237 relations: Acid-fastness, Adenosine deaminase, Advance market commitments, Aerobic organism, Aerosol, Airborne disease, Albert Calmette, Alcoholism, Alice Neel, Amedeo Modigliani, American Thoracic Society, Americas, Ancient history, Anorexia (symptom), Anthroponotic disease, Antibiotic, Antimicrobial resistance, Anton Chekhov, Art, Asymptomatic, Aubrey Beardsley, Auramine-rhodamine stain, B cell, Bacillus, Bacillus (shape), Bacterial cell structure, BCG vaccine, Bedaquiline, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Biopsy, Bronchus, Camille Guérin, Caseous necrosis, Cell division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Central nervous system, Charlotte Brontë, Chest pain, Chest radiograph, Chills, Cigarette, Circus, Claude Monet, Clinical trial, CNN, Coccidioidomycosis, Common Era, Constitutional symptoms, Corticosteroid, Cough, ..., Delamanid, Dendritic cell, Developed country, Developing country, Diabetes mellitus, Diagnosis, Directly observed treatment, short-course, Diseases of poverty, Disinfectant, Economist Intelligence Unit, Edgar Allan Poe, Edvard Munch, Egypt, Elephant, Elizabeth Siddal, Endosome, Endospore, Ethambutol, Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, Fatigue, Fever, Fibroblast, Fibrosis, Film, Fluorescence microscope, Food and Drug Administration, Franz Kafka, Frédéric Chopin, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Gene, Genitourinary system, Ghon focus, Giacomo Puccini, Giuseppe Verdi, Glycerol, Gram stain, Granuloma, Heart, Hemoptysis, Hippocrates, Histology, Histoplasmosis, HIV/AIDS, HIV/AIDS in Africa, Hodgkin's lymphoma, Horn of Africa, Host (biology), Immunosuppression, In vitro, Indigenous peoples, Industrial Revolution, Infection, Infectious disease (medical specialty), Infliximab, Ingrid Bergman, Interferon gamma release assay, Isoniazid, Jean-Antoine Watteau, Johann Lukas Schönlein, John Bunyan, John Keats, Katherine Mansfield, Kinyoun stain, La bohème, La traviata, Latent tuberculosis, Leprosy, Lipid, List of notifiable diseases, Literature, Lung, Lymph, Lymphatic system, Lymphocyte, Macrophage, Malnutrition, Mammoth Cave National Park, Mantoux test, Marie Bashkirtseff, Mayo Clinic, Medical Research Council (United Kingdom), Meningitis, Microbiological culture, Microscopic scale, Migration in China, Miliary tuberculosis, Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis, Mummy, Music, MVA85A, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium canetti, Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium microti, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Mycolic acid, Nail clubbing, Native Americans in the United States, Necrosis, Neolithic Revolution, New Zealand, Night sweats, Nobel Foundation, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Nontuberculous mycobacteria, Nucleic acid test, Opera, Pancreas, Pasteurization, Pathogen, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Phagocytosis, Phlegm, Pleural cavity, Pneumonia, Pneumothorax, Poet, Pott disease, Prevalence, Public health genomics, Pulmonary alveolus, Pulmonary artery, Pulmonology, Pus, Pyrazinamide, Rasmussen's aneurysm, Reactive oxygen species, Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program, Richard Morton (physician), Rifabutin, Rifampicin, Robert Koch, Robert Louis Stevenson, Sanatorium, Sarcoidosis, Sensitivity and specificity, Silesia, Silicosis, Simon focus, Skeletal muscle, Sneeze, Social stigma, Sokołowsko, Spitting, Sputum, Sputum culture, Stop TB Partnership, Strain (biology), Streptomycin, Sub-Saharan Africa, Swaziland, T cell, T.B. Sheets, The Bells of St. Mary's, The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, The Life and Death of Mr Badman, The Magic Mountain, Thomas Mann, Thyroid, Tissue (biology), Tobacco smoking, Totally drug-resistant tuberculosis, Tubercle, Tuberculosis classification, Tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis, Type I and type II errors, United States Preventive Services Task Force, Urogenital tuberculosis, Vaccination, Vaccine, Vaccinia, Vampire, Van Morrison, Virulence, W. Somerset Maugham, Weight loss, Wired (magazine), World Health Organization, World Tuberculosis Day, X-ray, Ziehl–Neelsen stain, Zoo. Expand index (187 more) » « Shrink index
Acid-fastness is a physical property of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells, as well as some sub-cellular structures, specifically their resistance to decolorization by acids during laboratory staining procedures.
Adenosine deaminase (also known as adenosine aminohydrolase, or ADA) is an enzyme involved in purine metabolism.
An advance market commitment (AMC) is a binding contract, typically offered by a government or other financial entity, used to guarantee a viable market for a product once it is successfully developed.
An aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment.
An aerosol is a suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas.
An airborne disease is any disease that is caused by pathogens that can be transmitted through the air.
Léon Charles Albert Calmette ForMemRS (12 July 1863 – 29 October 1933) was a French physician, bacteriologist and immunologist, and an important officer of the Pasteur Institute.
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.
Alice Neel (January 28, 1900 – October 13, 1984) was an American visual artist, who was known for her portraits depicting friends, family, lovers, poets, artists and strangers.
Amedeo Clemente Modigliani (12 July 1884 – 24 January 1920) was an Italian-Jewish painter and sculptor who worked mainly in France.
The American Thoracic Society (ATS) is a nonprofit organization focused on improving care for pulmonary diseases, critical illnesses and sleep-related breathing disorders.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
Anorexia (from Ancient Greek ανορεξία: 'ἀν-' "without" + 'όρεξις', spelled 'órexis' meaning "appetite") is the decreased sensation of appetite.
An anthroponotic disease, or anthroponosis, is an infectious disease in which a disease causing agent carried by humans is transferred to other animals.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.
Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (ɐnˈton ˈpavɫəvʲɪtɕ ˈtɕɛxəf; 29 January 1860 – 15 July 1904) was a Russian playwright and short-story writer, who is considered to be among the greatest writers of short fiction in history.
Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual idea, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.
In medicine, a disease is considered asymptomatic if a patient is a carrier for a disease or infection but experiences no symptoms.
Aubrey Vincent Beardsley (21 August 187216 March 1898) was an English illustrator and author.
The auramine-rhodamine stain (AR), also known as the Truant auramine-rhodamine stain, is a histological technique used to visualize acid-fast bacilli using fluorescence microscopy, notably species in the Mycobacterium genus.
B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype.
Bacillus is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria and a member of the phylum Firmicutes.
A bacillus (plural bacilli) or bacilliform bacterium is a rod-shaped bacterium or archaeon.
Bacteria, despite their simplicity, contain a well-developed cell structure which is responsible for some of their unique biological structures and pathogenicity.
Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine is a vaccine primarily used against tuberculosis (TB).
Bedaquiline, sold under the brand name Sirturo, is a medication used to treat active tuberculosis.
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), also known as the Gates Foundation, is a private foundation founded by Bill and Melinda Gates.
A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.
A bronchus, is a passage of airway in the respiratory system that conducts air into the lungs.
Jean-Marie Camille Guérin (22 December 1872 – 9 June 1961) was a French veterinarian, bacteriologist and immunologist who, together with Albert Calmette, developed the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), a vaccine for immunization against tuberculosis.
Caseous necrosis is a form of cell death in which the tissue maintains a cheese-like appearance.
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Charlotte Brontë (commonly; 21 April 1816 – 31 March 1855) was an English novelist and poet, the eldest of the three Brontë sisters who survived into adulthood and whose novels have become classics of English literature.
Chest pain is pain in any region of the chest.
A chest radiograph, colloquially called a chest X-ray (CXR), or chest film, is a projection radiograph of the chest used to diagnose conditions affecting the chest, its contents, and nearby structures.
Chills is a feeling of coldness occurring during a high fever, but sometimes is also a common symptom which occurs alone in specific people.
A cigarette is a narrow cylinder containing tobacco that is rolled into thin paper for smoking.
A circus is a company of performers who put on diverse entertainment shows that include clowns, acrobats, trained animals, trapeze acts, musicians, dancers, hoopers, tightrope walkers, jugglers, magicians, unicyclists, as well as other object manipulation and stunt-oriented artists.
Oscar-Claude Monet (14 November 1840 – 5 December 1926) was a founder of French Impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movement's philosophy of expressing one's perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein air landscape painting.
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
Coccidioidomycosis, commonly known as "cocci", "Valley fever", as well as "California fever", "desert rheumatism", and "San Joaquin Valley fever", is a mammalian fungal disease caused by Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
Constitutional symptoms refers to a group of symptoms that can affect many different systems of the body.
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.
A cough is a sudden and often repetitively occurring, protective reflex, which helps to clear the large breathing passages from fluids, irritants, foreign particles and microbes.
Delamanid, sold under the brand name Deltyba, is a medication used to treat tuberculosis.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (also known as accessory cells) of the mammalian immune system.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Diagnosis is the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon.
Directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS, also known as TB-DOTS) is the name given to the tuberculosis (TB) control strategy recommended by the World Health Organization.
Diseases of poverty is a term sometimes used to collectively describe diseases, disabilities, and health conditions that are more prevalent among the poor than among wealthier people.
Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to the surface of non-living objects to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects.
The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) is a British business within the Economist Group providing forecasting and advisory services through research and analysis, such as monthly country reports, five-year country economic forecasts, country risk service reports, and industry reports.
Edgar Allan Poe (born Edgar Poe; January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American writer, editor, and literary critic.
Edvard Munch (12 December 1863 – 23 January 1944) was a Norwegian painter and printmaker whose intensely evocative treatment of psychological themes built upon some of the main tenets of late 19th-century Symbolism and greatly influenced German Expressionism in the early 20th century.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and the order Proboscidea.
Elizabeth Eleanor Siddall (25 July 1829 – 11 February 1862) was an English artist, poet, and artists' model.
In cell biology, an endosome is a membrane-bound compartment inside eukaryotic cells.
An endospore is a dormant, tough, and non-reproductive structure produced by certain bacteria from the Firmicute phylum.
Ethambutol (EMB, E) is a medication primarily used to treat tuberculosis.
Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is a form of tuberculosis caused by bacteria that are resistant to some of the most effective anti-TB drugs.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
A fibroblast is a type of biological cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, the structural framework (stroma) for animal tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing.
Fibrosis is the formation of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue in a reparative or reactive process.
A film, also called a movie, motion picture, moving pícture, theatrical film, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images.
A fluorescence microscope is an optical microscope that uses fluorescence and phosphorescence instead of, or in addition to, reflection and absorption to study properties of organic or inorganic substances.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Franz Kafka (3 July 1883 – 3 June 1924) was a German-speaking Bohemian Jewish novelist and short story writer, widely regarded as one of the major figures of 20th-century literature.
Frédéric François Chopin (1 March 181017 October 1849) was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist of the Romantic era who wrote primarily for solo piano.
Fyodor Mikhailovich DostoevskyHis name has been variously transcribed into English, his first name sometimes being rendered as Theodore or Fedor.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
The genitourinary system or urogenital system is the organ system of the reproductive organs and the urinary system.
A Ghon focus is a primary lesion usually subpleural, often in the mid to lower zones, caused by Mycobacterium bacilli (tuberculosis) developed in the lung of a nonimmune host (usually a child).
Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini (22 December 1858 29 November 1924) was an Italian opera composer who has been called "the greatest composer of Italian opera after Verdi".
Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi (9 or 10 October 1813 – 27 January 1901) was an Italian opera composer.
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
Gram stain or Gram staining, also called Gram's method, is a method of staining used to distinguish and classify bacterial species into two large groups (gram-positive and gram-negative).
Granuloma is an inflammation found in many diseases.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Hemoptysis is the coughing up of blood or blood-stained mucus from the bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.
Histoplasmosis (also known as "Cave disease", "Darling's disease", "Ohio valley disease", "reticuloendotheliosis", "spelunker's lung" and "caver's disease") is a disease caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
HIV/AIDS is a major public health concern and cause of death in many parts of Africa.
Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is a type of lymphoma which is generally believed to result from white blood cells of the lymphocyte kind.
The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.
In biology and medicine, a host is an organism that harbours a parasitic, a mutualistic, or a commensalist guest (symbiont), the guest typically being provided with nourishment and shelter.
Immunosuppression is a reduction of the activation or efficacy of the immune system.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Infectious disease, also known as infectious diseases, infectious medicine, infectious disease medicine or infectiology, is a medical specialty dealing with the diagnosis, control and treatment of infections.
Infliximab (trade names Remicade among others) is a chimeric monoclonal antibody biologic drug that works against tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and is used to treat autoimmune diseases.
Ingrid Bergman (29 August 1915 – 29 August 1982) was a Swedish actress who starred in a variety of European and American films.
Interferon-γ release assays (IGRA) are medical tests used in the diagnosis of some infectious diseases, especially tuberculosis.
Isoniazid, also known as isonicotinylhydrazide (INH), is an antibiotic used for the treatment of tuberculosis.
Jean-Antoine Watteau (baptised October 10, 1684 – died July 18, 1721),Wine, Humphrey, and Annie Scottez-De Wambrechies.
Johann Lukas Schönlein (30 November 1793 – 23 January 1864) was a German naturalist, and professor of medicine, born in Bamberg.
John Bunyan (baptised November 30, 1628August 31, 1688) was an English writer and Puritan preacher best remembered as the author of the Christian allegory The Pilgrim's Progress.
John Keats (31 October 1795 – 23 February 1821) was an English Romantic poet.
Kathleen Mansfield Murry (née Beauchamp; 14 October 1888 – 9 January 1923) was a prominent New Zealand modernist short story writer who was born and brought up in colonial New Zealand and wrote under the pen name of Katherine Mansfield.
The Kinyoun method, or Kinyoun stain, is an acid-fast procedure used to stain any species of the genus Mycobacterium, Nocardia and Cryptosporidium species.
La bohème is an opera in four acts,Puccini called the divisions quadro, a tableau or "image", rather than atto (act).
La traviata (The Fallen Woman)Meadows, p. 582 is an opera in three acts by Giuseppe Verdi set to an Italian libretto by Francesco Maria Piave.
A diagnosis of latent tuberculosis (LTB), also called latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) means a patient is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but the patient does not have active tuberculosis.
Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease (HD), is a long-term infection by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae or Mycobacterium lepromatosis.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
The following is a list of notifiable diseases arranged by country.
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Lymph is the fluid that circulates throughout the lymphatic system.
The lymphatic system is part of the vascular system and an important part of the immune system, comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph (from Latin, lympha meaning "water") directionally towards the heart.
A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
Mammoth Cave National Park is a U.S. national park in central Kentucky, encompassing portions of Mammoth Cave, the longest cave system known in the world.
The Mantoux test or Mendel-Mantoux test (also known as the Mantoux screening test, tuberculin sensitivity test, Pirquet test, or PPD test for purified protein derivative) is a tool for screening for tuberculosis (TB) and for tuberculosis diagnosis.
Marie Bashkirtseff (Maria Konstantinovna Bashkirtseva; Russian: Мария Константиновна Башки́рцева), was a Russian diarist, painter, and sculptor.
The Mayo Clinic is a nonprofit academic medical center based in Rochester, Minnesota focused on integrated clinical practice, education, and research.
The Medical Research Council (MRC) is responsible for co-coordinating and funding medical research in the United Kingdom.
Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.
A microbiological culture, or microbial culture, is a method of multiplying microbial organisms by letting them reproduce in predetermined culture medium under controlled laboratory conditions.
The microscopic scale (from, mikrós, "small" and σκοπέω, skopéō "look") is the scale of objects and events smaller than those that can easily be seen by the naked eye, requiring a lens or microscope to see them clearly.
Internal migration in the People's Republic of China is one of the most extensive in the world according to the International Labour Organization.
Miliary tuberculosis is a form of tuberculosis that is characterized by a wide dissemination into the human body and by the tiny size of the lesions (1–5 mm).
Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a form of tuberculosis (TB) infection caused by bacteria that are resistant to treatment with at least two of the most powerful first-line anti-TB medications (drugs), isoniazid and rifampin.
A mummy is a deceased human or an animal whose skin and organs have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or lack of air, so that the recovered body does not decay further if kept in cool and dry conditions.
Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.
MVA85A (modified vaccinia Ankara 85A) is a new-generation vaccine against tuberculosis developed by researchers at Oxford University.
Mycobacterium is a genus of Actinobacteria, given its own family, the Mycobacteriaceae.
Mycobacterium africanum is a species of Mycobacterium that is most commonly found in West African countries.
Mycobacterium avium complex is a group of mycobacteria comprising Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium avium, and Mycobacterium chimaera that are commonly grouped together because they infect humans together; this group in turn is part of the group of nontuberculous mycobacteria.
Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) is a slow-growing (16- to 20-hour generation time) aerobic bacterium and the causative agent of tuberculosis in cattle (known as bovine TB).
Mycobacterium canettii, a novel pathogenic taxon of the ''Mycobacterium tuberculosis'' complex (MTBC), was first reported in 1969 by the French microbiologist Georges Canetti, for whom the organism has been named.
Mycobacterium kansasii is a bacterium in the Mycobacterium family.
Mycobacterium leprae, also known as Hansen’s bacillus spirilly, mostly found in warm tropical countries, is a bacterium that causes leprosy (Hansen's disease).
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a species of pathogenic bacteria in the family Mycobacteriaceae and the causative agent of tuberculosis.
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC or MTBC) is a genetically related group of Mycobacterium species that can cause tuberculosis in humans or other living things It includes.
Mycolic acids are long fatty acids found in the cell walls of the Mycolata taxon, a group of bacteria that includes Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of the disease tuberculosis.
Nail clubbing, also known as digital clubbing, is a deformity of the finger or toe nails associated with a number of diseases, mostly of the heart and lungs.
Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.
Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.
The Neolithic Revolution, Neolithic Demographic Transition, Agricultural Revolution, or First Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly larger population possible.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Night sweats, also known as nocturnal hyperhidrosis, is the occurrence of excessive sweating during sleep.
The Nobel Foundation (Nobelstiftelsen) is a private institution founded on 29 June 1900 to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), also known as environmental mycobacteria, atypical mycobacteria and mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT), are mycobacteria which do not cause tuberculosis or leprosy (also known as Hansen's disease).
A nucleic acid test (NAT) or nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) is a technique utilized to detect a particular nucleic acid, virus, or bacteria which acts as a pathogen in blood, tissue, urine, etc.
Opera (English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere) is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers.
The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
Pasteurization or pasteurisation is a process in which packaged and non-packaged foods (such as milk and fruit juice) are treated with mild heat (Today, pasteurization is used widely in the dairy industry and other food processing industries to achieve food preservation and food safety. This process was named after the French scientist Louis Pasteur, whose research in the 1880s demonstrated that thermal processing would inactivate unwanted microorganisms in wine. Spoilage enzymes are also inactivated during pasteurization. Most liquid products are heat treated in a continuous system where heat can be applied using plate heat exchanger and/or direct or indirect use of steam and hot water. Due to the mild heat there are minor changes to the nutritional quality of foods as well as the sensory characteristics. Pascalization or high pressure processing (HPP) and Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) are non-thermal processes that are also used to pasteurize foods.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Percy Bysshe Shelley (4 August 17928 July 1822) was one of the major English Romantic poets, and is regarded by some as among the finest lyric and philosophical poets in the English language, and one of the most influential.
In cell biology, phagocytosis is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome.
Phlegm (φλέγμα "inflammation, humour caused by heat") is a liquid secreted by the mucous membranes of mammals.
The pleural cavity is the thin fluid-filled space between the two pulmonary pleurae (known as visceral and parietal) of each lung.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
A pneumothorax is an abnormal collection of air in the pleural space between the lung and the chest wall.
A poet is a person who creates poetry.
Pott disease or Pott's disease is a form of tuberculosis that occurs outside the lungs whereby disease is seen in the vertebrae.
Prevalence in epidemiology is the proportion of a particular population found to be affected by a medical condition (typically a disease or a risk factor such as smoking or seat-belt use).
Public health genomics is the use of genomics information to benefit public health.
A pulmonary alveolus (plural: alveoli, from Latin alveolus, "little cavity") is a hollow cavity found in the lung parenchyma, and is the basic unit of ventilation.
A pulmonary artery is an artery in the pulmonary circulation that carries deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs.
Pulmonology is a medical speciality that deals with diseases involving the respiratory tract.
Pus is an exudate, typically white-yellow, yellow, or yellow-brown, formed at the site of inflammation during bacterial or fungal infection.
Pyrazinamide is a medication used to treat tuberculosis.
Rasmussen's aneurysm is a pulmonary artery aneurysm associated with a cavitary lung lesion.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.
Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP) is the state-run tuberculosis (TB) control initiative of the Government of India.
Richard Morton (1637–1698) was an English physician who was the first to state that tubercles were always present in the tuberculosis disease of the lungs.
Rifabutin (Rfb) is an antibiotic used to treat tuberculosis and prevent and treat ''Mycobacterium avium'' complex.
Rifampicin, also known as rifampin, is an antibiotic used to treat several types of bacterial infections, including tuberculosis, leprosy, and Legionnaire's disease.
Robert Heinrich Hermann Koch (11 December 1843 – 27 May 1910) was a German physician and microbiologist.
Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson (13 November 1850 – 3 December 1894) was a Scottish novelist, poet, essayist, musician and travel writer.
A sanatorium (also spelled sanitorium and sanitarium) is a medical facility for long-term illness, most typically associated with treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in the late-nineteenth and twentieth century before the discovery of antibiotics.
Sarcoidosis is a disease involving abnormal collections of inflammatory cells that form lumps known as granulomas.
Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures of the performance of a binary classification test, also known in statistics as a classification function.
Silesia (Śląsk; Slezsko;; Silesian German: Schläsing; Silesian: Ślůnsk; Šlazyńska; Šleska; Silesia) is a region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany.
Silicosis (also known as miner's phthisis, grinder's asthma, potter's rot and other occupation-related names, or by the invented name pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis) is a form of occupational lung disease caused by inhalation of crystalline silica dust, and is marked by inflammation and scarring in the form of nodular lesions in the upper lobes of the lungs.
A Simon focus is a tuberculosis (TB) nodule that can form in the apex of the lung when a primary TB infection elsewhere in the body spreads to the lung apex via the bloodstream.
Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.
A sneeze, or sternutation, is a semi-autonomous, convulsive expulsion of air from the lungs through the nose and mouth, usually caused by foreign particles irritating the nasal mucosa.
Social stigma is disapproval of (or discontent with) a person based on socially characteristic grounds that are perceived.
Sokołowsko (Görbersdorf) is a village and traditional climatic health resort in Gmina Mieroszów, within Wałbrzych County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Spitting is the act of forcibly ejecting saliva or other substances from the mouth.
Sputum is mucus and is the name used for the coughed-up material (phlegm) from the lower airways (trachea and bronchi).
A sputum culture is a test to detect and identify bacteria or fungi that infect the lungs or breathing passages.
The Stop TB Partnership was established in 2000 to eliminate tuberculosis as a public health problem.
In biology, a strain is a low-level taxonomic rank used at the intraspecific level (within a species).
Streptomycin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
Swaziland, officially the Kingdom of Eswatini since April 2018 (Swazi: Umbuso weSwatini), is a landlocked sovereign state in Southern Africa.
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
"T.B. Sheets" is a blues-influenced song written and recorded by Northern Irish singer-lyricist Van Morrison, recorded for the Bang Records label in 1967 and included on his first solo album, Blowin' Your Mind!.
The Bells of St.
The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (or simply the Global Fund) is an international financing organization that aims to "ttract and disburse additional resources to prevent and treat HIV and AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria." A public-private partnership, the organization maintains its secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland.
The Life and Death of Mr.
The Magic Mountain (German: Der Zauberberg) is a novel by Thomas Mann, first published in German in November 1924.
Paul Thomas Mann (6 June 1875 – 12 August 1955) was a German novelist, short story writer, social critic, philanthropist, essayist, and the 1929 Nobel Prize in Literature laureate.
The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).
Totally drug-resistant tuberculosis (TDR-TB) is a generic term for tuberculosis strains that are resistant to a wider range of drugs than strains classified as extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis.
In anatomy, a tubercle is any round nodule, small eminence, or warty outgrowth found on external or internal organs of a plant or an animal.
The current clinical classification system for tuberculosis (TB) is based on the pathogenesis of the disease.
Mycobacterial cervical lymphadenitis, also known as scrofula, scrophula, struma, or the King's evil, refers to a lymphadenitis of the cervical lymph nodes associated with tuberculosis as well as nontuberculous (atypical) mycobacteria.
In statistical hypothesis testing, a type I error is the rejection of a true null hypothesis (also known as a "false positive" finding), while a type II error is failing to reject a false null hypothesis (also known as a "false negative" finding).
The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) is "an independent panel of experts in primary care and prevention that systematically reviews the evidence of effectiveness and develops recommendations for clinical preventive services".
Urogenital tuberculosis is a form of tuberculosis that affects the urogenital system.
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.
Vaccinia virus (VACV or VV) is a large, complex, enveloped virus belonging to the poxvirus family.
A vampire is a being from folklore that subsists by feeding on the vital force (generally in the form of blood) of the living.
Sir George Ivan Morrison (born 31 August 1945) is a Northern Irish singer-songwriter, instrumentalist and record producer.
Virulence is a pathogen's or microbe's ability to infect or damage a host.
William Somerset Maugham, CH (25 January 1874 – 16 December 1965), better known as W. Somerset Maugham, was a British playwright, novelist and short story writer.
Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue.
Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
World Tuberculosis Day, observed on 24 March each year, is designed to build public awareness about the global epidemic of tuberculosis (TB) and efforts to eliminate the disease.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
The Ziehl–Neelsen stain, also known as the acid-fast stain, was first described by two German doctors: the bacteriologist Franz Ziehl (1859–1926) and the pathologist Friedrich Neelsen (1854–1898).
A zoo (short for zoological garden or zoological park and also called an animal park or menagerie) is a facility in which all animals are housed within enclosures, displayed to the public, and in which they may also breed.
Abscess, tuberculous, Active tuberculosis, Acute phthisis, Antitubeculosis, BONE TB, Berklar, Bone Tuberculosis, Consumption (disease), Extrapulmonary, Fibroid phthisis, Galloping consumption, Genitourinary Tuberculosis, Giant multinucleated cell, Great white plague, HIV-related tuberculosis, Koch's Disease, Lamparones, Meningeal tuberculosis, Metastatic tuberculous ulcer, Nodular tuberculide, Nursing care plan for tuberculosis, Peritoneal tuberculosis, Phthisis pulmonalis, Phthsis, Phthysis, Primary Tuberculosis, Primary complex, Primary tuberculosis, Pulmonary consumption, Pulmonary tuberculosis, Respiratory tuberculosis, SMI 049, Secondary Tuberculosis, Secondary tuberculosis, Smear-negative tuberculosis, Smear-positive tuberculosis, Spes phthisica, TB vaccine, Tabes Anglica, Tabes mesenterica, The consumption, Tubercle bacillus, Tubercloses, Tubercluosis, Tubercolosis, Tubercular scar, Tuberculose, Tuberculosis arthritis, Tuberculosis cutis primaria, Tuberculosis epidemic, Tuberculosis fungosa serpiginosa, Tuberculosis stigma, Tuberculosis, bovine, Tuberculosis, cardiovascular, Tuberculosis, ocular, Tuberculosis, pulmonary, Tuberculosus, Tuberculous, Tuberculous abscess, Tuberculous pneumonia, Tuberculous ulcer, Tuburculosis, White-swelling.