Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.

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Mostich (Мостич, Old Bulgarian: МОСТИЧЬ) was a high-ranking official in the 10th-century First Bulgarian Empire, during the rule of Simeon I and Peter I. He bore the title of Ichirgu-boil and was most likely the commander of the state capital Preslav's garrison.

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Mstislaw or Mstislavl (Мсці́слаў, Mscisłaŭ, Мстиславль, Mścisław, Mstislavlis) is a town in Mogilev Region, Eastern Belarus.

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Names of Rus', Russia and Ruthenia

Originally, the name Rus' (Русь) referred to the people, regions, and medieval states (9th to 12th centuries) of the Kievan Rus'.

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Nayden Gerov

Nayden Gerov (Найден Геров), born Nayden Gerov Hadzhidobrevich (Найден Геров Хаджидобревич) February 23, 1823, Koprivshtitsa – October 9, 1900, Plovdiv) was a Bulgarian linguist, folklorist, writer and public figure during the Bulgarian National Revival. Gerov was the son of Gero Dobrevich, a teacher. He studied at his father's school, then at a Greek school in Plovdiv from 1834 to 1836, again in his hometown until 1839, and finally in Odessa, in the Russian Empire, where he graduated from the Richelieu Lyceum in 1845. Gerov became a Russian subject and came back to Koprivshtitsa, where he established his own school, named after Saints Cyril and Methodius. He became famous for his erudition and was invited to open a gymnasium in Plovdiv as well, an invitation which he accepted. As a publicist, he fought the "Graecisation" (assimilation to Greek culture) among the Bulgarians of the time, especially in Plovidiv. At the same time, he managed to compete successfully with the Greek gymnasium in Plovdiv. During the Crimean War (1854–56), he was forced to temporarily leave the country as a Russian subject. In 1857, Gerov became "First Vice-Consul" of Russia in Plovdiv. As such, he strove to further the Bulgarian national cause, help young Bulgarians to receive scholarships abroad, etc.. He also tried to further the Liberation of Bulgaria from the Ottoman Empire, but he relied on help from Russia and was opposed to the more radical revolutionary emigres who wanted an independent uprising, such as Lyuben Karavelov, Vasil Levski, and Hristo Botev. During the April uprising (1875), he was suspected for having been one of the organizers and was forced to go into hiding and sought refuge in the Russian legation in Constantinople. After the liberation, he held some administrative offices for a short time, but soon devoted all of his time to philology. Gerov's principal work was his unique Dictionary of the Bulgarian Language (Речникъ на блъгарскый языкъ). For about fifty years, he collected, from ordinary people, a great number of words, expressions, proverbs, folk songs, and proper nouns. The first three letters were already published in 1855–1856 in Russia, but the dictionary as a whole was published in five volumes, from 1895 to 1904, with an appendix added in 1908 by Gerov's collaborator T.Panchev. The dictionary contains about 100 000 entries (if the appendix is included). It is considered an extremely valuable source for the study of the Bulgarian language of the 19th century. Gerov was also an advocate of an orthography for the Bulgarian literary language based on the etymological principle. His orthography was, however, eventually rejected in favour of the one proposed by Marin Drinov. Gerov Pass in Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named after Nayden Gerov.

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Nicholas II of Russia

Nicholas II or Nikolai II (r; 1868 – 17 July 1918), known as Saint Nicholas II of Russia in the Russian Orthodox Church, was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917.

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Nizhny Novgorod

Nizhny Novgorod (p), colloquially shortened to Nizhny, is a city in Russia and the administrative center (capital) of Volga Federal District and Nizhny Novgorod Oblast.

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Office of National Drug Control Policy

The Office of National Drug Control Policy is a component of the Executive Office of the President of the United States.

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Old Church Slavonic

Old Church Slavonic, also known as Old Church Slavic (or Ancient/Old Slavonic often abbreviated to OCS; (autonym словѣ́ньскъ ѩꙁꙑ́къ, slověnĭskŭ językŭ), not to be confused with the Proto-Slavic, was the first Slavic literary language. The 9th-century Byzantine missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius are credited with standardizing the language and using it in translating the Bible and other Ancient Greek ecclesiastical texts as part of the Christianization of the Slavs. It is thought to have been based primarily on the dialect of the 9th century Byzantine Slavs living in the Province of Thessalonica (now in Greece). It played an important role in the history of the Slavic languages and served as a basis and model for later Church Slavonic traditions, and some Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches use this later Church Slavonic as a liturgical language to this day. As the oldest attested Slavic language, OCS provides important evidence for the features of Proto-Slavic, the reconstructed common ancestor of all Slavic languages.

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Orthodox Slavs

The Orthodox Slavs form a religious grouping of the Slavic peoples, including ethnic groups and nations that predominantly adhere to the Eastern Orthodox Christian faith and whose Churches follow the Byzantine Rite liturgy.

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Ottoman Bulgaria

The history of Ottoman Bulgaria spans nearly 500 years, from the conquest by the Ottoman Empire of the smaller kingdoms emerging from the disintegrating Second Bulgarian Empire in the late 14th century, to the Liberation of Bulgaria in 1878.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Ottoman Serbia

The territory of what is now the Republic of Serbia was part of the Ottoman Empire throughout the Early Modern period, especially Central Serbia, unlike Vojvodina which has passed to Habsburg rule starting from the end of the 17th century (with several takeovers of Central Serbia as well).

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Paisius of Hilendar

Saint Paisius of Hilendar or Paìsiy Hilendàrski (Свети Паисий Хилендарски) (1722–1773) was a Bulgarian clergyman and a key Bulgarian National Revival figure.

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Paul Menesius

Paul Menesius (1637–1694, Latinized from Menzies, Russian transliteration: Павел Гаврилович Менезиус or Менезий or Миннюст) was a Scottish soldier and diplomat, who spent most of his life in the service of the Russian Tsar Alexei.

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Perm (p;Gramota.ru.) is a city and the administrative center of Perm Krai, Russia, located on the banks of the Kama River in the European part of Russia near the Ural Mountains.

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Peter I of Bulgaria

Peter I (Петър I) (died 30 January 970) was emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria from 27 May 927 to 969.

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Peter the Great

Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.

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Podolia or Podilia (Подíлля, Podillja, Подо́лье, Podolʹje., Podolya, Podole, Podolien, Podolė) is a historic region in Eastern Europe, located in the west-central and south-western parts of Ukraine and in northeastern Moldova (i.e. northern Transnistria).

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Polack (official transliteration), Polotsk or Polatsk (translit, translit, Połock, Polockas, Polotsk) is a historical city in Belarus, situated on the Dvina River.

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The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.

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Pope Clement VII

Pope Clement VII (26 May 1478 – 25 September 1534), born Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 19 November 1523 to his death on 25 September 1534.

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Pope Clement X

Pope Clement X (Clemens X; 13 July 1590 – 22 July 1676), born Emilio Bonaventura Altieri, was Pope from 29 April 1670 to his death in 1676.

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Pope Innocent III

Pope Innocent III (Innocentius III; 1160 or 1161 – 16 July 1216), born Lotario dei Conti di Segni (anglicized as Lothar of Segni) reigned from 8 January 1198 to his death in 1216.

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Pskov (p; see also names in other languages) is a city and the administrative center of Pskov Oblast, Russia, located about east from the Estonian border, on the Velikaya River.

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Queen consort

A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king (or an empress consort in the case of an emperor).

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Reforms of Russian orthography

The reform of Russian orthography refers to official and unofficial changes made to the Russian alphabet over the course of the history of the Russian language, and in particular those made between the 18th-20th centuries.

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Roman emperor

The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Rostov (p) is a town in Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia, one of the oldest in the country and a tourist center of the Golden Ring.

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Royal and noble ranks

Traditional rank amongst European royalty, peers, and nobility is rooted in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.

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Russian conquest of Siberia

The Russian conquest of Siberia took place in the 16th and 17th centuries, when the Khanate of Sibir had become a loose political structure of vassalages that were being undermined by the activities of Russian explorers.

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Russian Constitution of 1906

The Russian Constitution of 1906 refers to a major revision of the 1832 Fundamental Laws of the Russian Empire, which transformed the formerly absolutist state into one in which the Emperor agreed for the first time to share his autocratic power with a parliament.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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Russian language

Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.

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Ryazan (a) is a city and the administrative center of Ryazan Oblast, Russia, located on the Oka River southeast of Moscow.

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Salekhard (Салеха́рд; Khanty: Пуӆңават, Pułñawat; Саляʼ харад, Salja’ harad - lit. house on a peninsula) is a town and the administrative center of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Russia.

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Samogitia or Žemaitija (Samogitian: Žemaitėjė; Žemaitija; see below for alternate and historical names) is one of the five ethnographic regions of Lithuania. Žemaitija is located in northwestern Lithuania. Its largest city is Šiauliai. Žemaitija has a long and distinct cultural history, reflected in the existence of the Samogitian dialect.

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Samuel Collins (physician)

Samuel Collins (1619 – 26 October 1670; Samuel Collins I in Russian bibliography, see disambiguation) was a British doctor and author.

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Samuel of Bulgaria

Samuel (also Samuil, representing Bulgarian Самуил, pronounced, Old Church Slavonic) was the Tsar (Emperor) of the First Bulgarian Empire from 997 to 6 October 1014.

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Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany, comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig.

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Second Bulgarian Empire

The Second Bulgarian Empire (Второ българско царство, Vtorо Bălgarskо Tsarstvo) was a medieval Bulgarian state that existed between 1185 and 1396.

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Semigallia, also spelled Semigalia, (Zemgale; Semgallen; Žiemgala; Semigalia; Zemgāl) is a historical region of Latvia, sometimes also including a part of Lithuania.

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Serbian Empire

The Serbian Empire (Српско царство/Srpsko carstvo) is a historiographical term for the empire in the Balkan peninsula that emerged from the medieval Serbian Kingdom.

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Serbian epic poetry

Serb epic poetry (Српске епске народне песме/Srpske epske narodne pesme) is a form of epic poetry created by Serbs originating in today's Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia and Montenegro.

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Serbian language

Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.

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Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.

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Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.

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Sigismund III Vasa

Sigismund III Vasa (also known as Sigismund III of Poland, Zygmunt III Waza, Sigismund, Žygimantas Vaza, English exonym: Sigmund; 20 June 1566 – 30 April 1632 N.S.) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, monarch of the united Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1587 to 1632, and King of Sweden (where he is known simply as Sigismund) from 1592 as a composite monarchy until he was deposed in 1599.

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Simeon I of Bulgaria

Simeon (also Symeon) I the Great (Симеон I Велики, transliterated Simeon I Veliki) ruled over Bulgaria from 893 to 927,Lalkov, Rulers of Bulgaria, pp.

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Simeon Saxe-Coburg-Gotha

Simeon II of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: Симеон Борисов Сакскобургготски, (transliteration: Simeon Borisov Sakskoburggotski) or Цар Симеон II (Tsar Simeon II); Wettin; Simeone di Sassonia-Coburgo-Gotha; born 16 June 1937) is the last reigning Bulgarian monarch and later served as Prime Minister of Bulgaria from 2001 to 2005.

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Simeon Uroš

Simeon Uroš (Симеон Урош, Συμεών Ούρεσης; 1326–1370), nicknamed Siniša (Синиша), was the Emperor of Epirus from 1359 to 1366, and of Thessaly from 1359 until his death in 1370.

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Skopje (Скопје) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Macedonia.

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Slovene language

Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.

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Smolensk (a) is a city and the administrative center of Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located on the Dnieper River, west-southwest of Moscow.

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Speaker of the United States House of Representatives

The Speaker of the House is the presiding officer of the United States House of Representatives.

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Stefan Dušan

Stefan Uroš IV Dušan (Стефан Урош IV Душан), known as Dušan the Mighty (Душан Силни/Dušan Silni; 1308 – 20 December 1355), was the King of Serbia from 8 September 1331 and Emperor of the Serbs and Greeks from 16 April 1346 until his death.

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Stefan Uroš V

Saint Stefan Uroš V (Свети Стефан Урош V; 13362/4 December 1371), known in historiography as Uroš the Weak (Урош Нејаки/Uroš Nejaki), was the second Emperor (Tsar) of the Serbian Empire (1355–1371), and before that he was co-regent of his father Stefan Uroš IV Dušan ''Silni'' ("The Mighty") (1346-1355).

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Stormarn (gau)

Stormarn was a gau which, alongside Holstein and Dithmarschen, was one of the three Northern Albingian Saxon gaus.

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Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.

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The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.

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Third Rome

Third Rome is the hypothetical successor to the legacy of ancient Rome (the "first Rome").

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Thomas Brackett Reed

Thomas Brackett Reed (October 18, 1839 – December 7, 1902), occasionally ridiculed as Czar Reed, was a U.S. Representative from Maine, and Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1889–1891 and also from 1895–1899.

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Time of Troubles

The Time of Troubles (Смутное время, Smutnoe vremya) was a period of Russian history comprising the years of interregnum between the death of the last Russian Tsar of the Rurik Dynasty, Feodor Ivanovich, in 1598, and the establishment of the Romanov Dynasty in 1613.

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Titlo is an extended diacritic symbol initially used in early Cyrillic manuscripts, e.g., in Old Church Slavonic and Old East Slavic languages.

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Tsardom of Russia

The Tsardom of Russia (Русское царство, Russkoye tsarstvo or Российское царство, Rossiyskoye tsarstvo), also known as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the name of the centralized Russian state from assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721.

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Tsarevich (Царе́вич) is a Slavic title given to tsars' sons.

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Tsarevna (Царевна) was the daughter of a Tsar of Russia before the 18th century.

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Tsaritsa, tsarina or Tsaritsa) is the title of a female autocratic ruler (monarch) of Bulgaria, Serbia or Russia, or the title of a tsar's wife. The English spelling is derived from the German czarin or zarin, in the same way as the French tsarine/czarine, and the Spanish and Italian czarina/zarina. For a Tsar's daughters see tsarevna. "Tsaritsa" was the title of the female supreme ruler in the following states.

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Tsarist autocracy

Tsarist autocracy (царское самодержавие, transcr. tsarskoye samoderzhaviye) is a form of autocracy (later absolute monarchy) specific to the Grand Duchy of Moscow, which later became Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire.

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Tsesarevich (Цесаре́вич) was the title of the heir apparent or presumptive in the Russian Empire.

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Turkestan, also spelt Turkistan (literally "Land of the Turks" in Persian), refers to an area in Central Asia between Siberia to the north and Tibet, India and Afghanistan to the south, the Caspian Sea to the west and the Gobi Desert to the east.

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Tver (p; IPA: tvʲerʲi) is a city and the administrative center of Tver Oblast, Russia.

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Udorsky District

Udorsky District (Удо́рский райо́н; Удора район) is an administrative district (raion), one of the twelve in the Komi Republic, Russia.

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United States Department of Homeland Security

The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is a cabinet department of the United States federal government with responsibilities in public security, roughly comparable to the interior or home ministries of other countries.

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United States House of Representatives

The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.

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Vasili III of Russia

Vasili III Ivanovich (Василий III Иванович, also Basil; 26 March 14793 December 1533, Moscow) was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1505 to 1533.

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Veliki Preslav

The modern Veliki Preslav or Great Preslav (Велики Преслав), former Preslav (until 1993), is a city and the seat of government of the Veliki Preslav Municipality (Great Preslav Municipality, new Bulgarian: obshtina), which in turn is part of Shumen Province.

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Veliky Novgorod

Veliky Novgorod (p), also known as Novgorod the Great, or Novgorod Veliky, or just Novgorod, is one of the most important historic cities in Russia, which serves as the administrative center of Novgorod Oblast.

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Vitebsk, or Vitsebsk (Ві́цебск, Łacinka: Viciebsk,; Витебск,, Vitebskas), is a city in Belarus.

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Vladimir-Suzdal (Владимирско-Су́здальская, Vladimirsko-Suzdal'skaya), formally known as the Grand Duchy of Vladimir (1157–1331) (Владимиро-Су́здальское кня́жество, Vladimiro-Suzdal'skoye knyazhestvo), was one of the major principalities that succeeded Kievan Rus' in the late 12th century, centered in Vladimir-on-Klyazma.

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Volga Bulgaria

Volga Bulgaria (Идел буе Болгар дәүләте, Атӑлҫи Пӑлхар), or Volga–Kama Bulghar, was a historic Bulgar state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers, in what is now European Russia.

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Volhynia, also Volynia or Volyn (Wołyń, Volýn) is a historic region in Central and Eastern Europe straddling between south-eastern Poland, parts of south-western Belarus, and western Ukraine.

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Vukašin of Serbia

King Vukašin of Serbia, also known as Vukašin Mrnjavčević (Вукашин Мрњавчевић,; c. 1320 – 26 September 1371) was a Serbian king and co-ruler of Serbian Emperor Stefan Uroš V from 1365 to 1371.

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War in Afghanistan (2001–present)

The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan; code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)) followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001.

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Władysław IV Vasa

Władysław IV Vasa (Władysław IV Waza; Vladislovas Vaza; r; Vladislaus IV Vasa or Ladislaus IV Vasa; 9 June 1595 – 20 May 1648) was a Polish prince from the Royal House of Vasa.

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West Slavic languages

The West Slavic languages are a subdivision of the Slavic language group.

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Yaroslav the Wise

Yaroslav I, Grand Prince of Rus, known as Yaroslav the Wise or Iaroslav the Wise (tr; Jaroslav Mudryj; Jaroslav Mudryj; Jarizleifr Valdamarsson;; Iaroslaus Sapiens; c. 978 – 20 February 1054) was thrice grand prince of Veliky Novgorod and Kiev, uniting the two principalities for a time under his rule.

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Yaroslavl (p) is a city and the administrative center of Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia, located northeast of Moscow.

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Yugra or Iuhra (Old Russian Югра Jugra; Byzantine Greek Οὔγγροι Oὔggroi) was a collective name for lands and peoples between the Pechora River and Urals (modern north-west Russia), in the Russian annals of the 12th–17th Centuries.

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Redirects here:

Cazr, Csar, Csardom, Csars, Czar, Czar of all the Russias, Czardom, Czarism, Czarist, Czars, Czars of Russia, Emperor of All Russias, Empress of All Russias, Gosudar of Russia, Russian Czar, Russian Emperor, Russian Tsar, Russian emporer, Russian tsar, Style of the Russian sovereign, Tsar', Tsardom, Tsarina of Russia, Tsarisem, Tsarist period, Tsars, Tzar, Tzar of Russia, Tzardom, Tzars, Царь.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tsar

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