229 relations: Aïr Mountains, Abalessa, Acacia, Adobe, Adrar des Ifoghas, Afroasiatic languages, Ag Mohammed Wau Teguidda Kaocen, Agadez, Air Tamajeq language, Akoubounou, Alasho, Alberto Vázquez-Figueroa, Algeria, Amenokal, Amulet, Arabs, Assegai, Assodé, Azawad, Azawagh, Azjar, Banu Hilal, Banu Sulaym, Beau Geste, Berber languages, Berberism, Berbers, Bilal Ag Acherif, Bilma, Blacksmith, Bombino (musician), Brigi Rafini, Broken plural, Burkina Faso, Burnous, Camel milk, Camel train, Capsian culture, Casablanca, Charles de Foucauld, Clan, Crop (implement), Cure Salee, Dairy, Date palm, David W. Ball, Désert (novel), Decolonisation of Africa, Desertification, Djanet, ..., Eghajira, Empires of Sand, Endogamy, English language, Ethnic flag, Ethnic group, Ethnologue, Etran Finatawa, Exonym and endonym, Fachi, Festival au Désert, Fezzan, Francis Rodd, 2nd Baron Rennell, French colonial empire, French Foreign Legion, French language, French Sudan, French West Africa, Fufu, Fula people, Gao, Ghadames, Ghana Empire, Ghat, Libya, Goat cheese, Grammy Award, Group Bombino, Haplogroup E-M215 (Y-DNA), Haplogroup E-V38, Haplogroup E-Z827, Haplogroup H (mtDNA), Haplogroup L0 (mtDNA), Haplogroup L1 (mtDNA), Haplogroup L2 (mtDNA), Haplogroup L3 (mtDNA), Haplogroup M (mtDNA), Haplogroup U (mtDNA), Haplogroup V (mtDNA), Hawad, Hoggar Mountains, Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, Iberomaurusian, Ikelan, Imarhan, Imzad, In-Gall, Inadan (African caste), Indigo, Islam, Issouf Ag Maha, Iwellemmedan people, Iyad Ag Ghaly, J. M. G. Le Clézio, Jedars, Jewellery, Jews, Kabyle people, Karl-Gottfried Prasse, Kel Adagh, Kel Ahaggar, Kel Ajjer, Kel Ayr, Kel Gres, Kel Owey, Kidal, Kidal Region, Ladle (spoon), Libya, List of Prime Ministers of Niger, Litham, Maghreb, Maghrebi Arabic, Mahamadou Djeri Maïga, Mahmoud Ag Aghaly, Mali, Mali Empire, Malika Mokeddem, Maliki, Mano Dayak, Marabout, Mark Harmon, Masina, Kinshasa, Matrilineality, Ménaka, Mdou Moctar, Menaka, Middle Atlas, Millet, Mohamed Ag Najem, Moussa Ag Acharatoumane, Moussa Ag Amastan, Mozabite people, National Museum of African Art, Negroid, Niamey, Niger, Niger Armed Forces, Niger Movement for Justice, Niger–Congo languages, Nigeria, Nilo-Saharan languages, Nilotic peoples, Nioro du Sahel, Nobility, Nomad, Ochre, Oral tradition, Orion (constellation), P. C. Wren, Pastoral, Pastoralism, Paul Flatters, Peace Corps, Pleiades, Population growth, Porridge, Quran, Rhissa Ag Boula, Sahara, Sahara (2005 film), Sahel, Scramble for Africa, Smithsonian Institution, Sokoto Caliphate, Songhai Empire, Songhay languages, Sport utility vehicle, Spread of Islam, Sudan (region), Sufism, Sultanate of Agadez, Sunni Islam, Tafilalt, Tagelmust, Taguella, Takoba, Tamahaq language, Tamasheq language, Tanbur, Tanout, Taoudenni, Tawellemmet language, Ténéré, Tchintabaraden, Tende, Tent, Tessaoua, Tifinagh, Timbuktu, Timia, Tin Hinan, Tin Hinan Tomb, Tinariwen, Traditional Berber religion, Trans-Saharan trade, Tuareg (novel), Tuareg – The Desert Warrior, Tuareg languages, Tuareg rebellion (1962–1964), Tuareg rebellion (1990–1995), Tuareg rebellion (2007–2009), Ugali, Ulama, Umayyad Caliphate, University of California, Los Angeles, Ursa Major, Ursa Minor, Usman dan Fodio, Veil, Venus, Volkswagen, Volkswagen Touareg, Wodaabe, World music, Wrapper (clothing), Yellowcake, Yogurt, Zinder, Zodi Ikhia. Expand index (179 more) » « Shrink index
The Aïr Mountains or Aïr Massif (Ayăr; Hausa: Eastern Azbin, Western Abzin) is a triangular massif, located in northern Niger, within the Sahara Desert.
Abalessa is a town and commune in Tamanrasset Province, in southern Algeria, coextensive with the district of the same name.
Acacia, commonly known as the wattles or acacias, is a large genus of shrubs and trees in the subfamily Mimosoideae of the pea family Fabaceae.
Adobe is a building material made from earth and other organic materials.
The Adrar des Ifoghas (also Adrar des Iforas; Tamasheq: ⴰⴷⵔⴰⵔ ⵏ ⵉⴼⵓⵖⴰⵙ in Tifinagh; Adrar n Ifoghas; أدرار إيفوغاس Ifoghas' Mountain) is a massif in located in the Kidal Region of Mali, reaching into Algeria.
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.
Kaocen Ag Geda (1880–1919) (also known as Kaocen, Kaosen, Kawen) was a Tuareg noble and clan leader.
Agadez, formerly spelled Agades, is the largest city in central Niger, with a population of 118,244 (2012 census).
Air Tamajeq (Tayiṛt) is a variety of Tamasheq, one of the Tuareg languages.
Akoubounou, or Akabinu in the local Tin Sert language, is a village located in the west to the town of Abalak, in the Tahoua Region of Niger.
Alasho is an indigenous Hausa long turban, worn across the head and neck.
Alberto Vázquez-Figueroa (born 11 October 1936 in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands) is a Spanish novelist, inventor and industrialist.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Amenokal is a title for the highest Tuareg traditional chiefs.
An amulet is an object that is typically worn on one's person, that some people believe has the magical or miraculous power to protect its holder, either to protect them in general or to protect them from some specific thing; it is often also used as an ornament though that may not be the intended purpose of it.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
An assegai or assagai (Latin hasta, cf Arabic az-zaġāyah, Berber zaġāya "spear", Old French azagaie, Spanish azagaya, Italian zagaglia, Chaucer lancegay) is a pole weapon used for throwing, usually a light spear or javelin made of wood and pointed with iron or fire-hardened tip.
Assodé was a town in the Aïr Mountains in what is now northern Niger.
Azawad (Tuareg: ⴰⵣⴰⵓⴷ, Azawad; أزواد, ʾĀzawād) is the name given to northern Mali by Berbers Touareg rebels, as well as a former short-lived unrecognised proto-state.
The Azawagh (alias Azaouagh or Azawak) is a dry basin covering what is today northwestern Niger, as well as parts of northeastern Mali and southern Algeria.
Azjar is an African region, probably the most ancient Tuareg confederation, with stronghold in the oasis-city of Ghat.
The Banu Hilal (Arabic: بنو هلال or الهلاليين) was a confederation of tribes of Arabia from the Hejaz and Najd regions of the Arabian Peninsula that emigrated to North Africa in the 11th century.
The Banu Sulaym (بنو سليم) were an Arab tribe that dominated part of the Hejaz in the pre-Islamic era.
Beau Geste is an adventure novel by P. C. Wren, which details the adventures of three English brothers who enlist separately in the French Foreign Legion following the theft of a valuable jewel from the country house of a relative.
The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
Berberism (Berber: Timmuzɣa or Tamaziɣiẓri) or Amazighism is a Berber political-cultural movement of ethnic, geographic, or cultural nationalism, started mainly in Kabylia, Algeria, and in Morocco and later spreading to the rest of the Berber communities in North Africa.
Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.
Bilal Ag Acherif (born 1977, last name alternatively spelled Cherif) is the Secretary-General of the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA) and president of a briefly independent Azawad.
Bilma is an oasis town and commune in north east Niger with a population of 4,016 people.
A blacksmith is a metalsmith who creates objects from wrought iron or steel by forging the metal, using tools to hammer, bend, and cut (cf. whitesmith).
Omara "Bombino" Moctar (in Tifinagh ⴱⵓⵎⴱⵉⵏⵓ; b. 1980) is a Nigerien singer-songwriter and guitarist.
Brigi Rafini (born 7 April 1953) is a Nigerien politician who has been Prime Minister of Niger since 2011.
In linguistics, a broken plural (or internal plural) is an irregular plural form of a noun or adjective found in the Semitic languages and other Afroasiatic languages such as Berber.
Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West Africa.
A burnous (ⴰⴱⵔⵏⵓⵙ, burnus) also spelled "burnoose", "bournous" or "barnous", from the Berber abernus via the Latin "Birrus" itself from the Greek βίρρος (birros) according to the Encyclopédie berbère, is a long cloak of coarse woollen fabric with a hood, usually white in color, worn by the Algerian Berbers first before it spread to other parts of the Maghreb region.
Camel's milk has supported Bedouin, nomad and pastoral cultures since the domestication of camels millennia ago.
A camel train or caravan is a series of camels carrying passengers and/or goods on a regular or semi-regular service between points.
The Capsian culture was a Mesolithic culture centered in the Maghreb that lasted from about 10,000 to 6,000 BC.
Casablanca (ad-dār al-bayḍāʾ; anfa; local informal name: Kaẓa), located in the central-western part of Morocco bordering the Atlantic Ocean, is the largest city in Morocco.
Charles Eugene Vicomte de Foucauld de Pontbriand (15 September 1858 – 1 December 1916) was a French Catholic religious and priest living among the Tuareg in the Sahara in Algeria.
A clan is a group of people united by actual or perceived kinship and descent.
A crop, sometimes called a riding crop or hunting crop, is a short type of whip without a lash, used in horse riding, part of the family of tools known as horse whips.
The Cure Salée (French: "Salt Cure"), or "Festival of the Nomads", is a yearly gathering of the Tuareg and Wodaabe peoples in the northern Niger town of Ingall.
A dairy is a business enterprise established for the harvesting or processing (or both) of animal milk – mostly from cows or goats, but also from buffaloes, sheep, horses, or camels – for human consumption.
Phoenix dactylifera, commonly known as date or date palm, is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit.
David Wadsworth Ball (born September 12, 1949) is an American author whose novels include Empires of Sand (1999), China Run (2002) and Ironfire (2004).
Désert is a novel written by French Nobel laureate writer J. M. G. Le Clézio, considered to be one of his breakthrough novels.
The decolonisation of Africa took place in the mid-to-late 1950s, very suddenly, with little preparation.
Desertification is a type of land degradation in which a relatively dry area of land becomes increasingly arid, typically losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife.
Djanet (جانت) is an oasis city, and capital of Djanet District, in Illizi Province, southeast Algeria.
Eghajira is a sweet, thick drink made from grain and fruit, usually drunk by the Tuaregs on special occasions.
Empires of Sand is a 1999 novel by American writer David W. Ball.
Endogamy is the practice of marrying within a specific social group, caste or ethnic group, rejecting those from others as unsuitable for marriage or other close personal relationships.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
An ethnic flag is a flag that symbolizes a certain ethnic group.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
Etran Finatawa is a Niger-based band, formed in 2004 during the Festival au Désert near Timbuktu, Mali.
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.
Fachi is an oasis surrounded by the Ténéré desert and the dunes of the Erg of Bilma in eastern Niger, placed on the western edge of the small Agram mountain outcropping.
The Festival au désert ("Festival in the Desert") was an annual concert in Mali, showcasing traditional Tuareg music as well as music from around the world.
Fezzan (ⴼⴻⵣⵣⴰⵏ, Fezzan; فزان, Fizzān; Fizan; Phasania) or Phazania is the southwestern region of modern Libya.
Major General Francis James Rennell Rodd, 2nd Baron Rennell KBE CB DL JP (25 October 1895 – 15 March 1978) was the second but eldest surviving son of the diplomat Rennell Rodd, 1st Baron Rennell.
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.
The French Foreign Legion (Légion étrangère) (FFL; Légion étrangère, L.É.) is a military service branch of the French Army established in 1831.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
French Sudan (Soudan français; السودان الفرنسي) was a French colonial territory in the federation of French West Africa from around 1880 until 1960, when it became the independent state of Mali.
French West Africa (Afrique occidentale française, AOF) was a federation of eight French colonial territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea, Ivory Coast, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso), Dahomey (now Benin) and Niger.
Fufu (variants of the name include foofoo, fufuo, foufou) is a staple food common in many countries in Africa such as Ghana, Liberia and Nigeria.
The Fula people or Fulani or Fulany or Fulɓe (Fulɓe; Peul; Fulani or Hilani; Fula; Pël; Fulaw), numbering between 40 and 50 million people in total, are one of the largest ethnic groups in the Sahel and West Africa, widely dispersed across the region.
Gao is a city in Mali and the capital of the Gao Region.
Ghadames or Ghadamis (Berber: ʕademis; غدامس ɣadāmis, Libyan vernacular: ɣdāməs, Latin: Cidamus, Cydamus) is an oasis Berber town in the Nalut District of the Tripolitania region in northwestern Libya.
The Ghana Empire (700 until 1240), properly known as Awkar (Ghana or Ga'na being the title of its ruler), was located in the area of present-day southeastern Mauritania and western Mali.
Ghat (Berber: Ɣat or ⵗⴰⵜ; غات) is the capital of the Ghat District in the Fezzan region of southwestern Libya.
Goat cheese, goats' cheese, or chèvre (or; from the French word for goat), is cheese made from goat's milk.
A Grammy Award (stylized as GRAMMY, originally called Gramophone Award), or Grammy, is an award presented by The Recording Academy to recognize achievement in the music industry.
Group Bombino is a music group of Agadez, Niger led by Tuareg guitarist Omara Moctar and including some of the members of their associates Group Inerane.
E-M215, also known as E1b1b and formerly E3b, is a major human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup E-V38 is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
E-Z827, also known as E1b1b1b, is a major human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup H is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.
Haplogroup L0 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.
Haplogroup L1 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.
Haplogroup L2 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup with a widespread modern distribution, particularly in Subequatorial Africa.
Haplogroup L3 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.
Haplogroup M is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.
Haplogroup U is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup (mtDNA).
Haplogroup V is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.
Hawad, sometimes Mahmoudan Hawad, (born 1950) is a Tuareg poet and author born in the Aïr region of Niger and who currently lives and publishes from Aix-en-Provence, France.
The Hoggar Mountains (جبال هقار, Berber: idurar n Ahaggar, Tuareg: Idurar Uhaggar), also known as the Ahaggar Mountains, are a highland region in the central Sahara, southern Algeria, along the Tropic of Cancer.
In human genetics, a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup is a haplogroup defined by mutations in the non-recombining portions of DNA from the Y-chromosome (called Y-DNA).
The Iberomaurusian ("of Iberia and Mauritania"; it was once believed that it extended into Spain) or Oranian is a backed bladelet lithic industry found throughout North Africa.
The Ikelan (Éklan/Ikelan or Ibenheren in Tamasheq; Bouzou in Hausa; Bella in Songhai; singular Akli) are a caste within Tuareg society, who were at one time slaves or servile communities.
Imarhan is an Algerian Tuareg desert rock quintet formed in 2006, in Tamanrasset, Algeria.
The imzad (alternately amzad) is a single-string bowed instrument used by the Tuareg people in Africa.
In-Gall (var. In Gall, I-n-Gall, In-Gal, Ingal, Ingall) is a town in the Agadez Region, Tchirozerine Department of northeast Niger, with a year-round population of less than 500.
The Inadan, also referred to as Enad or Tinadan, have been one of the historic artisan castes in West Africa, particularly among the Tuareg people.
Indigo is a deep and rich color close to the color wheel blue (a primary color in the RGB color space), as well as to some variants of ultramarine.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Issouf ag Maha (Agadez, 1962) is a Nigerien Tuareg writer.
The Iwellemmedan (Iwəlləmədǎn), also spelled Iullemmeden, Aulliminden, Ouilliminden, Lullemmeden, and Iwellemmeden, are one of the seven major Tuareg tribal or clan confederations (called "Drum groups").
Iyad Ag Ghaly (اياد اغ غالي, sometimes romanised as Ag Ghali), also known as Abū al-Faḍl (أبو الفضل), is a Tuareg militant from Mali's Kidal Region.
Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio (born 13 April 1940), usually identified as J. M. G. Le Clézio, is a French writer and professor.
Jedars (French spelling: Djedars) are thirteen Berber mausoleums located south of Tiaret city in Algeria.
Jewellery (British English) or jewelry (American English)see American and British spelling differences consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and cufflinks.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
The Kabyle people (Kabyle: Iqbayliyen) are a Berber ethnic group indigenous to Kabylia in the north of Algeria, spread across the Atlas Mountains, one hundred miles east of Algiers.
Karl-Gottfried Prasse (14 August 1929 in Hamburg – 12 april 2018) was a Danish linguist with a focus in the Berber language.
The Kel Adagh (var. Kel Adrar, Kel Adghagh, less commonly Kel Ifoghas) are a Tuareg confederation of clans (or "Drum-Groups") living in the region of the Adrar des Iforas highlands in Mali.
Kel Ahaggar (Berber: ⴾⵍ ⵂⴴⵔ) (trans: "People of Ahaggar") is a Tuareg confederation inhabiting the Hoggar Mountains (Ahaggar mountains) in Algeria.
Kel Ajjer (also Kel Azjar, Kel Azjer) is a Tuareg confederation inhabiting western Libya and eastern Algeria.
Kel Ayr (also Kel Aïr) was a semi-nomadic Tuareg tribal confederation.
Kel Gres is a tribal confederation of Tuareg clans (or "Drum-groups").
The Kel Owey (var. Kel Owi, Kel Ewey form People of the Bull) are a Tuareg clan confederation.
Kidal (Tuareg-Berber: ⴾⴸⵍ, Kidal) is a town and commune in the desert region of northern Mali.
Kidal Region is the eighth administrative region of Mali, covering.
A ladle (dipper) is a type of spoon used for soup, stew, or other foods.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
This is a list of Prime Ministers of Niger since the formation of the post of Prime Minister of Niger in 1983 to the present day.
Litham (lithām, sometimes pronounced lifam) is a mouth-veil which the Bedouin, particularly men, have traditionally used to cover the lower part of their face.
The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.
Maghrebi Arabic (Western Arabic; as opposed to Eastern Arabic or Mashriqi Arabic) is an Arabic dialect continuum spoken in the Maghreb region, in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Western Sahara, and Mauritania.
Mahamadou Djeri Maïga (alias Mohamed Jerry Maïga or Mahamadou Maiga Djeri) was the Vice-President of the Transitional Council of the State of Azawad, established by the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA).
Mahmoud Ag Aghaly (last name also spelled Ghaly or Ghali) is the president of the political bureau of the MNLA and the President of the Executive Committee directing the self-proclaimed Independent State of Azawad as of 6 April 2012.
Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton.
The Mali Empire (Manding: Nyeni or Niani; also historically referred to as the Manden Kurufaba, sometimes shortened to Manden) was an empire in West Africa from 1230 to 1670.
Malika Mokeddem (Kenadsa, Algeria; October 5, 1949) is an Algerian Tuareg writer.
The (مالكي) school is one of the four major madhhab of Islamic jurisprudence within Sunni Islam.
Mano Dayak was a Tuareg freedom fighter, leader, and negotiator.
A marabout (lit) is a Muslim religious leader and teacher in West Africa, and (historically) in the Maghreb.
Thomas Mark Harmon (born September 2, 1951) is an American television and film actor.
Masina is a municipality (commune) in the Tshangu district of Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Matrilineality is the tracing of descent through the female line.
Ménaka is a town and urban commune in Ménaka Cercle and Ménaka Region in eastern Mali.
Mdou Moctar (also known as M.dou Mouktar; born 1986) is a Tuareg songwriter and musician based in Agadez, Niger, and is one of the first musicians to perform modern electronic adaptations of Tuareg guitar music.
In Hindu mythology, Menaka() is considered one of the most beautiful of the heavenly Apsaras.
The Middle Atlas (Amazigh: ⴰⵟⵍⴰⵙ ⴰⵏⴰⵎⵎⴰⵙ, Atlas Anammas, Arabic: الأطلس المتوسط, al-Aṭlas al-Mutawassiṭ) is a mountain range in Morocco.
Millets (/ˈmɪlɪts/) are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food.
Mohamed Ag Najem (alias Ag Mohamed Najem, alternatively spelled Mahamed Ag Najim) is the chief of staff of the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA) army.
Moussa Ag Acharatoumane serves as a spokesperson for the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA) and was based in Paris, France as recently as 22 March 2012.
Musa Ag Amastan (1867–1920) was the Chief (Amenokal) of the Kel Ahaggar Tuareg from 1905 to 1920.
The Mozabite people are a Berber ethnic group inhabiting the M'zab natural region in the northern Sahara in Algeria.
The National Museum of African Art is the Smithsonian Institution's African art museum, located on the National Mall of the United States capital.
Negroid (also known as Congoid) is a grouping of human beings historically regarded as a biological taxon.
Niamey is the capital and largest city of the West African country Niger.
Niger, also called the Niger officially the Republic of the Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa named after the Niger River.
The Niger Armed Forces (Forces Armées Nigeriennes) (FAN) includes military armed force service branches (Niger Army and Niger Air Force), paramilitary services branches (National Gendarmerie of Niger and National Guard of Niger) and the National Police.
The Nigerien's Movement for Justice (in French Mouvement des Nigériens pour la justice, MNJ) is a largely Tuareg ethnic, northern Niger based militant group.
The Niger–Congo languages constitute one of the world's major language families and Africa's largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers and number of distinct languages.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
The Nilo-Saharan languages are a proposed family of African languages spoken by some 50–60 million people, mainly in the upper parts of the Chari and Nile rivers, including historic Nubia, north of where the two tributaries of the Nile meet.
The Nilotic peoples are peoples indigenous to the Nile Valley who speak Nilotic languages, which constitute a large sub-group of the Nilo-Saharan languages spoken in South Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, and northern Tanzania.
Nioro du Sahel often referred to as simply Nioro is a town and urban commune in the Kayes Region of western Mali, 241 km from the city of Kayes.
Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
Ochre (British English) (from Greek: ὤχρα, from ὠχρός, ōkhrós, pale) or ocher (American English) is a natural clay earth pigment which is a mixture of ferric oxide and varying amounts of clay and sand.
Oral tradition, or oral lore, is a form of human communication where in knowledge, art, ideas and cultural material is received, preserved and transmitted orally from one generation to another.
Orion is a prominent constellation located on the celestial equator and visible throughout the world.
Percival Christopher Wren (1 November 187522 November 1941) was an English writer, mostly of adventure fiction.
A pastoral lifestyle (see pastoralism) is that of shepherds herding livestock around open areas of land according to seasons and the changing availability of water and pasture.
Pastoralism is the branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock.
Paul Flatters (16 September 1832 – 16 February 1881) was a French soldier who spent a long period as a military administrator in Algeria.
The Peace Corps is a volunteer program run by the United States government.
The Pleiades (also known as the Seven Sisters and Messier 45), are an open star cluster containing middle-aged, hot B-type stars located in the constellation of Taurus.
In biology or human geography, population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population.
Porridge (also historically spelled porage, porrige, parritch) is a food commonly eaten as a breakfast cereal dish, made by boiling ground, crushed or chopped starchy plants—typically grain—in water or milk.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Rhissa Ag Boula is a Nigerien Tuareg politician and former leader of rebel factions in both the 1990–1995 and the 2007–2009 Tuareg based Insurgencies.
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
Sahara is a 2005 action-comedy adventure film directed by Breck Eisner that is based on the best-selling book of the same name by Clive Cussler.
The Sahel is the ecoclimatic and biogeographic zone of transition in Africa between the Sahara to the north and the Sudanian Savanna to the south.
The Scramble for Africa was the occupation, division, and colonization of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism, between 1881 and 1914.
The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.
The Sokoto Caliphate was an independent Islamic Sunni Caliphate, in West Africa.
The Songhai Empire (also transliterated as Songhay) was a state that dominated the western Sahel in the 15th and 16th century.
The Songhay or Songhai languages are a group of closely related languages/dialects centred on the middle stretches of the Niger River in the West African countries of Mali, Niger, Benin, Burkina Faso and Nigeria.
Sport-utility (vehicle), SUV or sport-ute is an automotive classification, typically a kind of station wagon / estate car with off-road vehicle features like raised ground clearance and ruggedness, and available four-wheel drive.
Early Muslim conquests in the years following Muhammad's death led to the creation of the caliphates, occupying a vast geographical area; conversion to Islam was boosted by missionary activities, particularly those of Imams, who intermingled with local populations to propagate the religious teachings.
The Sudan is the geographic region to the south of the Sahara, stretching from Western to eastern Central Africa.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
The Sultanate of Agadez (also known as Tenere Sultanate of Aïr, Sultanate of Aïr") was a Berber kingdom centered in the city of Agadez in the Aïr Mountains, located at the southern edge of the Sahara desert in north-central Niger. It was founded in 1449 by the Tuareg. The Agadez Sultanate was later conquered by the Songhai Empire in 1500. After the defeat of the Songhai kingdom in 1591, the Agadez Sultanate regained its independence. It experienced a steep decline in population and economic activity during the 17th century. The kingdom was later conquered by the French in 1900.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Tafilalt or Tafilet (Berber: Tafilalt, ⵜⴰⴼⵉⵍⴰⵍⵜ; تافيلالت), historically Sijilmasa, is a region and the largest oasis in Morocco.
The tagelmust (also known as cheich, cheche and litham) is an indigo-dyed cotton garment, with the appearance of both a veil and a turban.
Taguella is a flat bread, the staple dish of Tuareg people living in the Sahara.
Takoba (also takuba or takouba) is the sword that is used across the western Sahel and among ethnic groups such as the Tuareg, the Hausa, and the Fulani.
Tamahaq (Tahaggart Tamahaq, Tamahaq Tahaggart) is the only known Northern Tuareg language, spoken in Algeria, western Libya and northern Niger.
Tamasheq is a variety of the Tuareg languages.
The terms Tanbur, Tanbūr, Tanbura, Tambur, Tambura or Tanboor can refer to various long-necked, string instruments originating in Mesopotamia, Southern or Central Asia.
Tanout is a town in southern Niger.
Taoudenni (also Taoudeni, Taoudénit, Taudeni, Tawdenni) is a remote salt mining center in the desert region of northern Mali, north of Timbuktu.
Tawellemmet (Tawəlləmmət) is the largest of the Tuareg languages in the Berber branch of the Afroasiatic family.
The Ténéré (Berber: Tiniri, literally: desert, wilderness) is a desert region in the south central Sahara.
Tchintabaraden (var. Tchin-Tabaraden, Tchin Tabaraden) is a town and commune located in the Azawagh area of Niger, in the north of the Tahoua Region.It is the capital of the region's Tchintabaraden Department.
Tende (in Italian, Occitan and Royasc: Tenda) is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in southeastern France.
A tent is a shelter consisting of sheets of fabric or other material draped over, attached to a frame of poles or attached to a supporting rope.
Tessaoua, formerly known as Tessawa, is a city located in the Maradi Region of Niger.
Tifinagh (also written Tifinaɣ in the Berber Latin alphabet; Neo-Tifinagh:; Tuareg Tifinagh: or) is an abjad script used to write the Berber languages.
Timbuktu, also spelt Tinbuktu, Timbuctoo and Timbuktoo (Tombouctou; Koyra Chiini: Tumbutu), is an ancient city in Mali, situated north of the Niger River.
Timia is a small town and commune in northern Niger situated at an oasis in the Aïr Mountains, Agadez Region, Arlit Department.
Tin Hinan was a 4th-century Tuareg queen and matriarch.
The Tin Hinan Tomb (Tombeau de Tin Hinan) is a monumental tomb located at Abalessa in the Sahara, in the Hoggar Mountains of southern Algeria.
Tinariwen (Tamasheq: ⵜⵏⵔⵓⵏ, with vowels ⵜⵉⵏⴰⵔⵉⵓⴻⵏ, pronounced tinariwen "deserts", plural of ténéré "desert") is a Grammy Award-winning group of Tuareg musicians from the Sahara Desert region of northern Mali.
The traditional Berber religion is the ancient and native set of beliefs and deities adhered to by the Berber autochthones of North Africa.
Trans-Saharan trade requires travel across the Sahara (north and south) to reach sub-Saharan Africa from the North African coast, Europe, to the Levant.
Tuareg is a thriller novel written by Spanish author Alberto Vázquez-Figueroa.
Tuareg – Il guerriero del deserto (internationally released as Tuareg – The Desert Warrior and Desert Warrior) is a 1984 Spanish-Italian adventure-action film directed by Enzo G. Castellari.
Tuareg, also known as Tamasheq, Tamajaq or Tamahaq (Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵌⴰⵆ), is a language or family of very closely related Berber languages and dialects.
The Tuareg rebellion of 1962–1964, sometimes called the First Tuareg Rebellion or the Alfellaga, was a insurgency by populations of what is now northern Mali begun shortly after the nation achieved independence from France in 1960.
From 1990 to 1995, a rebellion by various Tuareg groups took place in Niger and Mali, with the aim of achieving autonomy or forming their own nation-state.
The Tuareg Rebellion of 2007–2009 was an insurgency that began in February 2007 amongst elements of the Tuareg people living in the Sahara desert regions of northern Mali and Niger.
Ugali (also sometimes called kimnyet, sima, sembe, obokima, kaunga, dona, obusuma, ngima, kwon, arega or posho) is a dish made of maize flour (cornmeal), millet flour, or sorghum flour (sometimes mixed with cassava flour) cooked in boiling liquid (water or milk) to a stiff or firm dough-like consistency (when it is cooked as porridge, it is called uji) and served with salad.
The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public research university in the Westwood district of Los Angeles, United States.
Ursa Major (also known as the Great Bear) is a constellation in the northern sky, whose associated mythology likely dates back into prehistory.
Ursa Minor (Latin: "Lesser Bear", contrasting with Ursa Major), also known as the Little Bear, is a constellation in the Northern Sky.
Shaihu Usman dan Fodio, born Usuman ɓii Foduye, (also referred to as عثمان بن فودي, Shaikh Usman Ibn Fodio, Shehu Uthman Dan Fuduye, Shehu Usman dan Fodio or Shaikh Uthman Ibn Fodio) (15 December 1754, Senegal – 20 April 1817, Sokoto) was a religious teacher, writer and Islamic promoter, and the founder of the Sokoto Caliphate.
A veil is an article of clothing or hanging cloth that is intended to cover some part of the head or face, or an object of some significance.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
Volkswagen, shortened to VW, is a German automaker founded on 28 May 1937 by the German Labour Front under Adolf Hitler and headquartered in Wolfsburg.
The Volkswagen Touareg (German pronunciation) is a mid-size luxury crossover SUV produced by German automaker Volkswagen since 2002 at the Volkswagen Bratislava Plant.
The Wodaabe (Woɗaaɓe), also known as the Mbororo or Bororo, are a small subgroup of the Fulani ethnic group.
World music (also called global music or international music) is a musical category encompassing many different styles of music from around the globe, which includes many genres including some forms of Western music represented by folk music, as well as selected forms of ethnic music, indigenous music, neotraditional music, and music where more than one cultural tradition, such as ethnic music and Western popular music, intermingle.
The wrapper, lappa, or pagne is a colorful garment widely worn in West Africa by both men and women.
Yellowcake (also called urania) is a type of uranium concentrate powder obtained from leach solutions, in an intermediate step in the processing of uranium ores.
Yogurt, yoghurt, or yoghourt (or; from yoğurt; other spellings listed below) is a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk.
Zinder (locally, Damagaram), formerly also spelled Sinder, is the second largest city in Niger, with a population of 170,574 (2001 census);, citing.
Zodi Ikhia (c. 1919 – February 16, 1996) was a Nigerien politician.